USDA Forest Service

Pacific Southwest Research Station

Pacific Southwest
Research Station

800 Buchanan Street
Albany, CA 94710-0011
(510) 883-8830
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Publications and Products

cover image

General Technical Report

Title: Restoring California Black Oak Ecosystems to Promote Tribal Values and Wildlife

Authors: Jonathan W. Long, M. Kat Anderson, Lenya Quinn-Davidson, Ron W. Goode, Frank K. Lake, and Carl N. Skinner

Date: 2016

Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-252. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station

Station ID: GTR-PSW-252

Description: This report synthesizes information to help promote the distinctive ecological and cultural benefits provided by California black oak. Production of abundant, high-quality acorns desired by Native Americans in California, as well as other valued services, requires the presence of mature, broad-crowned trees with low fuel levels and low pest levels. Although black oaks are vulnerable to intense fires, they depend on low-intensity, more frequent fires to reduce competition from conifers, pest loads, and build-up of fuels that promote intense fires. Traditional burning by Native Americans helped to promote these conditions historically; however, in many areas that have become overly dense, thinning, out-of-season burns, or relatively severe fires may be needed to reopen the forest and reduce fuel levels before a more customary use of fire can maintain desired outcomes. Applying a landscape-scale approach to black oak restoration can help sustain tribal values and wildlife habitat, as well as promote greater ecological resilience to drought and wildfire during this time of a warming climate.

View and print the publication (10.8 MB)


  • Long, Jonathan W.; Anderson, M. Kat; Quinn-Davidson, Lenya; Goode, Ron W.; Lake, Frank K.; Skinner, Carl N. 2016. Restoring California black oak ecosystems to promote tribal values and wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW GTR-252. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 110 p.