USDA Forest Service

Pacific Southwest Research Station

 
Pacific Southwest
Research Station

800 Buchanan Street
Albany, CA 94710-0011
(510) 883-8830
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Research Topics Water & Watersheds

Published papers

This section describes papers reporting research results that have been published in peer-reviewed journals, agency publication series, books, and proceedings of technical conferences. Most of these papers describe work for which the primary research partners (the US Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection) or the California Department of Fish and Wildlife have provided at least some logistical or financial support.

In some cases, researchers previously unassociated with the Caspar Creek program have used Caspar Creek data in support of other research, thereby becoming de facto cooperators in a much broader research program than could have originally been imagined. Such applications are considered an important by-product of the Caspar Creek work, and references to these studies are included here if Caspar Creek data represent an integral part of the external research efforts.

Other researchers have selected the experimental watersheds as a site for silvicultural and biological field studies due to the setting and stand characteristics. These studies provide information useful for understanding ecosystem processes that influence the watersheds’ responses to disturbance.

Note: Titles in bold identify documents that will be available in the future on this page and in Treesearch.

  • Adams, P.B.; L.B. Boydstun, S.P. Gallagher, M.K. Lacy, T. McDonald, and K.E. Shaffer. 2011. California coastal salmonid population monitoring: strategy, design, and methods. State of California, The Natural Resource Agency, Department of Fish and Game. Fish Bulletin 180. 80 p.
    A two-phase sampling protocol will be used to assess populations of adult salmon and steelhead in coastal California. In the north, redd surveys at spatially balanced random locations will be used along with data from Life Cycle Monitoring stations (including Caspar Creek), where migrating adults and smolts will be counted and spawning surveys conducted in upstream reaches.
  • Barrett, B.; R. Kosaka, and D. Tomberlin. 2012. Road surface erosion on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest: results of a pilot study. Pp. 13-21 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    Runoff from gravel road surfaces in and near the Caspar Creek watershed was monitored at the mouths of 10 culverts for 3 years. Annual loads varied considerably between sites and years, ranging from 0.02 kg/m2/yr to more than 4.5 kg/m2/yr.
  • Barrett, B.; and D. Tomberlin. 2007. Sediment production on forest road surfaces in California’s redwood region: results for hydrologic year 2005-2006. Pp. 753-761 in: Sustaining America’s Forests: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2007 National Convention, Volume 2. October 23-27, 2007; Portland, OR. Society of American Foresters.
    [First-year results from the study reported in full by Barrett et al. 2012.]
  • Baumann, R.W.; and R.L. Bottorff. 1997. Two new species of Chloroperlidae (Plecoptera) from California. Great Basin Naturalist 57(4): 343-347.
    A stonefly found in the South Fork of Caspar Creek belongs to a previously undescribed species. This species, and another discovered in Sierra Nevada streams, are described in detail.
  • Bawcom, J.A. 2003. Clearcutting and slope stability: preliminary findings on Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino County, California. Pp. 54-63 in: S.L. Cooper (compiler). Proceedings, Twenty-Fourth Annual Forest Vegetation Management Conference: Moving forward by looking back. January 14-16, 2003; Redding, California. University of California, Shasta County Cooperative Extension, Redding, California.
    [This study is updated in Bawcom 2007.]
  • Bawcom, J.A. 2007. Even-aged management and landslide inventory, Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino County, California. Pp. 323-333 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    Landslides were inventoried in 50 clearcut units in four watersheds in western Jackson Demonstration State Forest, including North Fork Caspar. All but 2 of the 32 landslides found to have occurred after logging were associated in some way with roads, landings, and skid trails. Dormant deep-seated slides were not reactivated by logging.
  • Berrill, J.-P.; and K.L. O'Hara. 2007a. Patterns of leaf area and growing space efficiency in young even-aged and multiaged coast redwood stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37(3): 617-626.
    Data from sample plots in Jackson Demonstration State Forest (including the Caspar watershed) were used to develop a model that predicts basal area and leaf area index to allow implementation of growing space efficiency models from inventory data. Basal area growth was most strongly related to sapwood area and varied among canopy strata. Maximum stand leaf area index is estimated to be 14.9 m2/m2.
  • Berrill, J-P.; and K.L. O’Hara. 2007b. Modeling coast redwood variable retention management regimes. Pp. 261-269 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    The redwood Multiaged Stocking Assessment Model (MASAM) was used to compare growth in stands managed using a variety of overstory selection intensities. Although the remaining overstory density had little effect on subsequent stand volume production, it strongly influenced the relative volume increment among the overstory and understory classes.
  • Berrill, J.-P.; and K.L. O'Hara. 2009. Simulating multiaged coast redwood stand development: interactions between regeneration, structure, and productivity. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 24(1): 24-32.
    Simulations using growth and yield and stand assessment models allowed trade-offs between tree size and stand volume production to be evaluated for various cutting strategies and number of age cohorts present. Heavy cutting or frequent light cutting is needed to sustain growth and vigor of regeneration in multi-aged redwood stands.
  • Berrill, J-P.; and K.L. O’Hara. 2012. Influence of tree spatial pattern and sample plot type and size on inventory estimates for leaf area index, stocking, and tree size parameters. Pp. 485-497 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    Field maps of uniform, random, and clumped stands were used to simulate sampling using three methods. Precision was affected more by the stands’ spatial patterns than by the sampling method, with density, average diameter, and average height found to be particularly difficult to characterize in clumped stands.
  • Breña Naranjo, J.A.; K. Stahl, and M. Weiler. 2011. Evapotranspiration and land cover transitions: long-term watershed response in recovering forested ecosystems. Ecohydrology 5(6): 721-732.
    Long-record hydrologic data from Caspar Creek and the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest were used to test an empirical recovery curve for evapotranspiration as a forest regrows after disturbance. Results for Caspar are consistent with the expected form.
  • Brown, P.M.; and W.T. Baxter. 2003. Fire history in coast redwood forests of the Mendocino coast, California. Northwest Science 77(2):147-158.
    Fire history was reconstructed from tree ring scars along an ocean-to-inland transect at Jackson Demonstration State Forest, with none of the eight trees sampled at Caspar Creek showing datable scars. Fire intervals were 6 to 20 years and did not show a trend along the transect. Fires ceased as organized fire suppression efforts began in the 1930s.
  • Burns, J.W. 1970. Spawning bed sedimentation studies in northern California streams. California Fish and Game 56(4): 253-270.
    Grain-size distribution was monitored for three years in salmonid spawning gravels in six forest streams, including Caspar Creek’s North and South Forks (before and after road construction and before logging). Sedimentation was found to be associated with the extent of management-related streambank disturbance. Grain-size data are tabulated.
  • Burns, J.W. 1971. The carrying capacity for juvenile salmonids in some northern California streams. California Fish and Game 57(1): 44-57.
    Biomass per unit surface area for one- to three-year periods was determined for juvenile coho and steelhead in seven coastal streams, including the North and South Forks of Caspar Creek, to define the natural carrying capacity. Results were found to vary, indicating that treatment effects of less than 50% would be difficult to detect.
  • Burns, J.W. 1972. Some effects of logging and associated road construction on northern California streams. Transactions, American Fisheries Society 101(1): 1-17.
    Channel characteristics, temperature, sedimentation, and juvenile salmonid abundance were measured in four coastal streams (including South Fork Caspar Creek) for three summers before, during, and after logging or road construction. Treatment and response is described in detail for the South Fork.
  • Cafferata, P.H.; D.B.R. Coe, and R.R. Harris. 2007. Water resource issues and solutions for forest roads in California. Hydrological Science and Technology 23(1-4): 39-56.
    Studies in California (including at Caspar Creek) demonstrate the importance of roads as sediment sources and have also documented the sediment cost and effectiveness of various road rehabilitation treatments. Various approaches for mitigating sediment impacts from roads are described.
  • Cafferata, P.H.; and L.M. Reid. 2013. Applications of long-term watershed research to forest management in California: 50 years of learning from the Caspar Creek Watershed Study. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA, California Forestry Report 5. 110 p.
    Fifty years of Caspar Creek research is reviewed by topic. Study results and their applications to California forest management are described. Appendices illustrate additional uses for Caspar Creek information, including development of models to estimate management-related changes in peakflow, sediment load, and low flow, as well as applications for testing and calibrating design peakflows for culvert sizing.
  • Cafferata, P.H.; and T.E. Spittler. 1998. Logging impacts of the 1970's vs. the 1990's in the Caspar Creek watershed. Pp. 103-115 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Landslide rates were considerably higher after 1971-73 tractor-yarded selection logging in the South Fork than in the first 6 to 9 years following 1989-92 cable-yarded clearcutting in the North Fork; potential landslide-triggering storms occurred after both treatments. The old South Fork road system again triggered landslides during storms of the 1997-1998 winter, indicating the prolonged importance of legacy sediment sources.
  • Cafferata, P.H.; T. Spittler, M. Wopat, G. Bundros, and S. Flanagan. 2004. Designing watercourse crossings for passage of 100-year flood flows, wood, and sediment. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA. California Forestry Report 1. 39 p.
    Peakflow data from a small gaged tributary of North Fork Caspar Creek were used to test the utility of several methods for estimating peakflows in small ungaged watersheds. Flow transference methods estimated expected flows most closely at the site, while the rational runoff method and regional regressions provided overestimates of the expected 100-year flow. [An updated edition is expected. Cafferata & Reid (2013) provide additional analysis.]
  • Carr, A.E.; and K. Loague. 2012. Physics-based simulations of the impacts forest management practices have on hydrologic response. Pp. 41-51 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    [An initial description of the work detailed in Carr et al. 2014]
  • Carr, A.E.; K. Loague, and J.E. VanderKwaak. 2014. Hydrologic-response simulations for the North Fork of Caspar Creek: second-growth, clear-cut, new-growth, and cumulative watershed effect scenarios. Hydrological Processes 28(3):1476-1494.
    A finite-element model was developed for the North Fork Caspar Creek watershed that allows prediction of flow through time at any point in the watershed. The model incorporates field measurements of physical and hydrological attributes. Results were tested against flow measurements. The model was used to compare likely peakflow changes for a variety of hypothetical management scenarios.
  • Conroy, W.J.; R.H. Hotchkiss, and W.J. Elliot. 2006. A coupled upland-erosion and instream hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for evaluating sediment transport in forested watersheds. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 49(6): 1713−1722.
    Flow and sediment data from North Fork Caspar Creek were used to calibrate and validate a model designed to extend the Water Erosion Prediction Model (WEPP) to a watershed scale. Results showed good agreement for flow at the North Fork weir, while daily maximum sediment concentration tended to be underestimated.
  • Cutter, A.G.; and R. McCuen. 2007. Rational coefficients for steeply sloped watersheds. J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 133(2): 188-191.
    Data from HEN watershed were used to test a procedure developed to estimate the rational runoff coefficient (C) for steep watersheds. The method allows estimation of the value of C from watershed slope and a value of Manning’s n that characterizes the roughness of the land cover.
  • Dahlgren, R.A. 1998. Effects of forest harvest on stream water quality and nutrient cycling in the Caspar Creek watershed. Pp. 45-53 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Water samples were analyzed from rainfall, throughfall, soil, and streamflow in North Fork control tributaries and clearcut tributaries between 1991 and 1996. Nitrogen output was higher for the logged watersheds and declined in the three years after logging; total nitrogen losses remained low relative to other forest types. Measurements of stored nitrogen allowed analysis of changes in nitrogen cycling at the sites.
  • DeWitt, J.W. 1968. Streamside vegetation and small coastal salmon streams. Pp. 38-47 in: Proceedings of a forum on the relation between logging and salmon. Juneau, AK. American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists.
    As an example in a general discussion of the influences of riparian vegetation, summer measurements of stream shading and temperature from 1964-66, before South Fork Caspar road construction, are compared with those from the summer after road construction.
  • Dietrich, W.E.; D. Bellugi, and R. Real de Asua. 2001. Validation of the shallow landslide model, SHALSTAB, for forest management. Pp. 195-227 in: M.S. Wigmosta and S.J. Burges (editors). Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Volume 2. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. 228 p.
    SHALSTAB is described and its applications discussed. Model predictions were compared with the locations of landslides mapped at Caspar and 5 other watersheds. The model was able to identify 13% of the watershed areas that accounted for about 60% of the slide locations. Results support use of the model for broad characterizations of slide hazard using 7.5’ topographic maps, but higher resolution data are needed for site-specific applications.
  • Eads, R.E. 1991. Controlling sediment collection with data loggers. Pp. 2-41 to 2-48 in: Fan, S.-S.; and Y.-H. Kuo (editors). Proceedings of the Fifth Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference. 18-21 March 1991; Las Vegas, Nevada. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.
    Advances in sediment sampling technology developed at Caspar Creek are described. These methods provide more flexibility for carrying out desired sampling strategies, and were designed to replace the method described by Eads and Boolootian 1985.
  • Eads, R.E.; and M.R. Boolootian. 1985. Controlling suspended sediment samplers by programmable calculator and interface circuitry. Research Note PSW-376. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 8 p.
    Software and hardware developed at Caspar Creek are described that allow probability-based sampling by automatic pump samplers. This technology permits mean sampling frequency to increase at higher discharges though sampling times remain random, allowing statistically valid estimates of sediment loads to be based on fewer samples without loss of precision. [updated by Eads 1991]
  • Eads, R.; and J. Lewis. 2003. Turbidity threshold sampling in watershed research. Pp. 567-571 in: Renard, K.G.; S.A. McElroy, W.J. Gburek, H.E. Canfield, and R.L. Scott (editors). First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. October 27-30, 2003; Benson, Arizona. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
    The Turbidity Threshold Sampling (TTS) method developed at Caspar Creek automatically distributes pump sample collection across the range of rising and falling turbidity values, permitting turbidity-based sediment concentration estimates to be calibrated using fewer samples. [This is the sampling method employed at Caspar since 1996.]
  • Eads, R.E.; and R.B. Thomas. 1983. Evaluation of a depth proportional intake device for automatic pumping samplers. Water Resources Bulletin 19(2): 289-292.
    A boom was designed that allows a pump sampler intake to be automatically positioned at a given proportion of the water depth despite changes in flow. Concentrations of pumped samples taken at 0.6 of the distance from water surface to the bed showed slightly lower values than the average cross-sectional concentrations measured using a standard depth-integrating manual sampler. Once calibrated, the method provided reliable results.
  • Ferrier, K.L.; J.W. Kirchner, and R.C. Finkel. 2005. Erosion rates over millennial and decadal timescales at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek, Northern California Coast Ranges. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30(8): 1025-1038.
    If sand in today’s stream sediments was derived from sediment sources characteristic of pre-logging conditions, then concentrations of 10Be measured in sediments from Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek would suggest that prehistoric erosion rates are higher than those measured today.
  • Gallagher, S.P.; P.B. Adams, D.W. Wright, and B.W. Collins. 2010a. Performance of spawner survey techniques at low abundance levels. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 30(5): 1086-1097.
    Data from fish traps located on Caspar Creek and two other streams were used to evaluate the effectiveness of three methods of estimating salmonid populations: redd counts, carcass surveys, and “area under the curve.” Redd counts provided the most reliable estimates, while carcass capture-recapture methods were not successful.
  • Gallagher, S.P.; and C.M. Gallagher. 2005. Discrimination of Chinook salmon, Coho salmon and Steelhead redds and evaluation of the use of redd data for estimating escapement in several unregulated streams in northern California. American Fisheries Society. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 25: 284-300.
    Spawning habitat in Caspar Creek and six other streams was surveyed during the spawning season for periods between 2000 and 2003 to determine the length of time over which redds remained visible, assess observer efficiency, quantify factors influencing detection, and develop criteria for identifying the type of redd. This information allows design of a redd survey protocol for reliable estimation of escapement for these species.
  • Gallagher, S.P.; S. Thompson, and D.W. Wright. 2012. Identifying factors limiting coho salmon to inform stream restoration in coastal Northern California. California Fish and Game 98(4): 185-201.
    An 11-year record of abundance of various coho life stages in Caspar Creek and two nearby streams was evaluated to calculate marine and freshwater survival, estimate carrying capacity, and evaluate the effects of flow, turbidity, and temperature (as measured at the Caspar weirs) on survival. Results suggest that high winter flows limited winter survival, while influences of summer flow and temperature were not detected in these streams.
  • Gallagher, S.P.; and D.W. Wright. 2012. How do we know how many salmon returned to spawn? Implementing the California Coastal Salmonid Monitoring Plan in Mendocino County, California. Pp. 409-418 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    The California Coastal Salmonid Monitoring Plan is being developed to estimate and monitor salmonid populations. A pilot study was carried out in intensively studied Mendocino streams, including Caspar, to test a two-stage estimation procedure based on redd counts and spawner:redd ratios (derived using capture:recapture methods in census watersheds). Coastal Mendocino County population estimates are available for 3 years.
  • Gallagher, S.P.; D.W. Wright, B.W. Collins, and P.B. Adams. 2010b. A regional approach for monitoring salmonid status and trends: results from a pilot study in Coastal Mendocino County, California. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 30:1075–1085.
    Three years of salmonid data from Caspar Creek and four other local streams were used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of a proposed improved two-stage sampling design for monitoring regional escapement.
  • Godsey, S.E.; and J.W. Kirchner. 2014. Dynamic, discontinuous stream networks: hydrologically driven variations in active drainage density, flowing channels and stream order. Hydrological Processes 28(23): 5791-5803.
    Dry-season channel networks at Caspar Creek and three other sites showed a two- to three-fold decrease in drainage density relative to wet-season networks. Flow lengths were approximate power-law functions of unit discharge. Similar relations held across a wide range of geologic and climatic settings and watershed size.
  • Gomi, T.; R.D. Moore, and M.A. Hassan. 2005. Suspended sediment dynamics in small forest streams of the Pacific Northwest. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41(4): 877-898.
    Sources and transport of fine sediment in forest watersheds are discussed, drawing heavily on results from Caspar Creek. Influences of logging are reviewed.
  • Grant, G.E.: S.L. Lewis, F.J. Swanson, J.H. Cissel, and J.J. McDonnell. 2008. Effects of forest practices on peak flows and consequent channel response: a state-of-science report for western Oregon and Washington. U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-760. 76 p.
    Results of forest hydrology studies in the western US—including Caspar Creek—were compiled and evaluated to identify patterns of peakflow and channel response. Factors that may influence channel response to altered peakflows are discussed.
  • Graves, D.S.; and J.W. Burns. 1970. Comparison of the yields of downstream migrant salmonids before and after logging and road construction on the South Fork Caspar Creek, Mendocino County. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. Inland Fisheries Administration Report 70-3. 11 p.
    More steelhead and fewer coho migrated downstream in 1968, the year after South Fork road construction, than in 1964. Outmigration of fry increased considerably, possibly reflecting poor in-stream conditions. Sizes of out-migrants decreased for steelhead smolts and coho fry and increased for coho smolts.
  • Harris, R.R.; K. Sullivan, P.H. Cafferata, J.R. Munn, and K.M. Faucher. 2007. Applications of turbidity monitoring to forest management in California. Environmental Management 40:531-543.
    Locations and objectives of 41 turbidity monitoring projects in California forests are described, and typical experimental designs and monitoring methods are discussed. Turbidity monitoring at Caspar Creek is described as an example of watershed-scale monitoring, and other case studies are described for project- and site-scale monitoring.
  • Harvey, B.C.; and R.J. Nakamoto. 1996. Effects of steelhead density on growth of Coho salmon in a small coastal California stream. Transactions, American Fisheries Society 125(2): 237-243.
    Summer growth of age-0 coho salmon over a 6-week period was negatively related to the density of juvenile steelhead in enclosed stream sections located on the North and South Forks of Caspar Creek, indicating that under some conditions the two species may compete.
  • Harvey, B.C.; and R.J. Nakamoto. 1997. Habitat-dependent interactions between two size-classes of juvenile steelhead in a small stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54(1): 27-31.
    Summer growth of a larger size-class of juvenile steelhead was lower in the presence of smaller steelhead in shallow enclosures than with an equal biomass of their own size class, but results were the opposite in deep enclosures. Such interactions may lead to lower abundance of larger juveniles in aggraded streams.
  • Hassan, M.A.; S.V. Robinson, H. Voepel, J. Lewis, and T.E. Lisle. 2014. Modeling temporal trends in bedload transport in gravel-bed streams using hierarchical mixed-effects models. Geomorphology 219:260-269.
    Relations between bedload transport rate and shear stress at North Fork Caspar Creek showed a reduction in transport for a given shear stress between 1988 and 1995, possibly indicating a change in availability of transportable sediment.
  • Henry, N. 1998. Overview of the Caspar Creek watershed study. Pp. 1-9 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Land-use history, soils, climate, and vegetation of the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds are described. The history of research in the watersheds is outlined, with particular attention to the monitoring methods and experimental design used for the two watershed-scale experiments and for a variety of other studies in the watersheds.
  • Henry, N.; and K. Sendek. 1985. Caspar Creek Watershed Study--North Fork Phase, Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Status and Plans, 1983-1990. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA. California Forestry Note 96. 9 p.
    The North Fork study will remeasure the variables analyzed in the South Fork phase and emphasize tracking of effects through a channel network. Instrumentation is described. Original plans for partial cutting were modified to clearcutting due to the increasing use of this prescription. Percent volume removal will be similar to the South Fork phase.
  • Hilton, S. 2012. Large woody debris budgets in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds. Pp. 61-68 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    Woody debris has been monitored at Caspar Creek since 1998. Inputs, outputs, and total volumes in the South Fork are currently lower than in the North Fork, and South Fork inputs included a high proportion of alder, which does not persist. Differences reflect contrasts in stand ages and near-channel logging practices.
  • Ice, G.; L. Dent, J. Robben, P. Cafferata, J. Light, B. Sugden, and T. Cundy. 2004. Programs assessing implementation and effectiveness of state forest practice rules and BMPs in the west. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 4: 143-169.
    Two basic questions need to be answered: are the measures applied? and do they work? The latter is an important focus and is being addressed by field assessments, process-based research, and control watershed studies. The Caspar Creek project is one of the examples presented of how states can use research to assess effectiveness of practices.
  • Imeson, A. 2012. Desertification, Land Degradation and Sustainability [Section 5.9 (p.169): Case 3: Impact of forest logging in California Casper Creek]. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 311 p.
    The Caspar Creek studies are presented as a case study of a research program designed to evaluate the effects of logging on erosion and sediment production.
  • Ish, T.; and D. Tomberlin. 2007. Simulation of surface erosion on a logging road in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest. Pp. 457-463 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    The WEPP erosion model was used to estimate rates of road surface erosion on 57 segments along 3.5 miles of partially rocked road in the Middle Fork Caspar watershed. Results suggest a long-term annual erosion rate of 20.8 t/km/yr. Results will be tested against planned field measurements. [see Barrett et al. 2012]
  • Jackman, R.E.; and N.N. Stoneman. 1972. Use of annual ryegrass and urea for post logging erosion control on Jackson State Forest. California Division of Forestry, Sacramento, CA. State Forest Note 48. 4 p.
    The paper describes a method for seeding ryegrass on disturbed ground based on tests made along the South Fork road. [see Jackman and Stoneman 1973]
  • Jackman, R.E.; and N.N. Stoneman. 1973. Roadside grassing--a post-logging practice for redwood forests. Journal of Forestry, February 1973: 90-92.
    Five methods of seeding were tested on bare road banks in the South Fork watershed, and sheet and gully erosion were qualitatively assessed. Fertilized annual rye grass was found to provide the best protection from erosion.
  • Jameson, M.J.; and T.A. Robards. 2007. Coast redwood regeneration survival and growth in Mendocino County, California. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 22(3): 171-175.
    Redwood seedlings of three ages were planted on two broadcast-burned North Fork clearcuts and on an unburned clearcut. Survival and growth was the same for all after nine years, but redwood stump sprouts grew much faster. Dense brush colonized the burned units and regrew after herbicide treatment. Brush was less dense in the unburned unit.
  • Jones, J.A.; I.F. Creed, K.L. Hatcher, R.J. Warren, M.B. Adams, M.H. Benson, E. Boose, [and 17 others]. 2012. Ecosystem processes and human influences regulate streamflow response to climate change at long-term ecological research sites. BioScience 62(4): 390-404.
    Temperature, precipitation, and streamflow data from Caspar Creek and 34 other North American watersheds indicated that vegetation evapotranspires more than expected in wet areas and less than expected in dry areas. Streamflow responds to short-term climatic oscillations, hindering identification of long-term trends, and trends may be masked by responses to past disturbances.
  • Jones, J.A.; and D.A. Post. 2004. Seasonal and successional streamflow response to forest cutting and regrowth in the northwest and eastern United States. Water Resources Research 40(5), W05203. 19 p.
    Watersheds in western coniferous forests (located at Caspar Creek, H.J. Andrews, and Coyote Creek) showed greater and more persistent increases in maximum daily flows after logging than those in eastern deciduous forests. The contrast between pre- and post-treatment streamflow increased with increasing forest age.
  • Keller, E.A.; A. MacDonald, T. Tally, and N.J. Merrit. 1995. Effects of large organic debris on channel morphology and sediment storage in selected tributaries of Redwood Creek, northwestern California. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1454-P. 29 p.
    In old-growth redwood forests, median wood residence time for pieces measured in a reach was greater than 100 years, and wood in a surveyed creek stored a sediment volume equivalent to 100 to 150 years of annual bedload transport. Debris loading was lower and channel morphology different in North Fork Caspar Creek and other 2nd growth channels.
  • Keppeler, E.T. 1998. The summer flow and water yield response to timber harvest. Pp. 35-43 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Low flows and water yields increased after both South Fork and North Fork logging. South Fork summer yields fell to near or below pre-treatment levels seven years after selection logging, but no recovery trend was evident seven years after North Fork clearcutting. Several previously intermittent stream reaches became perennial in the North Fork after logging.
  • Keppeler, E. 2007. Effects of timber harvest on fog drip and streamflow, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Mendocino County, California. Pp. 85-93 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    Fog drip varied by location from 0.2 mm to 99 mm for the 1999 season, with rates highest on ridges exposed to westerly winds. Rates under mature conifer canopies and in adjacent clearings were not significantly different. Measured drip rates represented only a minor component of the water budget in this area, but effects of fog on transpiration are likely to be more important.
  • Keppeler, E.T. 2012. Sediment production in a coastal watershed: legacy, land use, recovery, and rehabilitation. Pp. 69-77 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    South Fork suspended sediment loads roughly doubled after 1971-73 selection logging, then returned to background levels in about 11 years before increasing again in the 1990s as road crossings deteriorated. The main road was decommissioned in 1998, but sediment yields remained high after that. Surveys indicated that 443 stream and swale crossings remain in the 424-ha watershed.
  • Keppeler, E.T. In press. Hydrologic change in a coast redwood forest, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds: implications for salmonid survival. Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds.
    The 52-year Caspar Creek flow record shows a decline in autumn rainfall and streamflow and a reduced frequency of autumn storms. Such changes can impair upstream migration of returning salmonids.
  • Keppeler, E.T.; and D. Brown. 1998. Subsurface drainage processes and management impacts. Pp. 25-34 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Subsurface pipeflow and pore pressures were measured in a control watershed and in a watershed before and after clearcutting. Both attributes increased after logging, with pipeflow showing the larger effect. At another site, a combination of road construction and clearcutting resulted in large increases in pore pressure in and upslope of the road prism.
  • Keppeler, E.T.; P.H. Cafferata, and W. Baxter. 2007. State forest road 600: A riparian road decommissioning case study in Jackson Demonstration State Forest. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA. California Forestry Note 120. 23 p.
    The mainline South Fork road was decommissioned in 1998, with 26 watercourse crossings removed. Monitoring of the recontoured crossings after one and four winters indicates that most readjustment occurred the first winter, when it accounted for a significant portion of the South Fork sediment load. Three crossings continued to erode after eight years.
  • Keppeler, E.T.; and J. Lewis. 2007. Understanding the hydrologic consequences of timber-harvest and roading: four decades of streamflow and sediment results from the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds. Pp. 191-196 in: Furniss, M.; C. Clifton, and K. Ronnenberg (editors). Advancing the Fundamental Sciences: Proceedings of the Forest Service National Earth Sciences Conference. 18-22 October 2004; San Diego, CA. US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-689.
    Results of the two experiments are described. South Fork sediment loads increased again in the late 1990s for large storms. Landslide inventory data show greater volumetric rates for the South Fork than the North Fork in 1990-2004, with 94% related to deteriorating roads, landings, or skid trails. Almost 18,000 m3 of roadfill were removed from South Fork road crossings in 1998, but treatment-related erosion has produced 750 m3 of sediment.
  • Keppeler, E.T.; J. Lewis, and T.E. Lisle. 2003. Effects of forest management on streamflow, sediment yield, and erosion, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds. Pp. 77-82 in: Renard, K.G.; S.A. McElroy, W.J. Gburek, H.E. Canfield, and R.L. Scott (editors). First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. 27-30 October 2003; Benson, Arizona. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
    Results of the North Fork experiment are described and compared to South Fork results. Peak flows again increased after pre-commercial thinning ten years after North Fork logging, and North Fork tributary sediment loads remained elevated. Disturbed ground in the South Fork continued to support elevated sediment loads decades after road building and tractor-based yarding.
  • Keppeler, E.; L. Reid, and T. Lisle. 2009. Long-term patterns of hydrologic response after logging in a coastal redwood forest. Pp. 265-272 in: Webb, R.M.T., and D.J. Semmens, (editors). Planning for an uncertain future—Monitoring, integration, and adaptation. Proceedings of the Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. 8-11 September 2008; Estes Park, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5049. 292 p.
    Long-term monitoring showed that total water yield, peakflows, and low flows responded similarly for selective logging and clearcutting in the initial post-logging period at Caspar Creek, but the initial increase in low flows dropped more quickly after selective logging. Sediment loads initially recovered quickly but rose again 10 to 20 years after logging due to failing roads (South Fork) or pre-commercial thinning (North Fork).
  • Keppeler, E.T.; and R.R. Ziemer. 1990. Logging effects on streamflow: water yields and summer low flows at Caspar Creek in northwestern California. Water Resources Research 26(7): 1669-1679.
    Annual water yield and summer low flows increased after South Fork logging in 1971-73. Relative increases were greatest for the summer low-flow period, but these had largely disappeared within five years of logging. [updates: Keppeler 1998, Reid 2012]
  • Keppeler, E.T.; R.R. Ziemer, and P.H. Cafferata. 1994. Changes in soil moisture and pore pressure after harvesting a forested hillslope in northern California. Pp. 205-214 in: Marston, R.A., and V.R. Hasfurther (editors). Proceedings, Annual Summer Symposium of the American Water Resources Association: Effects of Human-Induced Changes on Hydrologic Systems. June 26-29, 1994; Jackson Hole, Wyoming. American Water Resources Association, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Soil moisture and pore pressures were monitored along hillslope transects for two years before clearcutting of a 100-yr-old stand and for four years after. Post-logging increases recovered quickly in the unsaturated portion of the profile, but pore pressures remained elevated at the soil-bedrock interface.
  • Klein, R.D. 2008. Timber harvest and turbidity in north coastal California watersheds. Pp. 207-212 in: Webb, R.M.T., and D.J. Semmens, (editors). Planning for an uncertain future—Monitoring, integration, and adaptation. Proceedings of the Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. 8-11 September 2008; Estes Park, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5049. 292 p.
    [initial analysis for the study reported by Klein et al. 2012]
  • Klein, R.D.; J. Lewis, and M.S. Buffleben. 2012. Logging and turbidity in the coastal watersheds of northern California. Geomorphology 139-140: 135-144.
    Continuous turbidity data from 28 coastal streams for 2004-2005 showed 10% exceedence levels of 8 FNU in pristine watersheds and 15, 32, 61 FNU, respectively, in watersheds with legacy logging, low, and high logging rates. This pattern suggests that there may be a cumulative impact on salmonids associated with logging rate.
  • Krammes, J.S.; and D.M. Burns. 1973. Road construction on Caspar Creek watersheds -- 10-year report on impact. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. Research Paper PSW-93. 10 p.
    Suspended sediment loads increased greatly the first year after road construction, then remained somewhat elevated; an old splash dam failed the first year. Aggradation in the weir pond accelerated four years after road construction. Stream temperatures increased slightly, increasing the production of bacteria, algae, and insects. Young-of-the-year salmonids decreased the first year.
  • Lewis, J. 1991. An improved bedload sampler. Pp. 6-1 to 6-8 in: Fan, S.; and Y.H. Kuo (editors). Proceedings of the Fifth Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference. 18-21 March 1991; Las Vegas, NV. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC.
    An improved Birkbeck bedload sampler was designed and installed in the North Fork. A load cell and data logger were used to record weights in 4 collection boxes at 2- or 5-minute intervals, and a suction dredge was used to empty the boxes during storms.
  • Lewis, J. 1996. Turbidity-controlled suspended sediment sampling for runoff-event load estimation. Water Resources Research 32(7): 2299-2310.
    Simulations based on intensive monitoring records of turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations were used to test the feasibility and efficiency of turbidity-controlled sediment sampling for estimation of storm sediment loads. The method was found to provide more consistent estimates than those based on sediment rating curves.
  • Lewis, J. 1998. Evaluating the impacts of logging activities on erosion and sediment transport in the Caspar Creek watersheds. Pp. 55-69 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    The 212% increase in sediment load after South Fork tractor-based selection logging was considerably larger than the 89% increase measured in the North Fork after cable-yarded clearcutting. Loads increased in North Fork tributaries but increases were not evident along the mainstem. Tributary increases were correlated with flow increases after logging.
  • Lewis, J. 2000. The potential for error in sampling. Water Environment Laboratory Solutions 7(2): 10-11.
    A variety of errors can occur during field collection of sediment samples and must be considered in planning for quality assurance and control. Limitations of pump samplers must be understood if they are to provide interpretable samples. Potential errors are compounded when sediment loads are estimated.
  • Lewis, J. 2003a. Stemflow estimation in a redwood forest using model-based stratified random sampling. Environmetrics 14(6):559-571.
    Data from the Steinbuck (2002) thesis were used to illustrate the use of model-based stratified sampling. Tanoak produced the greatest stemflow volume as a function of tree diameter, Douglas-fir was intermediate, and redwood produced only minor stemflow.
  • Lewis, J. 2003b. Turbidity-controlled sampling for suspended sediment load estimation. Pp. 13-20 in: Bogen, J.; T. Fergus, and D.E. Walling (editors). Erosion and Sediment Transport Measurement in Rivers: Technological and Methodological Advances. Proceedings of the 19-20 June 2002 workshop held in Oslo, Norway. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 283. 238 p.
    The Turbidity Threshold Sampling (TTS) method uses continuous turbidity measurements to activate a pumping sampler at specified turbidity values, providing an efficient approach to calibrating the turbidity record for accurate sediment load estimates during periods of high sediment transport.
  • Lewis, J. 2006. Fixed and mixed-effects models for multi-watershed experiments. In: Proceedings of the Third Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference. 2-6 April 2006; Reno NV. 8 p.
    If more than two locations are used for watershed experiments, regression residuals may be correlated in space or time. Fixed and mixed-effects regression methods can solve these problems. The approach is illustrated by an analysis of storm flows at Caspar Creek.
  • Lewis, J.; and R. Eads. 2001. Turbidity threshold sampling for suspended sediment load estimation. Pages III-110 to III-117 in: Proceedings of the Seventh Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference. 25-29 March 2001; Reno, Nevada. Federal Interagency Project, Technical Committee of the Subcommittee on Sedimentation.
    The hardware developed for Turbidity Threshold Sampling is described and illustrated, and tests of various modifications and site types are described. Examples from Caspar Creek demonstrate the utility of the TTS procedure for estimating sediment loads at sites where calculations based on sediment rating curves do not provide satisfactory estimates.
  • Lewis, J.; and R. Eads. 2009. Implementation guide for turbidity threshold sampling: principles, procedures, and analysis. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General Technical Report PSW-GTR-212. 87 p.
    This volume is a comprehensive user’s guide to the Turbidity Threshold Sampling (TTS) method, providing information on instrumentation, installation, field procedures, software, laboratory methods, data interpretation, data reduction, and analysis.
  • Lewis, J.; and E. Keppeler. 2007. Trends in streamflow and suspended sediment after logging, North Fork Caspar Creek. Pp. 95-105 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    The average 2-yr peakflows increased 27% in clearcut North Fork tributary watersheds, with increases greatest for dry antecedent conditions. Peaks had largely recovered in 10 years, when precommercial thinning renewed increases. Annual suspended loads increased 123% to 238% in 4 of the 5 clearcut watersheds, but those measured downstream did not. Tributary suspended sediment loads had not recovered by 12 years after logging.
  • Lewis, J.; S.R. Mori, E.T. Keppeler, and R.R. Ziemer. 2001. Impacts of logging on storm peak flows, flow volumes and suspended sediment loads in Caspar Creek, California. Pp. 85-125 in: M.S. Wigmosta and S.J. Burges (editors). Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Volume 2. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. 228 p.
    Model fitting methods were used to quantify the effects of North Fork watershed disturbance, watershed area, antecedent wetness, and time since disturbance on storm runoff, peakflows, and suspended sediment. Effects of multiple distributed disturbances on peakflow and stormflow were approximately additive. Most increased sediment from logged tributaries appears to have been stored in the downstream channel.
  • Lewis, J.; L.M. Reid, and R.B. Thomas. 2010. Comment on: "Forest and floods: A new paradigm sheds light on age-old controversies". Water Resources Research 46(5). 4 p.
    The effect of logging on large peakflows is difficult to detect because large flows are infrequent and the treatment effect is short-lived. Analyses based on either frequency pairing or chronological pairing (as illustrated by a Caspar Creek analysis) can be useful, but only if care is taken to ensure that the methods are used appropriately.
  • Lindquist, J.L. 1988. The Caspar Creek cutting trials. California Department of Forestry, Sacramento, CA. California Forestry Note 99. 25 p.
    Growth in single-tree light selection, single-tree heavy selection, group selection, clearcut, and uncut control test blocks was compared 25 years after 2nd-growth logging. Regeneration was poor in the single-tree selection blocks and stands were not attaining a desired uneven-aged stand diameter structure. Small-group selection or clearcutting appeared to produce more desirable results.
  • Lindquist, J.L. 2004. Precommercial stocking control of coast redwood: a seventeen-year status report (1981-1998). California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA. California Forestry Report 2. 26p.
    Plots in a 19-yr-old third-growth stand were precommercially thinned at 5 intensities and growth was measured after 5 and 17 yr. No significant difference in volume growth or yield was found between treatments, but all were higher than in the unthinned control. Stand productivity may be dropping for the control plot and the most heavily thinned plot.
  • Lindquist, J. 2007. Precommercial stocking control of coast redwood at Caspar Creek, Jackson Demonstration State Forest. Pp. 296-304 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    [This paper is a summary of the information presented by Lindquist (2004)]
  • Lisle, T.E. 1979. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed. Pp. XIV-1 to XIV-8 in: Guidebook for a field trip to observe natural and management-related erosion in Franciscan Terrane of northern California. April 9-11, 1979. Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section, Menlo Park, CA.
    Treatments, measurements, and results of the South Fork experiment are described. Logged areas lost 147 yd3/ac of sediment. Landslides displaced 100 yd3/ac, with 85% of the slides associated with roads and skid trails. Water quality appears to have sustained the most important impact, with sediment concentrations exceeding standards in 8 of 9 years.
  • Lisle, T.E. 1989. Sediment transport and resulting deposition in spawning gravels, north coastal California. Water Resources Research 25(6): 1303-1319.
    Sediment transport, infiltration of fine sediment into clean gravel beds, bed material sizes, and scour and fill depths were measured during 10 storms in the North Fork and in two other streams. Most intergravel deposition was from bedload material, which reduced infiltration of finer materials. Scour attained 0.1 m or more in places.
  • Lisle, T.E. 1995. Particle size variations between bed load and bed material in natural gravel bed channels. Water Resources Research 31(4): 1107-1118.
    Data on bedload and bed material in North Fork Caspar and 13 other streams were used to evaluate conditions under which small grain sizes can be selectively mobilized and transported. Streams showing selective transport generally had low scour depths, and they showed transport of fines over a coarser pavement. The bed surface in such streams may have discrete well-sorted patches of fine and coarse gravel.
  • Lisle, T. 1999. Channel processes and watershed function. Pages 4-14 in: Taylor, R.N. (editor). Using Stream Geomorphic Characteristics as a Long-term Monitoring Tool to Assess Watershed Function. Proceedings of a Workshop. 18-19 March 1999, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California.
    Transcript of a presentation. The cumulative nature of influences on channel form is described, with particular focus on sediment and wood using North Fork Caspar as an example. Evaluation of a channel’s context is necessary if one is to determine what monitoring approach may be useful.
  • Lisle, T.E. 2002. How much dead wood in stream channels is enough? Pp. 85-93 in: Laudenslayer, W.F. Jr.; P.J. Shea, B.E. Valentine, C.P. Weatherspoon, and T.E. Lisle (technical coordinators). Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood in Western Forests. November 2-4, 1999 Reno, Nevada. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-181. 949 p.
    Appropriate wood loads might be estimated by 1) determination of the amount needed for ecological functioning; 2) comparison to loads in reference streams; or 3) construction of a wood budget to estimate past, present, and projected future loads. A combination of the three approaches provides the best information, but this strategy does not provide simple prescriptions. North Fork loads are compared with those in an old-growth creek.
  • Lisle, T.E. 2012. Transport capacity, bedrock exposure, and process domains. Pp. 419-423 in: Church, M.; P. Biron and A. Roy (editors). Gravel-bed Rivers: Processes, Tools, Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 580 p.
    Bedrock exposure, sediment supply, and transport capacity interact in semi-alluvial channels. In downstream portions of a channel network, fluvial processes control bedrock erosion. Upstream, gullying and debris flows may dominate. This pattern is illustrated by the distribution and activity of gullies in North Fork Caspar Creek watershed.
  • Lisle, T.E.; Adams, M.B.; Reid, L. M.; Elder, K. 2010. Hydrologic influences of forest vegetation in a changing world: Learning from Forest Service experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds. Pp. 37-49 in: Adams, M.B.; J. McNeel, and C. Rodriguez-Franco. Meeting current and future conservation challenges through the synthesis of long-term silviculture and range management research. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, DC. General Technical Report WO-84. 82 p.
    Information and experience from Caspar Creek and other USFS experimental watersheds, forests, and ranges was used to illustrate the utility of such research for addressing emerging problems in forest hydrology. Research provides process-based understanding, opportunities for cross-site comparisons, and lengthy records that can be applied to future problems.
  • Lisle, T.E.; and S. Hilton. 1999. Fine bed material in pools of natural gravel bed channels. Water Resources Research 35(4): 1291-1304.
    Proportional infill of pools by fine gravels (V*) was measured in Caspar Creek and 32 other streams, and infill was compared with estimates of sediment yield. If supply of fine bed material exceeds the storage capacity within the bed, fines can accumulate on the surface and be easily transported. Sediment accumulations in pools might serve as an index of the supply of excess fine sediment in a channel.
  • Lisle, T.E.; and M. Napolitano. 1998. Effects of recent logging on the main channel of North Fork Caspar Creek. Pp. 81-85 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Bed load yield did not show detectable changes after North Fork logging. In downstream portions of the channel where blowdown occurred along riparian buffer strips, both sediment storage and pool volumes increased. Depletion of buffer zones may lead to reduced woody debris loads in the future.
  • Madej, M.A. 2005. The role of organic matter in sediment budgets in forested terrain. Pp. 9-15 in: Sediment Budgets II. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sediment Budgets held during the Seventh Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 3-9 April, 2005 Foz do Iguaço, Brazil. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 292. 342 p.
    Organic material accounted for about 20-95% of the sediment load at discharges of less than 1 m3/s in the North and South Forks of Caspar Creek and in two creeks in Redwood National Park, and percent organics declined with increasing discharge. Organics accounted for 19% to 24% of the annual loads for two years at Caspar Creek and 9% to 65% in the Redwood National Park creeks.
  • Madej, M.A.; M. Wilzbach, K. Cummins, C. Ellis, and S. Hadden. 2007. The significance of suspended organic sediments to turbidity, sediment flux, and fish-feeding behavior. Pp. 383-385 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    Organic particles were abundant in stream water samples from Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek tributaries at turbidities of up to 60 NTU, and produced 10 to 65% of the total suspended sediment load in 2002 and 2003. In-stream observations showed declining rates of prey capture by salmonids with increasing turbidity.
  • Mazurek, M.J.; and W.J. Zielinski. 2004. Individual legacy trees influence vertebrate wildlife diversity in commercial forests. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 321-334.
    The diversity of wildlife species recorded in and around 30 isolated residual old-growth trees was significantly greater than for paired commercially mature trees, with most the effect accounted for by birds and bats. The presence of basal hollows appears to add the greatest habitat value.
  • Moore, J.W.; S.A. Hayes, W. Duffy, S. Gallagher, C. J. Michel, and D. Wright. 2011. Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68:1161-1170.
    Import and export of phosphorus by anadromous salmonids was calculated for Caspar Creek and five other streams. Declining stocks have reduced phosphorus import by an order of magnitude over the last decade.
  • Morken, I.; and R.R. Ziemer. 1998. Publications related to Caspar Creek. Pp. 137-149 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Publications dating between 1960 and 1998 are described.
  • Nakamoto, R. 1998. Effects of timber harvest on aquatic vertebrates and habitat in the North Fork Caspar Creek. Pp. 87-95 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Pool availability increased after North Fork logging due to increased blowdown in buffer zones. No dramatic changes in abundance of young-of-the-year steelhead, yearling steelhead, coho, or Pacific giant salamanders were found after logging, but high interannual variation in abundance would make changes difficult to detect.
  • Napolitano, M. 1998. Persistence of historical logging impacts on channel form in mainstem North Fork Caspar Creek. Pp. 97-101 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p. .
    Old-growth logging practices used at Caspar Creek between 1860 and 1904 are described. The channels continue to show reduced wood-loading and altered morphological characteristics relative to old-growth streams. Persistent changes appear to include channel incision, simplification of form, and reduced sediment storage capability.
  • Nelson, T.; R. Macedo, and B.E. Valentine. 2007. A preliminary study of streamside air temperatures within the coast redwood zone 2001 to 2003. Pp. 75-84 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    Air temperatures are being monitored at 15 transects across riparian zones on South Fork Caspar Creek and three other nearby streams, three of which will be logged in the near future. Pretreatment results showed increased temperatures with distance from channel.
  • O'Connor, M.D.; and R.R. Ziemer. 1989. Coarse woody debris ecology in a second-growth Sequoia sempervirens forest stream. Pp. 165-171 in: Abell, D.L. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the California Riparian Systems Conference: protection, management, and restoration for the 1990s. September 22-24, 1988; Davis, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. General Technical Report PSW-110. 544 p.
    About 59% of the woody debris in the North Fork before second-growth logging was associated with pools, and 26% was in debris jams. Inputs were primarily from bank erosion and windthrow, and most wood was from Douglas-fir and grand fir.
  • O’Hara, K.L.; L. Narayan, and K.G. Cahill. In press. Twelve-year response of coast redwood to precommercial thinning treatments. Forest Science.
    Comparison of stand volumes and tree sizes between 6 precommercial thinning treatment types and 2 control types on plots on 7 North Fork clearcut units showed no significant differences between burned and unburned units. Stand growth was greatest at high tree densities, while individual tree growth was greatest on more intensively thinned plots.
  • Parker, M.S. 1991. Relationship between cover availability and larval Pacific Giant Salamander density. Journal of Herpetology 25(3): 355-357.
    Mean salamander densities were positively correlated with the density of large unembedded stones in 14 pools along North Fork Caspar Creek. Experimentally prepared 1 m2 plots also showed higher densities on plots with higher stone densities.
  • Parker, M.S. 1993. Predation by Pacific giant salamander larvae on juvenile steelhead trout. Northwestern Naturalist 74: 77-81.
    Juvenile steelhead were found in 16 of 787 Dicamptodon stomach contents sampled in North Fork Caspar and Fox Creeks, and the salamanders were seen to ambush and consume steelhead on three occasions.
  • Pearcy, R.W.; and W.A. Pfitsch. 1991. Influence of sunflecks on the δ13C of Adenocaulon bicolor plants occurring in contrasting forest understory microsites. Oecologia 86(4): 457-462.
    Plants receiving both sunflecks and diffuse light had greater photosynthetic capacities and leaf weights per unit area than those receiving only diffuse light. Plants did not appear to acclimate to differences in the amount of direct light received.
  • Pearcy, R.W.; and W.A. Pfitsch. 1995. The consequences of sunflecks for photosynthesis and growth of forest understory plants. Pp. 343-359 in: Schulze, E.-D., and M.M. Caldwell (editors). Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg. 576 pp.
    This chapter provides a more general discussion of the role of sunflecks, based largely on studies described by Pearcy and Pfitsch (1991) and Pfitsch and Pearcy (1992).
  • Peters, D.P.C.; C.M. Laney, A.E. Lugo, S.L. Collins, C.T. Driscoll, P.M. Groffman, J.M. Grove, A.K. Knapp, T.K. Kratz, M.D. Ohman, R.B. Waide, and J. Yao. 2013. Long-term trends in ecological systems: a basis for understanding responses to global change. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin Number 1931. 378 pp.
    Data from 50 research watersheds, forests, and grasslands in the Ecotrends network (including Caspar Creek) are used to compare changes in global change drivers and ecological responses across the sites, and to evaluate long-term trends. Some of the data used to characterize the Caspar Creek area were taken from stations in Fort Bragg and Hopland.
  • Pfitsch, W.A.; and R.W. Pearcy. 1992. Growth and reproductive allocation of Adenocaulon bicolor following experimental removal of sunflecks. Ecology 73(6): 2109-2117.
    Shading was manipulated at sites in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds. After two growing seasons, plants receiving only diffuse light were reduced in size and their reproduction was diminished.
  • Ponce-Campos, G.E.; M.S. Moran, A. Huete, Y. Zhang, C. Bresloff, T.E. Huxman, D. Eamus, D.D. Bosch, A.R. Buda, S.A. Gunter, T.H. Scalley, S.G. Kitchen, M.P. McClaran, W.H. McNab, D.S. Montoya, J.A. Morgan, D.P.C. Peters, E.J. Sadler, M.S. Seyfried, and P.J. Starks. 2013. Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions. Nature 494: 349-352.
    Data from Caspar Creek and a variety of other sites were used to test the relation between water use efficiency and water availability. Cross-biome results showed increased water use efficiency in dry years, a pattern that provides resilience to drought at a decadal scale. The approach may be useful for evaluating the effects of global climate change.
  • Rabin, L.A.; W.W. Oliver, R.F. Powers, M.W. Ritchie, M.D. Busse, and E.E. Knapp. 2009. Historical growth plots in the Pacific Southwest. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-213. 83 p.
    The precommercial thinning study plots in South Fork Caspar watershed (discussed by Lindquist 1988, 2004, 2007) are described, along with 39 other study sites in and near California. In addition, 142 Continuous Forest Inventory plots were installed in 1958 in Jackson Demonstration State Forest and have been remeasured at 5-year intervals; some of these are in the North and South Fork Caspar Creek watersheds.
  • Reid, L.M. 1998. Cumulative watershed effects: Caspar Creek and beyond. Pp. 117-127 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    New understanding of impact mechanisms has shifted the discourse on cumulative watershed effects from whether they exist to how they can be assessed, reversed, and avoided. Caspar Creek studies illustrate how interactions between biological, hydrological, and geomorphological processes affected by logging can influence downstream responses. Appropriate impact management strategies depend on how the impact is generated.
  • Reid, L.M. 2012. Comparing hydrologic responses to tractor-yarded selection and cable-yarded clearcut logging in a coast redwood forest. Pp. 151-161 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    South Fork selection logging caused an initial 7-yr increase in dry-season flow, followed by a reduction to below pre-treatment levels that lasted for the next 20 yr. North Fork clearcutting resulted in a 16-yr increase before again nearing pretreatment levels. South Fork showed a lesser peakflow response than the North Fork.
  • Reid, L. M.; N.J. Dewey, T.E. Lisle, and S. Hilton. 2010. The incidence and role of gullies after logging in a coastal redwood forest. Geomorphology 117:115-169.
    North Fork logging was associated with coalescence of discontinuous gullies and upstream migration of channel heads. In-channel erosion resulting from the hydrologic changes caused by logging appears to be an important source of logging-related sediment at the site, and this source is not amenable to control by common mitigation measures.
  • Reid, L.M.; and S. Hilton. 1998. Buffering the buffer. Pp. 71-80 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Design of buffer strips to sustain characteristic instream wood loading must account for the influence of cut margins on buffer stability. Inventories of wood sources and blowdown along North Fork Caspar Creek allowed quantification of inputs by distance from the channel and blowdown by distance from the cut margin.
  • Reid, L.M.; and E.T. Keppeler. 2012. Landslides after clearcut logging in a coast redwood forest. Pp.163-172 in: Standiford, R.B.; T.J. Weller, D.D. Piirto, and J.D. Stuart (technical coordinators). Proceedings of Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers. June 21-23, 2011; Santa Cruz, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-238. 675 p.
    After North Fork logging, the rate of sediment displacement by large slides (98 to 4900 m3) was an order of magnitude greater in logged areas than under forest and two orders of magnitude greater along roads; the rate along roads in logged areas was 3 times that along forested roads. The largest slides occurred 9 to 14 yr after logging, when root cohesion was near its minimum and pre-commercial thinning had again induced hydrologic change.
  • Reid, L.M.; and J. Lewis. 2007. Rates and implications of rainfall interception in a coastal redwood forest. Pp.107-117 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    Rainfall interception in 2nd-growth redwood stands trapped and evaporated 22.4% of the annual rainfall at plots in the North Fork Caspar watershed and was important even during the largest storms. Rainfall-based peakflow prediction models indicated that altered interception and transpiration could account for the 54-70% average increase in peakflows observed in five clearcut tributaries in the two years after logging.
  • Reid, L. M.; and J. Lewis. 2009. Rates, timing, and mechanisms of rainfall interception loss in a coastal redwood forest. Journal of Hydrology 375: 459-470.
    Throughfall measurements at 5-min intervals allowed the timing of interception loss to be analyzed. About 46% of intercepted rain evaporated from foliage after storms; portions of the rest evaporated during the storm or entered long-term storage in bark. Proportional loss varied little with rainfall intensity.
  • Reid, L.M.; and J. Lewis. 2011. Evaluating cumulative effects of logging and potential climate change on dry-season flow in a coast redwood forest. Pp. 186-191 in: Medley, C.N., G. Patterson, and M.J. Parker (editors). Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds: Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change. 26-30 September 2011; Fairbanks, AK. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5169. 202 p.
    Rainfall-based runoff models were used to evaluate the combined effects of potential climate change and logging on low flows after selective logging or clearcutting at Caspar Creek. Rainfall changes late in the wet season were found to have a disproportionate effect.
  • Reid, L. M.; and T. Lisle. 2010. The Caspar Creek watershed studies: long-term research in a temperate, rain-dominated forest. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 30:1326–1328.
    Contrasting recovery trajectories for the first two experiments reflected the kinds of process mechanisms responsible for the changes. Renewed increases in sediment production more than a decade after logging could not have been detected without long-term monitoring.
  • Reid, L.M.; L.A. Rabin, and D.J. Stouder. 2014. EFs of the Pacific Southwest Research Station: long-term research at the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds. Pp. 30-35 in: Hayes, D.C.; S.L. Stout, R.F. Crawford, and A.P. Hoover (editors). USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges - Research for the Long-Term. Springer. 350 p.
    Caspar Creek studies provide examples illustrating the need for long-term studies: long-term recovery trends can follow unexpected paths; long records allow better detection of responses; these study sites allow quick response times for addressing new information needs; the sites attract researchers in many fields because of the kinds of data available; and long-term data are critical for understanding continually changing systems.
  • Rice, R.M. 1981. A perspective on the cumulative effects of logging on streamflow and sedimentation. Pp. 36-46 in: Standiford, R.B.; and S.I. Ramscher (editors). Cumulative Effects of Forest Management on California Watersheds: An Assessment of Status and Need for Information. Proceedings of the Edgebrook Conference. July 2-3, 1980; Berkeley CA. University of California, Berkeley, Division of Agricultural Sciences Special Publication 3268. 109 p.
    Results from the South Fork study illustrate the greater importance of sediment inputs relative to flow changes in consideration of cumulative effects, and erosion plot studies from South Fork and elsewhere indicate that a few sites produce most of the sediment. Preventing site-level erosion may be the most effective way to avert cumulative impacts.
  • Rice, R.M. 1987. Cumulative impacts: current research and current opinions at PSW. Pp. 1-12 in: Conference Proceedings, 1987 CLFA Conference: Impact '87. Annual Convention of the California Licensed Foresters Association, March 6-7, 1987; Sacramento, CA. California Licensed Foresters Association, Pioneer, CA.
    Results of the South Fork experiment were used to plan the strategy for determining whether the magnitude of future hydrologic and sediment changes from North Fork logging increase downstream. Downstream increases could occur if the probability of a large logging-related event increases with area logged.
  • Rice, R.M. 1998a. Why Caspar Creek -- then and now? Pp. 11-13 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    High-quality scientific information is essential for resolving issues regarding land use practices. Conflicts arise when value systems collide, and resolution of conflicts may be less complicated if all sides have good information. The purpose of Caspar Creek research is to provide high-quality information that can be used by all those interested in forestry issues.
  • Rice, R.M. 1998b. Where do we go from here? Pp. 135-136 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Future research at Caspar Creek could focus on long-term effects of the two main silvicultural systems: even- and uneven-aged management. The need for information on sediment loads has increased in California, but the number of sites monitored has decreased, increasing the importance of maintaining the remaining long-term monitoring sites.
  • Rice, R.M.; and P.A. Datzman. 1981. Erosion associated with cable and tractor logging in northwestern California. Pp. 362-374 in: Davies, T.R.H; and A.J. Pearce (editors). Erosion and Sediment Transport in Pacific Rim Steeplands. Proceedings of the Christchurch Symposium, 25-31 January 1981, Christchurch, New Zealand. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 132. 654 p.
    Erosion was measured at 102 logged plots, including 7 in South Fork Caspar watershed. Yarding method was associated with a 3.7x difference in erosion, aspect 4.3x, bedrock type 13.5x, and slope 16x; these explained 40% of the variation. Most of the erosion occurred on a few plots, and conduct of the logging may be an important missing variable. Time since logging was not important, suggesting that most erosion occurred soon after logging.
  • Rice, R.M.; and P.D. Gradek. 1984. Limits on the usefulness of erosion-hazard ratings: experiences in northwestern California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14: 559-564.
    Data from erosion plots at South Fork and elsewhere were used in an attempt to improve the effectiveness of an erosion hazard rating system by developing different ratings for different yarding methods and erosion processes. Efforts were not successful, suggesting that a single rating system may be most useful.
  • Rice, R.M.; and S.A. Sherbin. 1977. Estimating sedimentation from an erosion-hazard rating. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, California. Research Note PSW-323. 4 p.
    Sediment yield data from the North Fork and pre-logging South Fork were used to calibrate the erosion-hazard rating (EHR) system used in the Coast District of California in terms of annual erosion per acre per EHR unit. Increases due to logging were estimated from other sites.
  • Rice, R.M.; F.B. Tilley, and P.A. Datzman. 1979. A watershed's response to logging and roads: South Fork of Caspar Creek, California, 1967-1976. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, California. Research Paper PSW-146. 12 p.
    Total sediment output (suspended and pond sedimentation) increased by 80% after road construction and by about 300% after logging. Erosion plots showed an estimated soil loss of 42.9 yd3/ac due to logging. Interpretation of study results was complicated by a splash-dam failure in the South Fork watershed and by a landslide in the North Fork.
  • Rice, R.M.; R.R. Ziemer, and J. Lewis. 2001. Forest management effects on erosion, sediment, and runoff: Lessons from Caspar Creek and northwestern California. Pp. 69-75 in: Proceedings, Society of American Foresters 2000 National Convention. 16-20 November 2000; Washington DC. Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD. SAF Publication 01-02.
    The North Fork experiment did not show an increase in treatment effect for flow or sediment with increasing watershed size. Increased sediment loads in tributaries did not appear as an increase along the mainstem, indicating that sediment was being stored in channels. In general, a few sites are commonly responsible for a large proportion of management-related sediment.
  • Rice, R.M.; R.R. Ziemer, and J. Lewis. 2004. Evaluating forest management effects on erosion, sediment, and runoff: Caspar Creek and northwestern California. Pp. 223-238 in: Ice, G.G.; and John D. Stednick (editors). A Century of Forest and Wildland Watershed Lessons. Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, Maryland. 287 p.
    Results of the two experiments are summarized in some detail. Use of three small North Fork watersheds as controls allowed quantification of significant effects that could not be detected when the South Fork was used as a control instead. In general, erosion plot studies are useful because they are quick and can provide a random sample. A few sites tend to produce most management-related sediment.
  • Russell, W. 2009. The influence of timber harvest on the structure and composition of riparian forests in the coastal redwood region. Forest Ecology and Management 257(5): 1427-1433.
    Vegetation was analyzed in 30 10m-by-10m plots adjacent to channels at 4 Caspar Creek sites and 6 other sites, and results were tested against buffer width and time since logging. Herbaceous plants associated with late seral conditions were found preferentially at long times after harvest and in wide buffer zones; non-native species had the opposite pattern.
  • Sanderman, J.; and R. Amundson. 2008. A comparative study of dissolved organic carbon transport and stabilization in California forest and grassland soils. Biogeochemistry 89:309-327.
    Dissolved organic carbon leached more deeply into the soil and was retained longer at forested sites in North Fork Caspar forests than in coastal Marin grasslands. Results suggest that deforestation would induce large changes in carbon cycling.
  • Sanderman J.; and R. Amundson. 2010. Soil carbon dioxide production and climatic sensitivity in contrasting California ecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74: 1356-1366.
    CO2 loss from the soil surface showed little seasonal change in forested soils at Caspar Creek but varied strongly through the year in grassland soils in coastal Marin. Temperature strongly influenced CO2 production within the soil, but water content was the dominant control on its efflux. The depth distribution of CO2 production differed at the two sites.
  • Sanderman, J.; J.A. Baldock, and R. Amundson. 2008. Dissolved organic carbon chemistry and dynamics in contrasting forest and grassland soils. Biogeochemistry 89:181-198.
    The distribution of carbon stocks and litter chemistry differed between the forested and grassland soils, but shifts in dissolved organic carbon chemistry with soil depth were similar.
  • Spittler, T.E.; and M.A. McKittrick. 1995. Geologic and geomorphic features related to landsliding, North and South Forks of Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California. Plate 1, North Fork and Plate 2, South Fork. Scale 1:12,000. California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, Sacramento, CA. DMG Open File Report 95-08.
    Air photo interpretation and limited field verification was used to map landslides of various kinds in the North and South Fork Caspar Creek watersheds and to identify the relative ages of landsliding. [Later field checking found several features mapped as slides on the South Fork map to be landings constructed in 1971-73]
  • Surfleet, C.G.; and R.R. Ziemer. 1996. Effects of forest harvesting on large organic debris in coastal streams. Pp. 134-136 in: LeBlanc, J. (editor). Conference on coast redwood forest ecology and management. 18-20 June 1996; Arcata, CA. University of California Cooperative Extension, Berkeley, CA.
    Woody debris levels increased in the North Fork after logging due to blowdown in buffer strips. Residual old-growth pieces remain important. In the South Fork, 25-year-old stream clearing resulted in continued low levels of wood loading relative to pre-logging North Fork levels.
  • Swanson, F.J.; L.E. Benda, S.H. Duncan, G.E. Grant, W.F. Megahan, L.M. Reid, and R.R. Ziemer. 1987. Chapter Two, Mass failures and other processes of sediment production in Pacific northwest forest landscapes. Pp. 9-38 in: Salo, E.O.; and T. Cundy (editors). Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions. Proceedings of a Symposium held at University of Washington. 12-14 February 1986; Seattle, WA. Institute of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Institute of Forest Resources Contribution 57. 471 p.
    Landsliding strongly influences many channels in the Pacific Northwest through sediment production, direct modification of channel forms, and effects on riparian zones. Effects vary with location in a basin. Debris slides and road surface erosion are often the dominant sediment sources associated with forest management. A variety of techniques can be used to evaluate sediment sources and effects.
  • Thomas, R.B. 1985a. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling. Water Resources Research 21(9): 1381-1388.
    “Selection At List Time” (SALT) sampling provides unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the estimate while allowing for increased sampling at higher flows. The probability of randomly collecting a sample at a listed time is controlled by the stage recorded at that time, with the probability determined by the estimated proportional contribution of flows of that stage to the total suspended sediment discharge.
  • Thomas, R.B. 1985b. Measuring suspended sediment in small mountain streams. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. General Technical Report PSW-83. 9 p.
    Mechanisms of sediment transport are described to provide the background information needed to understand where and when to sample small streams for measurement of sediment loads. Rationales for determining sampling frequencies are discussed, as are practical considerations for data collection methods and sampler types.
  • Thomas, R.B. 1988. Measuring sediment yields of storms using PSALT. Pp. 101-109 in: Bordas, M.P.; and D.E. Walling (editors). Sediment budgets. Proceedings of the Porto Alegre Symposium. December 11-15, 1988; Porto Alegre, Brazil. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK. IAHS Publication 174. 591 p.
    PSALT (Piecewise Selection At List Time) is a variable-probability sampling scheme that uses an auxiliary variable to select an efficient sample, and differs from SALT (Thomas 1985) by incorporating a user-defined average sampling rate and by allowing estimates of storm-based loads after storms are defined.
  • Thomas, R.B. 1989. Piecewise SALT sampling for estimating suspended sediment yields. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. General Technical Report PSW-83. 11 p.
    The statistical basis for the PSALT method is presented. PSALT provides better storm data than SALT while preserving the ability to make unbiased sediment load estimates.
  • Thomas, R.B. 1990. Problems in determining the return of a watershed to pretreatment conditions: techniques applied to a study at Caspar Creek, California. Water Resources Research 26(9): 2079-2087.
    South Fork storm and sediment data showed few significant differences from pretreatment levels, but daily flows still differed 12 years after logging. Comparisons for some attributes were made by partitioning the post-treatment record into three response periods; others used annual values. Results suggest a previously undetected treatment effect for large peak flows.
  • Thomas, R.B.; and R.E. Eads. 1983. Contamination of successive samples in portable pumping systems. Water Resources Research 19(2): 436-440.
    Sand can be deposited in intakes to pumping water samplers and be captured in a later sample, reducing the apparent concentration of the first sample and increasing it in the next. Both peristaltic (ISCO 2100) and pressure-vacuum (Manning S4050) samplers showed cross-contamination, but the peristaltic sampler showed less.
  • Thomas, R.B.; and J. Lewis. 1993a. A comparison of selection at list time and time-stratified sampling for estimating suspended sediment loads. Water Resources Research 29(4): 1247-1256.
    Time-stratified sampling (i.e. the application of stratified random sampling to hydrographs that are divided into contiguous time periods) produced a lower coefficient of variation than SALT and performed well if the range of sediment flux in each sampling stratum was small. Time stratified sampling also facilitated estimation of loads for individual storms.
  • Thomas, R.B.; and J. Lewis. 1993b. A new model for bedload sampler calibration to replace the probability ­matching method. Water Resources Research 29(3): 583-597.
    A published method for calibrating Helley-Smith bedload samplers was found to be invalid, and a new method was developed that is statistically sound. Results indicated that samplers with small intake orifices trap sediment less efficiently than larger samplers.
  • Thomas, R.B.; and J. Lewis. 1995. An evaluation of flow-stratified sampling for estimating suspended sediment loads. Journal of Hydrology 170: 27-45.
    With flow-stratified sampling, flow classes are defined by stage height and direction of change, and each class is randomly sampled. Flow stratification gives lower variance than SALT or time stratification for complex hydrographs with numerous peaks.
  • Tilley, F.B. 1981. Caspar Creek, what have we learned, what can we learn from this project? Pp. 313-321 in: Coats, R.N. (editor). Proceedings of a Symposium on Watershed Rehabilitation in Redwood National Park and Other Pacific Coastal Areas. 24-28 August 1981; Arcata, CA. Center for Natural Resource Studies of JMI, Inc. and National Park Service. 360 p.
    Data from seven erosion plots surveyed in 1975 in the South Fork showed that most of the erosion was from a single poorly sited landing. Sites were resurveyed in 1981; most sites other than compacted roads and landings had revegetated well, and most rills and gullies had stabilized. In 1978 some of the roads and skid trails were water-barred, and sediment loads have been declining.
  • Tilley, F.B.; and R.M. Rice. 1977. Caspar Creek watershed study--a current status report. California Department of Forestry, Sacramento, CA. State Forest Note 66. 15 p.
    Data types and preliminary results are presented for the South Fork study, with a focus on sediment. Soil erosion was calculated from 1976 landslide mapping throughout the South Fork and from a 1976 plot erosion survey. Export of sediment from the watershed accounted for only 6% of that displaced.
  • Valentine, B.E.; R.A. Macedo; and T. Hughes. 2007. Salmonid communities in the South Fork of Caspar Creek, 1967 to 1969 and 1993 to 2003. Pp. 247-256 in: Standiford, R.B.; G.A. Giusti, Y. Valachovic, W.J. Zielinski, and M.J. Furniss (technical editors). Proceedings of the Redwood Region Forest Science Symposium: What does the future hold? March 15-17, 2004; Rohnert Park, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-194. 553 p.
    The South Fork salmonid studies of the1960s were resumed in 1993. Biomass remained consistent between the periods but shifted from a community representing both steelhead and coho to one dominated by one species or the other. Salmonid density between 1993 and 2003 was generally within the lower half of the range measured in the 1960s.
  • Vose, J.M.; C.R. Ford, S. Laseter, S. Dymond, G. Sun, M.B. Adams, S. Sebestyen, J. Campbell, C. Luce, D. Amatya, K. Elder, and T. Heartsill-Scalley. 2012. Can forest watershed management mitigate climate change effects on water resources? Pp. 12-25 in: Revisiting Experimental Catchment Studies in Forest Hydrology (Proceedings of a Workshop held during the XXV IUGG General Assembly in Melbourne, June–July 2011) IAHS Publ. 353.
    Data from 10 USFS long-term experimental forests (including Caspar Creek) were used to evaluate the effects of logging on water yield. In each case, water yield increased after logging, but long-term effects differed between sites. Hydrological responses in reestablished forests may differ from those in the original stands.
  • Wang, L.; J.Q. Wu; W.J. Elliot; S. Dun; S. Lupin; F.R. Fiedler; and D.C. Flanagan. 2010. Implementation of channel-routing routines in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Pp. 120-127 in: Field, D.A.; and T.J. Peters (editors). SIAM Conference on Mathematics for Industry: Challenges and Frontiers. Proceedings of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Oct 9-10, 2009; San Francisco, CA. 181 p.
    Two methods for routing flow down channels were developed and tested against measured hydrographs from North Fork Caspar. Results suggest that the Muskingum-Cunge method will be more useful than the numerical kinematic wave method for eventual inclusion in the WEPP model to allow estimation of sediment export at a watershed scale.
  • Wells, G. 2009. Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, California: the effects go on and on. Pages 10-11 in Experimental Forests and Ranges, 100 Years of Research Success Stories. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report FPL–GTR–182.
    The Caspar Creek experiments are briefly described in a volume that provides an overview of US Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges.
  • Welsh, H.H., Jr. 2011. Frogs, fish and forestry: an integrated watershed network paradigm conserves biodiversity and ecological services. Diversity 3: 503-530.
    Channel network characteristics must be taken into account if watersheds are to be managed to maintain whole-catchment biodiversity. Among other examples, Caspar Creek research illustrates the connectivity between hillslopes and downstream channel conditions.
  • Whiting, P.J.; and J.G. King. 2003. Surface particle sizes on armoured gravel streambeds: effects of supply and hydraulics. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28: 1459-1471.
    Data from Caspar Creek and other California streams were used to test relations developed for Idaho streams that allow estimation of grain sizes for which the sediment supply is less than the potential transport.
  • Wohl, E.; and K.L. Jaeger. 2009. Geomorphic implications of hydroclimatic differences among step-pool channels. Journal of Hydrology 374(1-2): 148-161.
    Climatic setting, channel characteristics, and runoff patterns at Caspar Creek and five other sites were compared to evaluate relations between hydroclimatic characteristics and magnitude and frequency of sediment mobilization for similar channels. Total precipitation and precipitation intensity were the best predictors of cumulative mobility of coarse sediment.
  • Wright, K.A.; K.H. Sendek, R.M. Rice, and R.B. Thomas. 1990. Logging effects on streamflow: storm runoff at Caspar Creek in northwestern California. Water Resources Research 26(7): 1657-1667.
    Road building in the South Fork did not affect storm runoff. After logging, lag time decreased approximately 1.5 hr, and the volumes and peaks for small storms increased while those for larger storms did not.
  • Yarnell, S.A.; J.F. Mount, and E.W. Larsen. 2006. The influence of relative sediment supply on riverine habitat heterogeneity. Geomorphology 80: 310–324.
    Data from Caspar Creek and other California streams were used to examine relations between sediment supply, transport capacity, structural features such as woody debris, and habitat diversity. In channels with mobile structural elements, those with a moderate relative sediment supply showed the highest geomorphic diversity. Where structural features were less mobile, habitat diversity was high even when relative sediment supply was high.
  • Zhang, Y.; M.S. Moran, M.A. Nearing, G.E. Ponce Campos, A.R. Huete, A.R. Buda, D.D. Bosch, S.A. Gunter, S.G. Kitchen, W.H. McNab, J.A. Morgan, M.P. McClaran, D.S. Montoya, D.P.C. Peters, and P.J. Starks. 2013. Extreme precipitation patterns and reductions of terrestrial ecosystem production across biomes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 118: 1-10.
    Data from 11 long-term experimental sites showed that extreme precipitation patterns decreased the sensitivity of aboveground net primary production to annual precipitation at a decadal scale, reducing rain-use efficiency. Decreases were greatest for Mediterranean forest (represented by Caspar Creek) and least for temperate forests on the east coast.
  • Zhang, Y.; M. Voigt, and H. Liu. 2015. Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot temperature extreme regimes between grassland and forest. Biogeosciences 12: 549-556.
    After removal of the effects of precipitation, hotter mean annual temperatures were found to reduce grassland production and increase forest production, as determined using remote sensing of aboveground net primary production for Caspar Creek and 11 other long-term experimental sites.
  • Ziemer, R.R. 1981. Stormflow response to roadbuilding and partial cutting in small streams of northern California. Water Resources Research 17(4): 907-917.
    South Fork selection logging did not significantly increase large peakflows, but small early peakflows increased about 300%. Increases were best predicted by percent of area logged divided by the sequential storm number within the year. Road construction showed no effect.
  • Ziemer, R.R. 1990. The Caspar Creek Watersheds--a case study. Pp. 17-19 in: Callaham, R.Z. (editor). Case Studies and Catalog of Watershed Projects in Western Provinces and States. University of California Wildland Resources Center Report 22. 81 p.
    This paper provides a brief overview of the objectives and history of the Caspar Creek research program. The role of the annual cooperators’ meeting for coordinating work between cooperators is highlighted, as is the importance of interagency cooperation.
  • Ziemer, R.R. 1992. Effect of logging on subsurface pipeflow and erosion: coastal northern California, USA. Pp. 187-197 in: Walling, D.E.; T.R. Davies, and B. Hasholt (editors). Erosion, debris flows and environment in mountain regions, Proceedings of the Chendu symposium. 5-9 July 1992; Chendu, China. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK. IAHS Publication 209. 485 p.
    After North Fork clearcutting, peakflows in soil pipes increased by a factor of 3.7 at the KJE monitoring sites. Sediment increases varied among pipes, remaining unchanged in some and increasing dramatically in others.
  • Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). 1998a. Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    This proceedings volume includes 16 papers described elsewhere in this bibliography, as well as a preface that outlines the history of Caspar Creek research.
  • Ziemer, R.R. 1998b. Flooding and stormflows. Pp.15-24 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    South Fork selection logging increased small peakflows but not large ones. North Fork clearcutting increased even the larger flows in tributary watersheds, but the effect was detected at the North Fork weir only when uncut tributaries were used as controls rather than the South Fork. Pipeflow peaks also increased after North Fork logging, and annual storm runoff increased an average of 60% in clearcut tributaries.
  • Ziemer, R.R. 1998c. Monitoring watersheds and streams. Pp.129-134 in: Ziemer, R.R. (technical coordinator). Proceedings of the Conference on Coastal Watersheds: the Caspar Creek story. May 6, 1998; Ukiah, CA. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-168. 149 p.
    Successful monitoring requires clear objectives, a good understanding of the factors that might influence the issue of concern, and information about the spatial and temporal scales involved. For many issues, unusual events are more important than average conditions. There are limits to what data from small watersheds can tell us.
  • Ziemer, R.R. 2001. Caspar Creek. Pages 78-85 in: Marutani, T.; G.J. Brierley, N.A. Trustrum, and M. Page (editors). Source-to-Sink Sedimentary Cascades in Pacific Rim Geo-Systems. Matsumoto Sabo Work Office, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Nagano, Japan. 184 p.
    Caspar Creek studies are briefly described in a well-illustrated overview presented in both English and Japanese.
  • Ziemer, R.R.; and J.S. Albright. 1987. Subsurface pipeflow dynamics of north-coastal California swale systems. Pp. 71-80 in: Beschta, R.; T. Blinn, G.E. Grant, F.J. Swanson, and G.G. Ice (editors). Erosion and sedimentation in the Pacific Rim, Proceedings of the Corvallis Symposium. 3-7 August 1987; Corvallis OR. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK. IAHS Publication 165. 510 p.
    The onset of storm pipeflow in MUN and KJE watersheds was related to the antecedent precipitation index (API) for small shallow pipes but not for large deep ones. Peakflows for both kinds of pipes were correlated with API, with a best-fit time lag of 0.25 days for large pipes and 0.5 days for small ones. The pattern is reversed for compound peaks, when small pipes are more responsive to short-term rain intensities.
  • Ziemer, R.R.; J. Lewis, and E.T. Keppeler. 1996. Hydrologic consequences of logging second-growth watersheds. Pp. 131-133 in: LeBlanc, J. (editor). Conference on coast redwood forest ecology and management. 18-20 June 1996; Arcata, CA. University of California Cooperative Extension, Berkeley, CA.
    Preliminary results from the North Fork experiment showed lower sediment increases than those measured after South Fork selection logging. Summer flow increases were greater in the North Fork, while changes in peakflow and annual runoff were similar.
  • Ziemer, R.R.; J. Lewis, and E.T. Keppeler. 1998. Streamflow and sediment response to logging, California, USA. Pages 103-104 in: Proceedings, IUFRO Division 8 Conference, Environmental Forest Science. 19-23 October 1998; Kyoto, Japan. International Union of Forest Research Organizations.
    Results for peakflow, annual runoff, summer lowflow, and sediment discharge are briefly described and compared for the two experiments.
  • Ziemer, R.R.; J. Lewis, T.E. Lisle, and R.R. Rice. 1991a. Modeling the cumulative watershed effects of forest management strategies. Journal of Environmental Quality 20(1): 36-42.
    A simulation model based in part on data from Caspar Creek was used to compare the effects on landsliding of dispersed 1%/yr, concentrated 1%/yr, and 10%/yr logging in a 10000-ha watershed; downstream impacts are evaluated. Differences were greatest during the first 100 years, and dispersing the logging did not significantly reduce impacts. All treatments led to increased frequency of bed elevation changes.
  • Ziemer, R.R.; J. Lewis, T.E. Lisle, and R.R. Rice. 1991b. Long-term sedimentation effects of different patterns of timber harvesting. Pages 143-150 in: Peters, N.E.; and D.E. Walling (editors). Sediment and Stream Water Quality in a Changing Environment: Trends and Explanation. Proceedings of the Vienna Symposium. August 1991; Vienna, Austria. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK. IAHS Publication 203. 374 p.
    The model discussed by Ziemer et al. 1991a was expanded to include the effects of bed scour on salmonid spawning success. Simulations were run for 1%/yr logging of a 10000-ha watershed, 10%/yr with 90-yr regrowth, and no logging. The 10% strategy incurred high initial egg loss and the greatest net loss during the first cutting cycle, but losses became more similar after 100 years.
  • Ziemer, R.R.; and R.M. Rice. 1990. Tracking rainfall impulses through progressively larger drainage basins in steep forested terrain. Pp. 413-420 in: Lang, H.; and A. Musy (editors). Hydrology in mountainous regions I - Hydrological measurements, the water cycle. Proceedings of the Lausanne Symposia. August 1990; Lausanne, Switzerland. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Wallingford, UK. IAHS Publication 193. 810 p.
    Storms were monitored using rain gages, piezometers, and stream gages in a sequence of nested watersheds in the North Fork watershed. Peakflow lag time increased downstream, while peakflow unit area discharge did not show a significant relation with distance downstream.

Theses and dissertations

The Caspar Creek research project has provided opportunities and funding for graduate research on many topics that contribute to understanding of the watershed. Other students have requested Caspar Creek data to use as a component of research elsewhere. Most of the doctoral dissertations listed here and many of the master’s theses have led to publication of papers in peer-reviewed journals, and these citations are noted below.

  • Albright, Jeffrey S. 1992. Storm hydrograph comparisons of subsurface pipe and stream channel discharge in a small, forested watershed in northern California. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 118 p.
    Soil pipe discharge, stream discharge, and rainfall were measured for three years at three sites in the North Fork (K1, K2, and M1 swales). Pipeflow showed delayed and subdued peaks relative to streamflow peaks and accounted for 50 to 68% of the streamflow measured in the channels. [Paper: Ziemer and Albright 1987]
  • Berrill, John-Pascal. 2003. Predicting multi-aged coast redwood stand growth and yield using leaf area allocation. M.S. thesis. University of California, Berkeley, CA.
    Growth data were collected on 48 plots and leaf area was estimated from sapwood basal area. Relations between leaf area and a stand density index, and between leaf area and basal area, then allowed estimates of stand growth and yield from the stand density index. Results showed that two-aged stands produce more volume than one- or three-aged stands. [Technical report: Berrill and O’Hara 2003; papers: Berrill and O’Hara 2007a, 2007b, 2009]
  • Berrill, John-Pascal. 2008. Coast redwood stand growth and leaf area index: the influence of site quality. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, CA. 102 p.
    Accuracy of stand data was found to be more strongly affected by the spatial distribution of trees in a stand than by sampling method. Different measures of stand productivity showed significant correlations with different measures of site condition and depended also on species composition. Site index was a useful predictor of yield. [Paper: Berrill and O’Hara 2012]
  • Bousfield, Gregg. 2008. Peakflow prediction using an antecedent precipitation index in small forested watersheds of the northern California coast range. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 67 p.
    Streamflow and rainfall data from South Fork Caspar were used to construct a model to estimate peakflows from an antecedent precipitation index. Data from North Fork and three other streams were used to test the model. The method worked best for large peakflow events.
  • Brown, David Lawrence. 1995. An analysis of transient flow in upland watersheds: interactions between structure and process. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, CA. 225 p.
    An existing subsurface flow model was modified to incorporate overland flow and infiltration partitioning through different flow paths. Data from MUN and KJE watersheds were used to test the model. Simulations showed the importance of macropores, water storage in soils, lateral variations in soil hydraulic properties, and channel bank geometry.
  • Carr, Adrianne Elizabeth. 2006. Physics-based simulations of hydrologic response and cumulative watershed effects. Ph.D. dissertation. Stanford University, Stanford, CA. 191 p.
    A finite element model of the entire North Fork watershed was developed to calculate the distribution of saturation and flow in the watershed for a specified storm, permitting simulation of the hydrologic effect of hypothetical logging strategies. [Paper: Carr et al. 2014]
  • Conroy, William J. 2005. A coupled upland-erosion instream hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for assessing primary impacts of forest management practices on sediment yield and delivery. Ph.D. dissertation. Washington State University, Pullman, WA. 211 p.
    An existing hillslope erosion model (WEPP) and a channel flow- and sediment-routing model (CCHE1E) were combined to allow estimates of watershed sediment yield, and the coupled model was calibrated and tested using Caspar Creek data sets. [Paper: Conroy et al. 2006]
  • Datzman, Patricia A. 1978. The erosion hazard rating system of the coast forest district. How valid is it as a predictor of erosion and can a better prediction equation be developed? M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.
    Erosion plot data from 102 sites, including 7 in the South Fork, did not correlate well with scores from an erosion hazard rating system on most site types, and classifications were not improved using additional variables. Yarding method and the care taken in logging and road construction appeared to be important influences. [Paper: Rice and Datzman 1981]
  • Dewey, Nicholas J. 2007. Gullies and sediment delivery at Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 103 p.
    Gullies were mapped and measured on gaged Caspar Creek tributaries. Repeated measurements showed rates of headcut and bank retreat to generate more sediment than is recorded at the gaging stations, suggesting that significant sediment storage occurs in alluvial deposits. [Paper: Reid et al. 2010]
  • Fisher, Jason C. 2000. Simulation of partially saturated - saturated flow in the Caspar Creek E-road groundwater system. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 107 p.
    A two-dimensional model was used to evaluate saturated and partially saturated flow at a site where construction of a logging road caused increased pore pressures upslope. Comparison of model results with field measurements of piezometric response suggested that pipeflow is an important influence at the site.
  • Fitts, Kimberley Marshall. 1991. Small mammal populations in clearcut areas of the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino County, California. M.S. thesis. Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. 59 p.
    Small mammal diversity and biomass were highest in young stands, and species abundance varied by stand age. Chipmunk abundance peaked in year 2 and was correlated with woody debris; deer mouse populations were high in 2- (North Fork unit J), 4‑, 7-, and 11-yr stands; woodrats peaked strongly at age 7, and red-backed vole had high populations in 11-, 27-, and 80-yr (MUN) stands. [Technical report: Fitts and Northen 1991]
  • Hess, Lloyd J. 1969. The effects of logging road construction on insect drop into a small coastal stream. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State College, Arcata, CA. 58 p.
    Overall rates of insect drop in South Fork Caspar Creek showed a two-fold increase in number and weight after road construction, with “highly disturbed” areas showing a greater effect than “disturbed” areas. Chironomidae (midges) showed the greatest increase among the families studied.
  • Keppeler, Elizabeth T. 1986. The effects of selective logging on low flows and water yield in a coastal stream in northern California. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 137 p.
    Low flow and water yield increased significantly after South Fork logging; summer flow changes recovered more quickly than annual yield. Variability in flow increases depended in part on antecedent moisture. [Paper: Keppeler and Ziemer 1990]
  • Kinerson, Dean. 1990. Bed surface response to sediment supply. M.S. thesis. University of California, Berkeley, CA.
    The ratio (Q*) between a stream’s estimated bedload transport rate for surface particle sizes and that for subsurface particle sizes has been hypothesized to be an index of relative sediment supply. Ratios were measured for a selection of gaged streams and compared to measured sediment loads; results generally supported the hypothesis.
  • Lau, Michael Roy. 1994. Habitat utilization, density, and growth of steelhead trout, coho salmon, and Pacific giant salamander in relation to habitat types in a small coastal redwood stream. M.S. thesis. University of California, Davis, CA. 58 p.
    Species densities, growth, and survival were measured in different habitat types in North and South Fork Caspar. Pools show the highest densities; riffles the least. Coho preferred pools and runs while steelhead and larval salamanders showed no habitat preference. There were no significant differences in growth and survival between habitat types.
  • Litschert, Sandra E. 2009. Predicting cumulative watershed effects in small forested watersheds. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 208 p.
    Data from the Sierra Nevada were used to develop models to calculate logging- and road-related cumulative changes in flow and sediment production and routing through a watershed when the effects of a single logging unit are known. Models were tested using data from Caspar Creek and two other sites.
  • McLaughlin, Katherine D. 2009. Development of a standard weight equation for juvenile steelhead trout and effects of temperature, turbidity, and steelhead trout biomass on relative weight. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 63 p.
    Steelhead data from Juneau to San Luis Obispo were used to construct a standard relation between length and weight. Fish were sampled at 15 sites (including North and South Forks Caspar Creek) to test effects of turbidity, temperature, and biomass on deviations from the relation. Relative fall weight increased with degree day accumulation in late winter to early spring and was not significantly related to turbidity or biomass.
  • Mnich, M.E. 2014. Role of fire, grazing, and forest clearing in 15N/14N balances across diverse terrestrial ecosystems. M.S. thesis. University of California, Davis. 56 p.
    em>Biologically-driven gaseous N loss preferentially removes 14N, while leaching does not result in 15N enrichment. Samples from Caspar show lower 15N/14N in foliage and soil at a 23-yr-old clearcut site than at a nearby site with >100-yr-old forest, probably reflecting the initial post-logging leaching loss of soil N. The Caspar clearcut site had the lowest N availability of all the biomes and disturbance levels sampled, as inferred from the 15N level.
  • Napolitano, Michael Brent. 1996. Sediment transport and storage in North Fork Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California: water years 1980-1988. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 148 p.
    During the study period, at least 70% of the changes in sediment storage occurred at debris jams, recent slides, and tributary junctions; and debris jams were at or near maximum storage capacity. Effects of old-growth logging were still evident in reduced wood loading relative to old-growth channels: channels were affected by clearing for log drives, the log drives themselves, and the shift in stand age. [Papers: Napolitano 1998, Lisle and Napolitano 1998]
  • Pert, Heather Anne. 1993. Winter food habits of coastal juvenile steelhead and Coho salmon in Pudding Creek, northern California. M.S. thesis. University of California, Berkeley, CA. 65 p.
    Drift density was low except at storm onset. Diet diversity increased for steelhead during high flows and decreased for coho. Coho diets had a larger component of terrestrial invertebrates than steelhead. Flooding appears to provide juvenile salmonids a wider range of food resources than otherwise available.
  • Rivas-Ederer, Dina. 1998. Seral vascular plant communities on clearcut sites in Jackson Demonstration Forest, Mendocino, California. M.S. thesis. Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. 36 p.
    Plant communities differed between burned and unburned plots and between tractor- and cable- yarded plots. Communities converged between yarding types at about 9 years, and by about 30 years for burned versus unburned plots. Climax communities dominated the sites at about 30 years. Sites in North Fork Caspar were located in MUN, YZ, KJE, GIB, and CAR watersheds. [Technical report: Rivas-Ederer and Kjeldsen 1998]
  • Sanderman, Jonathan. 2007. The role of dissolved organic carbon in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, CA. 164 p.
    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) percolated into mineral subsoils and was largely retained there. At a coastal grassland site, expansion of saturated areas during storms resulted in export of young DOC. At a forested Caspar site, subsurface pipes limited saturation overland flow, and low concentrations of older DOC were present regardless of flow conditions. [Papers: Sanderman et al. 2008, Sanderman and Amundson 2008, 2010]
  • Sendek, Karen Hardison. 1985. Effects of timber harvesting on the lag time of Caspar Creek watershed. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 46 p.
    No significant changes in lag-to-peak were detected after road construction. After logging, lags generally increased for small, early fall storms and decreased for larger storms. Both rising and falling limbs were affected. The proportion logged and the storm sequence affected the responses. [Paper: Wright et al. 1990]
  • Steinbuck, Elias. 2002. The influence of tree morphology on stemflow in a redwood region second-growth forest. M.S. thesis. California State University, Chico, CA. 55 p.
    Collars were fitted to 26 trees to monitor stemflow at the IVE interception plot in the North Fork watershed. Tanoak generated higher stemflow rates than Douglas-fir, and both generated higher rates than redwood. Rates depended on percent of upward reaching branches, crown projection area, and stem surface area.
  • Vuong, Hai Hong. 2014. Using LiDAR to estimate the total aboveground live biomass of redwood stands in South Fork Caspar Creek Watershed, Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 88 p.
    Trees were inventoried on 23 0.1-ha plots in the South Fork to develop relations between tree diameter and LiDAR-derived heights. Aboveground live biomass calculated from field data was compared to estimates based on LiDAR imagery. LiDAR-based estimates were found to be lower than those based on field measurements.
  • Willey, Wendall Scott. 2004. Energetic response of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to varying water temperature regimes in northern California streams. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 82 p.
    Measurements of stream temperature, invertebrates, and juvenile coho growth in lower Caspar and seven other sites provided input parameters for a bioenergetics model that calculates energy budgets for the populations studied. The proportion of energy allocated to growth was greatest at daily average water temperatures of 14.7°-15.7°C.
  • Woodward, Roy Andrew. 1986. Early changes in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) understory vegetation following forest harvest disturbances. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Davis. 139 p.
    Tractor-yarded selectively logged sites showed greater understory cover than unlogged stands but less than cable-yarded stands. Species compositions and covers had become similar at 7 years. Conifer seedlings established best on bare mineral soils. Native herbaceous vegetation may have improved sites for Douglas-fir seedling growth, while introduced vegetation hindered redwood seedling growth.
  • Wosika, Edward Pearson. 1981. Hydrologic properties of one major and two minor soil series of the Coast Ranges of northern California. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 150 p.
    Bulk density, porosity, particle density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, particle-size distribution, pore-size distribution, and water retention characteristics were measured at 6 depths at 12 sites at Caspar Creek. The degree of colluvial mixing exerted the greatest control on site differences, and mixing increased lower on the hillsides. High unsaturated hydraulic conductivities preclude large-scale development of saturated subsurface flow.
  • Wright, Kenneth A. 1985. Changes in storm hydrographs after roadbuilding and selective logging on a coastal watershed in northern California. M.S. thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 55 p.
    South Fork road construction increased small peakflows about 20% but did not affect storm volumes. Logging increased peaks 80% and volumes 40% for small storms. Large peaks and volumes were not affected despite compaction of over 15% of the watershed. [Paper: Wright et al. 1990]

Unpublished technical reports

Some research has been carried out at Caspar Creek under contracts between lead agencies and university researchers. This work sometimes leads to published papers or graduate theses, and in several cases the graduate theses were presented without modification as the technical reports. This practice has the advantage of making the work more accessible than is often the case for theses. In other cases the results are presented only in an unpublished technical report. Several technical reports that rely heavily on Caspar Creek data have been prepared by or for other agencies, and descriptions of these are also included in this chapter.

Technical reports often present data sets too lengthy for inclusion in other publications, so they may provide useful information even if the work is also published elsewhere. Rarely are these reports formally peer-reviewed, but they generally undergo considerable informal technical review, and they are often cited as authoritative sources by other publications.

A large and growing number of planning documents such as Environmental Impact Reports, Environmental Impact Statements, Habitat Conservation Plans, Waste Discharge Requirements, and Total Maximum Daily Load reports rely in part on data and results from Caspar Creek research, but these documents are not considered here.

  • Berrill, J.-P.; and K.L. O’Hara. 2003. Predicting multi-aged coast redwood stand growth and yield using leaf area allocation. Unpublished report dated December 2003. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley. 42 p.
    [see thesis by Berrill 2003]
  • Bottorff, R.L.; and A.W. Knight. 1996. The effects of clearcut logging on stream biology of the North Fork of Caspar Creek, Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Fort Bragg, CA -- 1986 to 1994. Unpublished final report dated May 1996; Contract no. 8CA63802. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. University of California, Davis, CA. 177 p.
    Algae growth, leaf decay, and macroinvertebrates were monitored in 1986-1994 along the North Fork. No effects of logging-related sediment were found on these attributes, but increased light levels were associated with increased macroinvertebrate density, leaf decay rates, and algal biomass. Macroinvertebrate species abundance and algal species composition also changed with logging.
  • Brown, P.M. 2001. Fire history in the coast redwood forests of Jackson State Forest, Mendocino Coast, CA. Final Report to CDF, Agreement # 8CA99260, Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research, Inc., Fort Collins, CO.
    [report summarized in the paper by Brown and Baxter (2003)]
  • Buffleben, M.; and A. White. 2005. Empirical peak flow reduction model for the watershed-wide waste discharge requirements for Elk River and Freshwater Creek, Humboldt County, California. Unpublished report dated 2 September 2005. California Regional Water Quality Control Board North Coast Region, Santa Rosa, CA. 40 p.
    The peakflow model developed at Caspar Creek was used to estimate the effects of past logging on peakflows in Elk River and Freshwater Creek and to calculate the potential effects of future logging scenarios.
  • Cafferata, P.H.; D.B.R. Coe, and J.R. Munn. 2008. Monitoring erosion related to timber operations: what works and what doesn’t. Unpublished paper presented at the California Licensed Foresters Association Spring Workshop, Hydrologically Invisible Workshop: Erosion and Sediment Control for Timberland. March 6, 2008; Sacramento, CA. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA. 20 p.
    A variety of monitoring methods are described that can be used on hillslopes and in small streams, including several developed at Caspar Creek. Hillslope monitoring is useful for monitoring the implementation and effectiveness of BMPs, and roads are particularly important to monitor as they often provide major sediment sources.
  • Dahlgren, R.A. 1998. Effects of forest harvest on biogeochemical processes in the Caspar Creek watershed. Unpublished final report dated December 1998; Agreement no. 8CA17039. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA. 153 p.
    Clearcutting at KJE had no major effect on soil properties and nutrient pools in the three years after logging, and rapid regrowth immobilized nutrients quickly, reducing their loss. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur were found to be the most critical nutrients for long-term productivity at the site. Stream nutrient fluxes were 2 to 2.5 times greater in the clearcut watershed (KJE) than in the control (MUN). [Paper: Dahlgren 1998]
  • Dietrich, W.E.; R. Real de Asua, J. Coyle, B. Orr, and M. Trso. 1998. A validation study of the shallow slope stability model, SHALSTAB, in forested lands of Northern California. Unpublished report dated 17 June 1998. Prepared for Stillwater Ecosystem, Watershed & Riverine Sciences. 59 p.
    The locations of landslides mapped at Caspar Creek and five other watersheds were compared with slope stability classes calculated using the SHALSTAB model. On average, 46% of the slides and 56% of the slide volumes occurred in the 8% of the area in the two least stable SHALSTAB stability classes. Results could be improved using high resolution LiDAR. [Paper: Dietrich et al. 2001]
  • Fisher, J.C. 1997. A one-dimensional model of subsurface hillslope flow. Final report prepared for the USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station Redwood Sciences Laboratory, Arcata, CA. 64 p.
    A one-dimensional finite difference model was constructed to apply rainfall data to a swale crossed by a logging road in order to estimate pore pressures. Calculated pore pressures were then compared with observed piezometric data. The model over-predicted hydraulic heads, possibly due to inaccurate representation of the bedrock in the swale. [See thesis by Fisher 2000 for further development]
  • Fitts, K.M.; and P.T. Northen. 1991. Small mammal populations in clearcut areas of the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino County, California. Unpublished report dated 15 December 1991. Prepared for the California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. 59 p.
    [see thesis by Fitts 1991]
  • Gallagher, S. P. and M. Knechtle. 2004. Do young coho salmon and steelhead spring emigration abundance estimates or summer density and rearing estimates reflect the status or trends of adult populations? 2004 Annual Report, Project 2i2. California Department of Fish and Game, Arcata, CA.
    Comparisons of four years of data from various salmonid monitoring strategies at Caspar Creek and three other nearby streams indicated that downstream emigrant trapping for steelhead and coho provided reliable indices of adult abundance, while summer rearing densities and population estimates based on electro-fishing were unreliable indicators.
  • Gallagher, S.P.; and D.W. Wright. 2008. A regional approach to monitoring salmonid abundance trends: a pilot project for the application of the California Coastal Salmonid Monitoring Plan in coastal Mendocino County: Year III. 2007-08 Final Report. California Department of Fish and Game Fisheries Restoration Grant Program, Grant # P0610540. Coastal Watershed Planning and Assessment Program, Fortuna, CA. 73 p.
    [Final report for the study preliminarily reported by Gallagher and Wright 2007].Three “life-cycle monitoring” streams provided information useful for estimating regional escapement, making a two-part monitoring program feasible. Adult returns in Caspar Creek were similar to those measured in the early 1960s. No trends were found over 9 years of monitoring. Some coho were found to stay in freshwater for 2 years before smolting.
  • Harris, R.R., J.M. Gerstein, W.W. Weaver, D.J. Lewis and D. Lindquist. 2005. Monitoring the effectiveness of road system upgrading and decommissioning at the watershed scale. Final report, Salmon and Steelhead Trout Restoration Account Agreement no. P0210566. Prepared for the California Department of Fish and Game. Center for Forestry, University of California, Berkeley CA. 45 p.
    This report outlines considerations needed for developing a watershed monitoring project and field methods that can be used for such a study. The Caspar Creek project is described to illustrate the strategies needed to carry out a useful watershed study, and monitoring methods developed at Caspar Creek are among those recommended.
  • Kabel, C.S.; and E.R. German. 1967. Caspar Creek study completion report. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. Marine Resources Branch Administrative Report No. 67-4. 27 p.
    The primary objective of the salmonid component of the South Fork experiment (determining the effects of logging on anadromous fish production) could not be accomplished because fish counts above the weirs were controlled primarily by flow. Measurements of salmonid sizes and numbers of migrants from periods between 1961 and 1964 are shown, as are stream temperatures from 1963 and 1964.
  • Keller, E.A.; and A. MacDonald. 1983. Large organic debris and anadromous fish habitat in the coastal redwood environment: the hydrologic system. University of California Water Resources Center Technical Completion Report W-584. 48 p.
    Measurements of woody debris loads and channel characteristics in North Fork Caspar Creek (80-yr-old redwoods) and two other logged streams showed lower wood loading and less stable sediment deposits compared to those measured in old-growth tributaries of Redwood National Park. Debris loads were modified in a stream to test effects on sediment storage.
  • Klein, R. 2003. Duration of turbidity and suspended sediment transport in salmonid bearing streams, north coastal California. Report to the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IX. 32 pp.
    Turbidity data were compared for 2000-2003 in eight streams, including North and South Forks Caspar Creek, to evaluate the cumulative hours per year for which turbidity surpasses biologically meaningful thresholds. Results suggest that road density and annual rate of timber harvest are the dominant controls on turbidity differences among these streams.
  • Kopperdahl, F.R.; J.W. Burns, and G.E. Smith. 1971. Water quality of some logged and unlogged California streams. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. Inland Fisheries Administrative Report no. 71-12. 19 p.
    The North and South Forks and four other streams showed no abnormal levels of dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphate, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, tannin, alkalinity, or hardness in streams in logged or roaded watersheds relative to those in forested watersheds. Carbon dioxide was high in the South Fork due to decomposition of logging debris, and turbidity was high when bulldozers worked in streams. Temperatures increased in most logged streams.
  • Lewis, J.; R. Eads, and R. Klein. 2007. Comparisons of turbidity data collected with different instruments. Unpublished report dated July 6, 2007. Cooperative agreement (PSW Agreement # 06-CO-11272133-041) between the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection and the USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station. Redwood Sciences Laboratory, Arcata, CA. 27 pp.
    Different instruments for measuring turbidity provided different results, some disagreeing by a factor of two or more. Results varied by concentration and sediment source. Instruments that conformed to the same standards (backscatter, EPA Method 180.1, or ISO 7027) tended to be more consistent.
  • Lindquist, J.L. 1986. Report on the Caspar Creek cutting trials. Unpublished report; CDF Contract 8CA 30689. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA. 42 p.
    Logging occurred in 1959-61 and trees were remeasured in 1964, ’67, ’68, ’75, ’79, and ’84 on plots representing four harvest strategies and a control. The current size distribution and growth rates suggest that heavy or light single-tree selection did not promote a desired uneven-aged stand; group selection and clearcutting appear to have been more appropriate for the 80-yr stands. [Paper: Lindquist 1988]
  • Lisle, T.E. 1993. The fraction of pool volume filled with fine sediment in northern California: relation to basin geology and sediment yield. Unpublished report dated 20 August 1993. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station Redwood Sciences Lab, Arcata, CA. 15 p.
    Measurements in 24 channels (including Caspar Creek) show that pool infill increases with sediment yield in basins with moderate to high yields, and that erosive bedrocks produce high background infill volumes and respond strongly to sediment yield changes.
  • Lisle, T.E.; L.M. Reid, and R.R. Ziemer. 2000. Addendum: Review of Freshwater flooding analysis summary. Unpublished report dated 25 October 2000. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection and the Northcoast Regional Water Quality Control Board. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station Redwood Sciences Lab, Arcata, CA. 16 p.
    A method for applying the peakflow equation developed for Caspar Creek by Lewis et al. (2001) was used to estimate the current and future effects of logging on peakflows of different recurrence intervals in Freshwater Creek. The combined results of increased peakflows and aggradation were estimated for selected hypothetical management scenarios.
  • Maahs, M.; and J. Gilleard. 1994. Anadromous salmonid resources of Mendocino County coastal and inland rivers 1990-91 through 1991-92. An evaluation of rehabilitation efforts based on carcass recovery and spawning activity. Final Report, Contract no. FG9364. Prepared for the California Department of Fish and Game, Fisheries Division, Fisheries Restoration Program. 60 p.
    This is the final report for the study preliminarily reported by Nielsen et al. 1990, with 10 watersheds surveyed in 1990-91 and 7 in 1991-92. Habitat restoration could not be linked to improved salmonid production, though any relation may have been masked by drought or altered ocean survival. Downstream migration of coho fry at Caspar Creek suggested that inadequate habitat is available.
  • Nakamoto, R. 2004. Project completion report for South Fork Caspar pond clean out. Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Section 7 consultation, dated 30 January 2004. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Redwood Sciences Lab, Arcata, CA. 14 p.
    Temperature and fish response was monitored in reaches upstream and downstream of the South Fork weir pond during clean-out in September 2003, and turbidity was monitored downstream. Fish in the treatment reach were more mobile than those in the control reach and tended to move upstream; those nearest the turbidity source moved the farthest. Turbidity spikes attenuated downstream. Growth and abundance were not affected.
  • Rice, R.M. 1996. Sediment delivery in the North Fork of Caspar Creek. Unpublished final report, dated 28 October 1996; Agreement no. 8CA94077. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Redwood Sciences Lab, Arcata, CA. 11 p.
    Erosion was measured on 175 hillslope and 129 road plots in the North Fork watershed and values tested against 32 potential controlling variables. Average erosion was 31.8 yd3/ac, with 22% from roads and 11% from slides and other large events. Median delivery ratios averaged 7.6%.
  • Rivas-Ederer, D.; and C.K. Kjeldsen. 1998. Seral vascular plant communities on clearcut sites in Jackson Demonstration Forest, Mendocino, California. Final report; Contract number 8CA06289. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Jackson State Demonstration Forest. Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. 36 p.
    [see thesis by Rivas-Ederer 1998]
  • Russell, W.H. 2002. The influence of timber harvest on the structure and composition of riparian vegetation in the coastal redwood region. Unpublished report dated October 2002. Prepared for the Save-the-Redwoods League. US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Western Ecological Research Center, Sausalito, CA. 21 p.
    Measurements at 10 sites (including the North and South Forks Caspar Creek) were used to evaluate the edge effects of logging on riparian buffers. Hardwoods increased in riparian buffers, and introduced and invasive species were found preferentially in young forests and areas with narrower buffers. [Paper: Russell 2009]
  • Spittler, T.E. 1995. Pilot monitoring program: geologic input for the hillslope component. Unpublished report, Contract no. 8CA38400. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, Sacramento, CA. 16 p.
    Landslides were mapped in the North and South Fork Caspar watersheds and two other areas. Seven of the 15 recent slides at Caspar, and all but one of those >1/2 ac, were associated with older roads, and none were associated with recent logging. In the South Fork, most recent slides were associated with roads, landings, and skid trails from 1967-1973. [for maps, see Spittler and McKittrick 1995]
  • Stillwater Sciences, 2003. A theoretical model for the initiation of large woody debris movement in Caspar Creek, CA. Unpublished final report dated January 2003; Contract no. 8CA99258. Prepared for California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Stillwater Sciences, Berkeley, CA. 22 p.
    Woody debris—most added in 1999—in a 1-km reach of Caspar Creek below the South Fork confluence was tagged and surveyed in Oct-Nov 2001 and remeasured in Nov 2002 to test the predictions of a woody debris mobility model. Most pieces moved, but only a few moved far; those partly on the bank were more stable. Model predictions were relatively good.
  • Surfleet, C.G. 1995. Effects of forest harvesting on large organic debris recruitment in a coastal stream, Caspar Creek, California. Unpublished report prepared for the Redwood Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Arcata CA. 29 p.
    Woody debris was measured in 20 random plots along the North and South Forks in 1994. Total wood and pool-associated wood increased after logging, and residual old-growth wood continued to be important after logging. Most wood inputs were from windthrow and bank erosion. In the South Fork, wood loading remained low 25 years after the stream was cleared of wood.
  • Wilzbach, M.A; K.W. Cummins, and M.A. Madej. 2009. Composition of the suspended load as a measure of stream health. Final report dated 27 February 2009; Contract 1.22-1757 with the Humboldt State University Sponsored Programs Foundation. Prepared for CAL FIRE [California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection]. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. 41 p.
    Organic materials comprised 0.01% to 27% of the suspended sediment load on six days at 2-month intervals in the North and South Forks Caspar Creek, and 0.8% to 10.1% in two old-growth streams. Observations of macroinvertebrates and salmonid condition in the field, and of feeding behavior in the lab and in the field, showed no detectable response to the organic component. More intensive sampling identified seasonal patterns of organic load.

Newsletter articles and general information documents

Although newsletters are not generally cited as documentation for research results, they can be very useful sources of information concerning the procedures used by particular studies. Newsletters can also provide other kinds of information useful for understanding the background and context relevant to the study sites.

The Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter was a widely distributed publication printed about three times a year between 1980 and 1992, and occasionally after that. Articles focused on explaining the results of research and demonstration projects being carried out on the forest to facilitate use of those results in forest management operations in the redwood region, and Caspar Creek studies were often featured. This newsletter is distinctive in that it is the only published source for results of several of the studies carried out on Jackson Demonstration State Forest, and these articles are occasionally cited.

  • Albin-Smith, T. 2004. Forest Learning Center opens on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection State Forests Research and Demonstration Newsletter 3: 1-2.
    The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection and the USFS Pacific Southwest Research Station collaborated in establishing a facility at Camp 20 that provides a meeting room and barracks accommodations for visiting researchers at Jackson Demonstration State Forest. More than 80 people attended the dedication on 14 October 2003.
  • Anonymous. 1993. Caspar Creek phase II: discovering how watersheds respond to logging. Revised December 1993 from an article appearing in Forestry Research West, August 1987. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Redwood Sciences Lab, Arcata, CA.
    This is a revision of the article by Pearce (1987), with less detail on cumulative effects and fisheries research and more information on companion studies.
  • Barrett, B. 2007. Caspar Creek future watershed study research projects administered by the United States Forest Service Redwood Sciences Laboratory. State Forests Research & Demonstration Newsletter 7: 3-4.
    Brief descriptions of studies on rainfall interception, in-channel woody debris, gullies, and subsurface hydrological disruption are described.
  • Cafferata, P. 1984. The North Fork of Caspar Creek: a cooperative venture between CDF and USFS. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 15: 1-2.
    This article provides a brief report of a visit to the Caspar Creek watershed by the USFS Pacific Southwest Research Station Director.
  • Cafferata, P. 1987. Update on the Caspar Creek watershed study. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 27: 1-4.
    The North Fork study design is innovative in employing 14 nested gaged watersheds and in basing results on storms rather than on annual value; the study is designed to test whether impacts intensify downstream. North Fork studies of woody debris, organic steps, sediment budgeting, bedload, salmonid survival, macroinvertebrates, insect drift, algae, pipeflow, and subsurface hydrology are briefly described.
  • Cafferata, P. 1990a. Graduate theses produced from research conducted on Jackson Demonstration State Forest. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 36: 4-8.
    The article provides an annotated list of 13 theses and dissertations produced by 1987 on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, including 8 that are at least partially based on data from the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds.
  • Cafferata, P. 1990b. Temperature regimes of small streams along the Mendocino coast. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 39: 1-4.
    South Fork road construction increased stream temperatures (4-10°C) along the 3000 ft of channel left with decreased shading. Instrumented sites in the North Fork showed higher temperatures (2°C) and greater daily fluctuations below a clearcut reach with a buffer strip than upstream of the reach. A method for predicting post-logging temperature changes is described.
  • Cafferata, P; K. Walton, and W. Jones. 1989. Coho salmon and steelhead trout of JDSF. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 32: 1-7.
    The life histories of coho and steelhead are outlined. Ongoing monitoring at Caspar includes carcass surveys, downstream migrant trapping (1986-88), and annual standing crop surveys (1984-ongoing), and streams have been inventoried for habitat.
  • Cafferata, P.H.; and R.R. Ziemer. 1993. Searching for cumulative watershed effects in Caspar Creek. Pp. 15 and 19 in: Continuum--Forest Ecosystems and Resources in Harmony: California's Demonstration State Forests. California Department of Forestry, Sacramento, CA. 20 p.
    The history of Caspar Creek research is briefly outlined and the North Fork cumulative effects study is described. The focus of the study is to determine whether the watershed shows synergistic responses to logging, with effects increasing with watershed size.
  • Hardison, K.D. 1982. Effects of timber harvesting on the lag time of a Caspar Creek watershed...a study in progress. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 8: 1-3.
    Storm hydrographs are being analyzed to determine whether South Fork logging altered runoff efficiency, as might occur if compaction generated overland flow. [Paper: Wright et al. 1990]
  • Henry, N.D. 1982. Cooperative study on precommercial thinning of “third growth” redwood and associated conifers. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 7:1-3.
    Five levels of stocking (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 stems per acre) are being tested after 1981 precommercial thinning in the lower South Fork watershed; plots will be remeasured at 5-yr intervals. The site had been clearcut in 1960 as part of the Caspar Cutting Trial. [Papers: Lindquist 2004, 2007]
  • Henry, N. 1985. Early growth and yield three years after precommercial thinning in “third growth” redwood. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 19: 1-5.
    Three years after thinning, growth in the remaining trees has responded quickly, with diameter growth greatest in the more heavily thinned plots. [Papers: Lindquist 2004, 2007]
  • Henry, N. 1987. The evolution of stand management on Jackson Demonstration State Forest. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 26: 1-6.
    Silvicultural strategies in the area shifted from clearcutting to partial cutting in the 1920s, but studies in Jackson Demonstration State Forest in the 1960s and 1970s suggested that regeneration was inadequate under the prevailing strategy. Thinning trials were then instituted to evaluate methods for increasing regeneration. Clearcutting again became a preferred strategy in parts of the Forest in the 1980s.
  • Henry, N. 1991. Using global positioning system technology for watershed mapping in Caspar Creek. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 43: 1-6.
    In a partnership with Lassen National Forest and Trimble Navigation Limited, new satellite-based GPS technology was used to provide a precise map of the North Fork using a combination of foot-based, vehicle-based, and helicopter-based surveys. The aerial mapping proved to be most efficient. The helicopter flew at 100 ft above the canopy and was rotated on a stationary point at harvest unit corners.
  • Henry, N. 1999. New growth and yield data on Caspar third growth. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 51: 10.
    Measurements on the 1981 precommercial thinning plots in the South Fork indicated that heavily thinned plots now have more large-diameter trees, but the volume growth over the 17-yr period was similar between treatments. [Papers: Lindquist 2004, 2007]
  • Keppeler, E.T.; and P.H. Cafferata. 1991. Hillslope hydrology research at Caspar Creek. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 41: 4-8.
    Storm pipeflow increased after logging at two sites, and several intermittently flowing soil pipes became perennial. In contrast, piezometric levels did not appear to respond to logging. The weathered bedrock appears to be quite permeable. After logging, half as much rain was needed to saturate soils to a 36” depth.
  • Keppeler, E.T.; P.H. Cafferata, and W.T. Baxter. 2007. State Forest Road 600: a riparian road decommissioning case study in Jackson Demonstration State Forest (JDSF). State Forests Research & Demonstration Newsletter 7: 1-2.
    [expanded abstract for the paper: Keppeler et al. 2007]
  • Lewis, J.; and R. Eads. 1996. Turbidity-controlled suspended sediment sampling. Watershed Management Council Newsletter 6(5): 1, 4-5.
    Replacement of a stage-driven sediment sampling system with a turbidity-driven system resulted in a six-fold reduction in the number of water samples needed to provide the same quality of sediment load estimates. The new method is described, and practical suggestions are given for how to implement the approach.
  • Lisle, T. 2003. The Caspar Creek Watershed Study Completes 40 Years of Research. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection State Forests Research and Demonstration Newsletter 1: 1-5.
    The history of the cooperative research effort at Caspar Creek is outlined, the ways that results have been applied are noted, and the intentions for the third experiment are described. Three studies are featured: a hydrologic response simulation model by Carr, a road erosion study by Keithley, and development of the Turbidity Threshold Sampling method.
  • Munn, J. 2007. Future short-term erosion projects at Caspar Creek supported by CAL FIRE and conducted by the United States Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station. State Forests Research & Demonstration Newsletter 7: 2-3.
    Studies on rainfall interception, hillslope hydrology, woody debris, and gully erosion are briefly described.
  • Napolitano, M.; F. Jackson, and P. Cafferata. 1989. A history of logging in the Caspar Creek basin. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 33: 4-7.
    A mill was built on the Caspar estuary in 1860, and splash dams were constructed upstream a few years later. Bull teams dragged logs along corduroy roads to the channel, where they were stored until they were washed downstream by floods generated by opening a splash dam during a winter storm. A railroad spur was built in 1900 to complete the North Fork logging.
  • O’Connor, M. 2003. Caspar Creek hydrologic and geomorphic data: A consultant’s perspective. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection State Forests Research and Demonstration Newsletter 1: 6.
    Caspar Creek data are used routinely for issues pertaining to the effects of land use, and data and research results are available on the internet. The hydrologic data are unique for the length of record and monitoring intensity they provide, and the monitoring methods developed at Caspar are now used widely by others.
  • Parker, M.S. 1991. North Fork Caspar Creek stream biology study. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 43: 7-8.
    Algae and invertebrates are being monitored twice a year above and below logged and unlogged tributary junctions. [Unpublished technical report: Bottorff and Knight 1996]
  • Pearce, R.B. 1987. Caspar Creek: discovering how watersheds respond to logging. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. Forestry Research West, August 1987.
    The article summarizes the strategy and results for the South Fork experiment and then provides a general description of the background and approach being used for the North Fork experiment.
  • Pearce, R.B. 1993. Caspar Creek: discovering how watersheds respond to logging. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 6 p.
    [A revised version of the article by Pearce (1987)]
  • Reid, L.M. 2001. Cumulative watershed effects: then and now. Watershed Management Council Networker, Summer 2001: 24-33.
    [a reprint of the paper: Reid 1998; republished by request]
  • Reid, L.M. 2012. A half-century of cooperative research at the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds. Experimental Forests and Ranges 2(2): 3-4.
    The South and North Fork experiments are described, with an emphasis on the long-term sediment responses from each. Long-term data are important for identifying the full response to management activities, and such data allow new questions to be addressed. Careful documentation and maintenance of historical data are essential to ensure their accessibility in the future.
  • Rosenthal, A.M. 2005. Caspar Creek: Cumulative Effects of Forest Practices on Downstream Resources. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA. Science Perspectives (September 2005). 6 p.
    This is a brochure describing the history of the experimental watersheds, outlining results of the first two experiments and discussing how component studies provide insight on cumulative impact mechanisms. Plans for future research in the South Fork are described.
  • Schofield, Nick. 1989. Visit to Caspar Creek, northern California. Western Australia Steering Committee for Research on Land Use and Water Supply, The Water Authority of Western Australia, Leederville, WA. Land and Water Research News 3: 24-27.
    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds are described, and the hydrology and sediment results of the first experiment are briefly presented. Of particular interest for the second experiment is the effort to obtain high quality sediment data. Component studies for the second experiment are outlined.
  • Yee, F.A. 1989. Impacts of stream clearance on a small channel. Jackson Demonstration State Forest Newsletter 34: 5-7.
    Cross sections were remeasured annually between 1985 and 1987 in a class 2 stream in the XYZ tributary watershed of North Fork Caspar Creek, beginning immediatedly after woody debris had been removed. All cross sections showed degradation the first winter (averaging 0.6 ft depth), and little change the following year. Field observations in 1988 and 1989 show stabilization and revegetation of the reach.
Last Modified: Oct 26, 2020 03:36:44 PM