PNW Research Station

PNW-GTR-503  (41 MB)

Please note: Because the document is so large, we have divided it into 8 sections. See the table below to download sections.  

Hall, Frederick C. 2001. Ground-based photographic monitoring. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-503. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 340 p.

Land management professionals (foresters, wildlife biologists, range managers, and land manages such as ranchers and forest land owners) often have need to evaluate their management activities. Photographic monitoring is a fast, simple, and effective way to determine if changes made to an area have been successful. Ground-based photo monitoring means using photographs taken at a specific site to monitor conditions or change. It may be divided into two systems: (1) comparison photos, whereby a photograph is used to compare a known condition with field conditions to estimate some parameter of the field condition; and (2) repeat photographs, whereby several pictures are taken of the same tract of ground over time to detect change. Comparison systems deal with fuel loading, herbage utilization, and public reaction to scenery. Repeat photography is discussed in relation to landscape, remote, and site-specific systems. Critical attributes of repeat photography are (1) maps to find the sampling location and of the photo monitoring layout; (2) documentation of the monitoring system to include purpose, camera and film, weather, season, sampling technique, and equipment; and (3) precise replication of photographs. Five appendices include (A) detailed instructions for photo sampling, (B) blank forms for field use, (C) specifications and photographs of recommended equipment, (D) filing system alternatives, and (E) suggestions for taking photographs and analyzing change over time. 

Keywords: Monitoring, photographs, landscape, transects, animal sampling, riparian, succession, forests, rangeland.

Page # Size
Cover to page 40 3.17 MB
41-54 2.6 MB
55-76 3.9 MB
77-95 Appendix A: Methodologies for photo monitoring of change in vegetation and soil 3.65 MB
96-123 Appendix A continued 3.4 MB
124-270 Appendix A continued; Appendix B: Blank forms for photo monitoring 3.1 MB
271-312 Appendix C: Photo monitoring equipment; Appendix D: Photo monitoring filing system; Appendix E: Photo Techniques 2.63 MB
313-333 Appendix E continued; Index 1.6 MB



Last update June 20, 2001

by Diane Smith