White Flowered Forbs

White Flowered Forbs
African rue
Broadleaved pepperweed
Field bindweed
Hary whitetop
Lens-podded hoarycress
Oxeye daisy
Poison hemlock
White clover
White sweetclover


African rue
Peganum harmala L. (Creosote-bush family, Zygophyllaceae)


Bushy, much-branched perennial forb with short creeping roots to 32 inches tall; stems stiff, erect, branches angled above, glabrous.

Leaves: Leaves are alternate, fleshy, bright green, 3/4 to 2 inches long, irregularly divided 3 times or more into linear segments; stipules bristle-like.

Flowers: Flowers April to September; flowers have 5 white petals, about 1 inch in diameter and solitary on stalks 3/4 to 2 inches long or more in the leaf axils; the 5 sepals are linear, about 9/16 inch long; the 5 petals are oblong, also about 9/16 inch long.

Fruit: Capsules spherical, leathery, 5/16 to 9/16 inch in diameter, orange-brown at maturity; 3-chambered, and opening by 3 valves at the apex to release numerous dark brown to black angular seeds, 1/8 to 3/16 inch long.


Cultivated and disturbed or degraded dry open sites in meadows and grassland communities, and roadsides within elevations that generally range below 4,500 feet.


Reproduces primarily by seed, but roots can produce new shoots, especially when severed; most seed falls near the parent plant; seeds can germinate under fairly saline conditions.


Native to the Mediterranean region and Middle East; heavy infestations of African rue are difficult to control. Arizona prohibited noxious weed and New Mexico Class B noxious weed.

Collage of image of African rue



Forest Service Shield
Invasive plants and weeds of the national forests and grasslands in the southwestern region
African rue flower African rue foliage African rue fruit and leaves African rue plants in flower