USDA Forest Service
 

Pacific Southwest Research Station

 
Pacific Southwest
Research Station

800 Buchanan Street
Albany, CA 94710-0011
(510) 883-8830
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Research Topics Urban Forestry

Urban Forest ResearchBenefits & Costs

A study of urban forests in Modesto, CA, showed that for each $1 invested in urban forest management, $1.89 in benefits is returned to residents. City trees removed 154 tons of air pollutants, increased property values by over $1.5 million, and provided shade to save more than $1 million in energy costs. This information convinced city officials to increase the tree budget and an electric utility company to invest $20,000 in developing the Modesto Tree Foundation. More examples like these are available in our published research about the costs and benefits of urban forests.

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Additional studies and presentations

Soares, A.L., Rego, F.C., McPherson, E.G., Simpson, J.R., Peper, P.J. Xiao, Q. 2011. Benefits and costs of street trees in Lisbon, Portugal. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 10 (2011): 69-78 - View Document [646.55 KB]

Dr. James R. Fazio, Editor. 2010. How trees can retain stormwater runoff. Tree City U.S.A. Bulletin No. 55., Arbor Day Foundation, Nebraska City, NE - View Document [5.21 MB]

McPherson, E.G. 2010. Tools for valuing tree and park services. Western Arborist 36(4): 58-63 - View Document [356.9 KB]

E. Gregory McPhersona, James R. Simpsona, Qingfu Xiaob, Chunxia Wu. 2010. Million trees Los Angeles canopy cover and benefit assessment. Landscape and Urban Planning :Landscape and Urban Planning 99 (2011) 40–50.

McPherson, E.G. 2010. Selecting Reference Cities for i-Tree Streets. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry - View Document [1.2 MB]

McPherson, E.G. Winter 2009. Value for Money. Chartered Forester = Download File

E. Gregory McPherson. Winter 2008. Capturing carbon in your community: New reporting protocol for tree planting projects. Western Arborist - View Document

McPherson, Greg. 23 September, 2008. Trees Pay Us Back: Quantifying Benefits of Trees in the PNW and Temperate Interior West. 2008 Pacific Northwest Arborist Conference - View Document [4.97 MB]

McPherson EG. January 2008. Trees Pay Us Back - Benefits of Trees in Utah. Utah Green Annual Conference - View Document [3.89 MB]

McPherson EG. January 2008. One Million Trees in Salt Lake City. Utah Green Annual Conference - View Document [3.79 MB]

Simpson, J. R., McPherson, E.G. December 2007. San Francisco Bay Area State of the Urban Forest Final Report. - View Document [2.52 MB]

Peper, PJ. December 2007. STRATUM: The benefits and costs of green infrastructure. Climate change and urban forestry - View Document [2.25 MB]

Vargas, K.E. December 2007. STRATUM: Street Tree Benefits, Costs and Management. Turf and Landscape Institute - View Document [3.92 MB]

Center for Urban Forest Research. November 2007. Past, present and future: the urban forest of the San Francisco Bay area. - View Document [537.38 KB]

Peper, P.J. August 2007. STRATUM: The who, what, when, where and how of street trees. Forests in Settled Landscapes Conference - View Document [2.61 MB]

Vargas, K.E. July 2007. Getting the Most Out of Trees. Sacramento Valley Urban Forest Council Workshop - View Document [3.12 MB]

Randall, David. 18 April 2007. Maybe Only God Can Make a Tree, but Only People Can Put a Price On It. New York Times - View Document [447.33 KB]

Vargas, K.E. April 2007. Tree Biology: Roots and Leaves: The Value of Our Tree Canopy. Tree Biology: Roots and Leaves, Western ISA and California Arborist Assoc.

Peper, P. April 2007. Considering the Green Infrastructure: Benefits and Costs. 2007 Rocky Mountain Chapter, American Public Works Association - View Document [3.32 MB]

McPherson, Greg. March 2007. Trees Pay Us Back: Benefits of Trees in the Midwest. Midwestern ISA Conference - View Document [5.3 MB]

McPherson, Greg. March 2007. Benefit-based tree appraisal. Midwestern ISA Conference - View Document [2.65 MB]

Vargas, Kelaine. January 2007. Urban Forest Research in the Temperate Interior West. Idaho Horticulture Expo 2007 - View Document [6.05 MB]

Research Station, Albany, CA - View Document [3.43 MB]

Geiger, J.R.. 2006. Recent Study Confirms that Trees are a Smart Choice for Albuquerque . Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service - View Document [39.08 KB]

Geiger, J.R.and S.L. Gardner. 2006. Why Shade Streets? The Unexpected Benefit. Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service - View Document [3.19 MB]

Vargas, K.E. September 2006. STRATUM Technology Showcase. 2006 California Urban Forest Conference - View Document [4.24 MB]

Geiger, J.R.. 2006. Trees in Charleston are Paying Huge Dividends. Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service - View Document [28.4 KB]

Geiger, J.R.. 2006. Trees in the Coastal Plain Climate Zone Vastly Improve Quality of Life. Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service - View Document [25.9 KB]

McPherson, E.G. April 2006. i-Tree: Demonstrating that Trees Pay Us Back!. - View Document [4.79 MB]

Gardner, Shelley. March 2006. 'Selling' Urban Forestry in Your Town. - View Document [18.81 MB]

McPherson, E.G. 2006. Getting More Than We Pay For. City Trees :January/February: 9-12 - View Document [318.73 KB]

Bloniarz, D., Maco, S. E., McPherson, E. G. 2005. iTree: Urban Forest Inventory and Analysis. Davis, CA: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service - View Document [4.01 MB]

Geiger, J. R. 2005. The Benefit and Value of Urban Trees. Davis, CA: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service; swf - View Document [6.15 MB]

Linsen, L., B.J. Karis, E.G. McPherson, B. Hammann. 2005. Tree Growth Visualization. = Download File

McPherson, E.G. 2005. Trees with benefits. American Nurseryman. 201(7) :34-40 - View Document [631.5 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 2004. Benefits of trees: Watershed, energy, and air. Arborist News. 13(6) :29-35 - View Document [5.76 MB]

Geiger, J.R. 2004. The Large Tree Argument: The Case for Large Trees vs. Small Trees. Western Arborist. 30 (1): 14-15 - View Document [379.55 KB]

McPherson E.G., G. Gonzalez, G. Monfette, R. Lorenzen. 2004. Street Trees of Los Angeles. City Trees. 90 (1): 6-12 - View Document [438.92 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 2004. ecoSmart Design Software: Making your Landscape Come Alive. Davis, CA: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service; ppt.,21 - View Document [1.54 MB]

Geiger, J.R. 2004. New tree guide demonstrates cost-effectiveness of community trees. Western Arborist - View Document [233.82 KB]

Geiger, J.R. 2004. San Francisco trees poised to provide big benefits. Western Arborist - View Document [334.6 KB]

Geiger, J.R., C. King, D. Hartel. 2004. The Large Tree Argument - The case for large-stature trees vs. small-stature trees. Davis, CA: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service; 8p. Research summary - View Document [3.62 MB]

McPherson, E.G. 2004. Benefits of Trees: Watershed, energy, and air. Arborist News. 13(6): 29-35 - View Document [623.26 KB]

Maco, S.E. and E.G. McPherson. 2003. A practical approach to assessing structure, function, and value of street tree populations in small communities. Journal of Arboriculture 29(2): March 2003 - View Document [770.44 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 2003. A benefit-cost analysis of ten street tree species in Modesto, California, U.S. Journal of Arboriculture 29(1): January 2003 - View Document [398.94 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 3-Aug. Urban Forestry: Benefits and drawbacks of city trees. Davis, CA: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service - View Document [5.61 MB]

Randrup, T.B., E.G. McPherson, and L.R. Costello. 2003. A review of tree root conflicts with sidewalks, curbs, and roads. Urban Ecosystems - View Document [335.78 KB]

Geiger, J.R. 2003. Is all your rain going down the drain?. Davis, CA: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service; 4p. Research summary - View Document [707.4 KB]

McPherson, E.G. and J.R. Simpson. 2003. Potenial energy savings in buildings by an urban tree planting programme in California. Urban & Fischer Verlag - View Document [2.47 MB]

Geiger, J.R. 2003. Tree Values Quantified. The Desert Arborist, Southwest Trees & Turf. July/August; Page 12 - View Document [66.25 KB]

McPherson, E.G., G. Gonzalez, G. Monfette, and R. Lorenzen. 2003. Expanding Street Tree Canopy Cover and Repairing Sidewalks in the City of Los Angeles. Western Arborist. 29 (3): 22-25 - View Document [621.47 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 2003. Urban forestry issues in North America: global implications. Engineering Green, National Urban Forest Conference San Antonio. Texas - View Document [246.28 KB]

Maco, S., McPherson, E.G., Simpson, J.R., Peper, P.J., Xiao. December 2003. City of San Francisco, CA, Street Tree Resource Analysis. - View Document [1.83 MB]

Maco, S.E. 2002. A practical approach to assessing structure, function, and value of street tree populations in small communities. Davis, CA: University of California. M.S. Thesis - View Document [2.39 MB]

Geiger, J.R. 2002. EcoSmart - A precision landscape evaluation & design tool. Davis, CA: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service; 1p. Computer model summary - View Document [44.95 KB]

McPherson, E.G. and J.R. Simpson. 2002. A comparison of municipal forest benefits and costs in Modesto and Santa Monica, California, USA. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 1 (2002): :61-74 - View Document [1.3 MB]

McPherson, E.G., J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper and Q. Xiao. 2001. Benefits and costs of Santa Monica's urban forest. Davis, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest research station, center for urban forest research - View Document [254.95 KB]

McPherson, E.G. and J.R. Simpson. 2001. Benefits and costs of LADWP's. Davis, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Center for Urban Forest Research - View Document [1.18 MB]

McPherson, E.G. 2001. New advances in quantifying the environmental benefits of trees. In: Kollin, C. (ed). Investing in natural capital: proceedings of the 2001 national urban forest conference; 2001 September 5-8; Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C.: American Forests :20-22 - View Document [267.75 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 2000. Street tree growth rates and benefit-cost quantification. In: Kollin, C., (ed). Building cities of green: proceedings of the 1999 national urban forest conference; Seattle, Washington. Washington, D.C.: American Forests :139-142 - View Document [492.68 KB]

McPherson, E.G., J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper and Q. Xiao. 1999. Benefits-Cost Analysis of Modesto's municipal urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 25(5) :235-248 - View Document [109.58 KB]

Rowntree, R.A. 1998. Urban forest ecology: conceptual points of departure. Journal of Arboriculture. 24(2) :61-71 - View Document [818.94 KB]

McPherson, E.G. and N. Luttinger. 1998. From nature to nurture: the history of Sacramento's urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 24(2) :72-88 - View Document [4.08 MB]

Summit, J. and E.G. McPherson. 1998. Residential tree planting and care: a study of attitudes and behavior in Sacramento, California. Journal of Arboriculture. 24(2) :89-97 - View Document [687.09 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 1998. Structure and sustainability of Sacramento's urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 24(4) :174-190 - View Document [1.5 MB]

McPherson, E.G. 1998. Atmospheric carbon dioxide reduction by Sacramento's urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 24(4) :215-223 - View Document [509.4 KB]

Scott, K.I., E.G. McPherson and J.R. Simpson. 1998. Air pollutant uptake by Sacramento's urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 24(4) :224-234 - View Document [1.01 MB]

Xiao, Q., E.G. McPherson, J.R. Simpson and S.L. Ustin. 1998. Rainfall interception by Sacramento's urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 24(4) :235-244 - View Document [915.31 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 1997. Sacramento's urban forest ecosystem. Urban Green Tech. 24 :23-28

McPherson, E.G., D. Nowak, G. Heisler, S. Grimmond, C. Souch, R. Grant, and R.A. Rowntree. 1997. Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: the Chicago urban forest climate project. Urban Ecosystems. 1 :49-61 - View Document [996.57 KB]

Simpson, J.R. and E.G. McPherson. 1996. Estimating urban forest impacts on climate-mediated residential energy use. In: Proceedings of the 12th conference on biometeorology and aerobiology. Boston: American Meteorological Society :462-465 - View Document [364.74 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 1996. Urban forest landscapes: how greenery saves greenbacks. In: Wagner, C., (ed). 1996. Annual meeting proceedings. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Landscape Architects :27-29 - View Document [319.73 KB]

McPherson, E.G., D. Nowak, G. Heisler, S. Grimmond, C. Souch, R. Grant and R. Rowntree. 1995. Results of the Chicago urban forest climate project. In: Kollin, C. (ed). Proceedings of the 7th national urban forest conference; 1995 September 12-16; New York. Washington, D.C.: American Forests :85-88 - View Document [401.72 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 1995. Net benefits of healthy and productive urban forests. In: Bradley, G.A., (ed). Urban forest landscapes: integrating multidisciplinary perspectives. Seattle: University of Washington Press :180-194 - View Document [1.1 MB]

McPherson, E.G., J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, R.A. Rowntree, K.I. Scott and A.S. Hertz. 1995. Sacramento urban forest ecosystem study plans. Davis, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Center for Urban Forest Research - View Document [808.56 KB]

McPherson, E.G., D.J. Nowak, and R.A. Rowntree. 1994. Chicago's urban forest ecosystem: results of the Chicago urban forest climate project.. NE GTR-186. Radnor, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station - View Document [16.44 MB]

McPherson, E.G., D.J. Nowak, and R.A. Rowntree. 1994. Chicago's urban forest ecosystem: results of the Chicago urban forest climate project. Part 2. NE GTR-186. Radnor, PA: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station - View Document [4.47 MB]

McPherson, E.G. 1993. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of shade trees for demand-side management. The Electricity Journal. 6(9) :57-65 - View Document [917.36 KB]

McPherson, E.G. 1992. Accounting for benefits and costs of urban greenspace. Landscape and Urban Planning. 22 :41-51 - View Document [900.74 KB]

McPherson, E.G. and S. Biedenbender. 1991. The cost of shade: cost-effectiveness of trees versus bus shelters. Journal of Arboriculture. 17(9) :233-242 - View Document [728.13 KB]

 

Last Modified: Aug 29, 2016 11:06:05 AM