Scientists collected and analyzed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from five species and subspecies of sagebrush (Artemisia, subgenus Tridentatae) growing in two common gardens (Idaho and Utah) using gas chromatograph and mass spectrometry. Of the 74 total VOCs emitted, only 15 were needed to segregate sagebrush species and subspecies using the Random Forest classification algorithm with 96 percent accuracy. All but one of these 15 VOCs showed qualitative differences among taxa. Five VOCs could be used to identify environment (common garden and month), which do not overlap with the 15 VOCs that segregated taxa. This showed that VOCs can discriminate closely related species and subspecies of Artemisia, which are difficult to identify using molecular markers or morphology. It appears that changes in VOCs either lead the way or follow closely behind speciation in this group. This suggests that VOCs could allow identification of sagebrushes for restoration, to match the proper plant with the proper habitat.