Noninfectious Disorders
FIELD GUIDE TO INSECTS AND DISEASES OF ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO FORESTS

The symptoms of noninfectious, or abiotic, disorders closely resemble those of some parasitic diseases making it difficult to determine the cause. Some of these disorders serve as an entry for pathogens, such as canker and wood decay fungi.

Figure 281. Figure 281. Aspen stand with mortality caused by frost and drought.