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Gordon Reeves

Headshot photo of Gordon Reeves.

Research Fish Biologist
(Emeritus)
Pacific Northwest Research Station
Corvallis Forestry Sciences Lab

Contact via email
Phone: (541) 231-8225

Curriculum Vitae(48 KB)



Statement of Research:


My research interests focus on: (1) the ecology and life-history variation of native fish; (2) development and application of
monitoring protocols; (3) conservation biology for aquatic ecosystems and organisms; and (4) climate change and aquatic
ecosystems, with particular impacts on phenology. My work is primarily in the PNW and Alaska. I have faculty appointments
at Oregon State University, the University of Washington, and Humboldt State University.

Projects & Activities:


Aerial view of wetlands on the Copper River Delta, southeast Alaska.

Aerial view of the wetlands on the Copper River Delta, southeast Alaska.

Climate Change and the Copper River Delta, southeast Alaska
The Copper River Delta, located on the Cordova Ranger District of the
Chugach National Forest, is the largest intact wetland in western North
America. Its diversity of habitats include estuaries, wetlands, freshwater/
riparian habitats, uplands, and glaciers. It is a critical staging and rearing
area for migratory birds and provides habitat for Pacific salmon and
wildlife species, which are ecologically, economically, and culturally
important locally, regionally, nationally, and globally. The Delta has a wide
variety of aquatic habitats that support a diverse array of organisms
distributed across large climatic gradients. As a result, impacts will
likely vary widely and, thus, this area can provide valuable insights into
the range of responses of aquatic ecosystems to the potential
consequences of climate change. The Delta can serve as a reference
system world-wide to understand how intact systems function, and
provide insights about developing mitigation and adaptation measures
in more altered systems. Research results will aid managers and
regulators in understanding and interpreting the consequences, and
monitoring protocols developed here can be applied in other areas.

 

There is a rich history of cooperative research on the Copper River Delta that provides the foundation for climate change work. Since 1995,
cooperative work of the PNW, Ranger District, and researchers from Humboldt State University, Loyola University Chicago, Michigan State
University, Notre Dame University, Oregon State University, and Oakland University has resulted in the completion of 20 projects that have
resulted in PhD dissertations, MSc theses, peer reviewed publications, and several reports.

Reeves, Pickard and Johnson Option B example.

Riparian Research
Northwest Forest Plan guides the management of
aquatic and riparian ecosystems. The ACS restores
and maintains ecological processes that create and
maintain suitable conditions in aquatic ecosystems
and provides benefits to native fish, other aquatic
organisms, and a variety of terrestrial animals and
plants. Riparian reserves are one component of the
ACS and have been designated along all streams,
fish- and non-fish-bearing. They were interim and
expected to be adjusted following completion of a
watershed analysis, another component of the ACS,
if appropriate. Also, watershed analysis was to identify
potential management actions that could take place in
the riparian reserve while still meeting the objectives
of the ACS.  However, watershed analysis did not result
in changes to the size of and management activities in
riparian reserves.

As a result, only a small proportion of the riparian reserve areas on federal lands in the area of the Northwest Forest Plan have
had management activities in them, including young, overstocked stands. We developed two alternatives for managing riparian
areas in previously harvested stands (generally under 80 years of age) on Matrix, O&C lands (BLM lands in western OR) that
meet the objective of the ACS while providing the opportunity for timber harvest. These alternatives are built on new science
and technology concerning riparian areas and incorporate the principles of ecological forestry, which is being demonstrated
on terrestrial areas of O&C lands.  Link to publication, Reeves, Pickard, and Johnson 2016.


Selected Publications:


Note: Most PDF files linked in the publications section of this page were not created by the USDA Forest Service, and may not be accessible to screen-reader software. Many publications are open access, and links to the html versions on the journal websites are also provided, where applicable.

2017

Reeves, G.H.; Spies, T.A. 2017. Watersheds and landscapes. Chapter 15, pages 207-222 in D.H. Olson and B. Van Horne, editors. People, forests and change - Lessons from the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC/Covelo, CA/London: Island Press.

2016

Reeves, G.H.; Pickard, B.R.; Johnson, K.N. 2016. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-937. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Sloat, M.R.; Reeves, G.H.; Christiansen, K.R. 2016. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska. Global Change Biology doi:10.1111/gcb.13466

2015

Benda, L.E.; Litschert, S.E.; Reeves, G.; Pabst, R. 2015. Thinning and in-stream wood recruitment in riparian second growth forests in coastal Oregon and the use of buffers and tree tipping as mitigation. Journal of Forestry Research doi: 10.1007/s11676-015-0173-2

Flitcroft, R.L.; Falke, J.A.; Reeves, G.H.; Hessburg, P.F.; McNyset, K.M.; Benda, L.E. 2015. Wildfire may increase habitat quality for spring Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River subbasin, WA, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 359: 126-140.

2014

Bidlack, A.L.; Benda, L.E.; Miewald, T.; Reeves, G.H.; McMahan, G. 2014. Identifying suitable habitat for Chinook salmon across a large, glaciated watershed. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143(3): 689-699. DOI: 10.1080/00028487.2014.880739

Flitcroft, R.; Burnett, K.; Snyder, J.; Reeves, G.; Ganio, L. 2014. Riverscape patterns among years of juvenile coho salmon in midcoastal Oregon: implications for conservation. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143(1): 26-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.824923

Ohms, H.A.; Sloat, M.R.; Reeves, G.H.; Jordan, C.E.; Dunham, J.B. 2014. Influence of sex, migration distance, and latitude on life history expression in steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71: 70-80. dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0274

Sloat, M.R.; Reeves, G.H. 2014. Individual condition, standard metabolic rate, and rearing temperature influence steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) life histories. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71: 491-501. Dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0366

Sloat, M.R.; Reeves, G.H. 2014. Demographic and phenotypic responses of juvenile steelhead trout to spatial predictability of food resources. Ecology 95(9): 2423-2433.

Wainwright, T.C.; Lawson, P.W.; Reeves, G.H.; Weitkamp, L.A.; Stout, H.A.; Mills, J.S. 2014. Measuring sustainability via a decision support system: experiences with Oregon Coast coho salmon. In: Reynolds, K.M. [et al.], eds. Making transparent environmental management decisions. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag: 277-298. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32000-2_12

2013

Falke, J.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Jordan, C.E.; McNyset, K.M.; Reeves, G.H. 2013. Spatial ecological processes and local factors predict the distribution and abundance of spawning by steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across a complex riverscape. PLOS One 8(11): e79232. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079232

Ohms, H.A.; Sloat, M.R.; Reeves, G.H.; Jordan, C.E.; Dunham, J.B. 2013. Influence of sex, migration distance, and latitude on life history expression in steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70(1): 70-80.

Tiegs, S.D.; Entrekin, S.A.; Reeves, G.H.; Kuntzsch, D.; Merritt, R.W. 2013. Litter decomposition and associated invertebrate communities in wetland ponds of the Copper River Delta, Alaska (USA). Wetlands 33:1151-1163. DOI 10.1007/s13157-013-0470-5

2012

Flitcroft, R.L.; Burnett, K.M.; Reeves, G.H.; Ganio, L.M. 2012. Do network relationships matter? Comparing network and instream habitat variables to explain densities of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in mid-coastal Oregon, USA. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22(3): 288-302. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2228

McMillan, J.R.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H.; Mills, J.S.; Jordan, C.E. 2012. Individual condition and stream temperature influence early maturation of rainbow and steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental Biology of Fishes 93: 343-355. DOI 10.1007/s10641-011-9921-0

Mills, J.S.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H.; McMillan, J.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Jordan, C.E. 2012. Variability in expression of anadromy by female Oncorhynchus mykiss within a river network. Environmental Biology of Fishes 93: 505-507. DOI 10.1007/s10641-011-9946-4

Stout, H.A.; Lawson, P.W.; Bottom, D.L.; Cooney, T.D.; Ford, M.J.; Jordan, C.E.; Kope, R.G.; Kruzic, L.M.; Pess, G.R.; Reeves, G.H.; Scheuerell, M.D.; Wainwright, T.C.; Waples, R.S.; Ward, E.; Weitkamp, L.A.; Williams, J.G.; Williams, T.H. 2012. Scientific conclusions of the status review for Oregon Coast coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-118. 242 p.

2011

Reeves, G.H.; Sleeper, J.D.; Lang, D.W. 2011. Seasonal changes in habitat availability and the distribution and abundance of salmonids along a stream gradient from headwaters to mouth in coastal Oregon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140(3): 537-548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2011.572003

Williams, J.E.; Williams, R.N.; Thurow, R.F.; Elwell, L.; Philipp, D.P.; Harris, F.A.; Kershner, J.L.; Martinez, P.J.; Miller, D.; Reeves, G.H.; Frissell, C.A.; Sedell, J.R. 2011. Native fish conservation areas: a vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities. Fisheries 36(6): 267-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03632415.2011.582398

2010

Reeves, G.H.; Grunbaum, J.B.; Lang, D.W. 2010. Seasonal variation in diel behavior and habitat use by age 1+ steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Coast and Cascade Range streams in Oregon, U.S.A. Environmental Biology of Fishes 87: 101-111. DOI 10.1007/s10641-009-9569-1

2009

Benda, L.; Miller, D.; Lanigan, S.; Reeves, G. 2009. Future of applied watershed science at regional scales. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 90(18): 156-157. (Forum) DOI: 10.1029/2009EO180005

Bisson, P.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H. 2009. Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific salmon: habitat management based on natural variability. Ecology and Society 14(1): 45. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art45/ Synthesis, part of a special feature on Pathways to Resilient Salmon Ecosystems, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/viewissue.php?sf=34

Reeves, G.H.; Bisson, P.A. 2009. Fish and old-growth forests. In: Spies, T.A.; Duncan, S.L., eds. Old growth in a new world. Washington, DC, Covelo, CA, & London: Island Press: 70-82.

Reeves, G.H.; Duncan, S.L. 2009. Ecological history vs. social expectations: managing aquatic ecosystems. Ecology and Society 14(2): 8 [online] http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art8/

2008

Hansen, B.P.; Reeves, G.H. 2008. Monitoring the effectiveness of culverts replaced or retrofitted for fish passage in the Upper West Fork of Smith River, Oregon. Final report, March 2008. Corvallis, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Aquatic and Land Interactions Program. (now Aquatic Ecology and Management team, Land and Watershed Management program). 20 p.

2007

Benda, L.; Miller, D.; Andras, K.; Bigelow, P.; Reeves, G.; Michael, D. 2007. NetMap: a new tool in support of watershed science and resource management. Forest Science 53(2): 206-219.

Burnett, K.M.; Reeves, G.H.; Miller, D.J.; Clarke, S.; Vance-Borland, K.; Christiansen, K. 2007. Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation. Ecological Applications 17(1): 66-80.

Everest, F.H.; Reeves, G.H. 2007. Riparian and aquatic habitats of the Pacific Northwest and southeast Alaska: ecology, management history, and potential management strategies. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-692. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 130 p.

Lawson, P.W.; Bjorkstedt, E.P.; Chilcote, M.W.; Huntington, C.W.; Mills, J.S.; Moore, K.M.S.; Nickelson, T.E.; Reeves, G.H.; Stout, H.A.; Wainwright, T.C.; Weitkamp, L.A. 2007. Identification of historical populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Oregon coast evolutionarily significant unit. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-79. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. 129 p. Available at: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov

Powers, S.P.; Bishop, M.A.; Moffitt, S.: Reeves, G.H. 2007. Variability in freshwater, estuarine, and marine residence of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka within the Copper and Bering River deltas, Alaska. American Fisheries Society Symposium 54: 87-99.

Saiget, D.A.; Sloat, M.R.; Reeves, G.H. 2007. Spawning and movement behavior of migratory Coastal Cutthroat Trout on the western Copper River Delta, Alaska. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27: 1029-1040. DOI: 10.1577/M06-037.12006

Spies, T.A.; Johnson, K.N.; Burnett, K.M.; Ohmann, J.L.; McComb, B.C.; Reeves, G.H.; Bettinger, P.; Kline, J.D.; Garber-Yonts, B. 2007. Cumulative ecological and socioeconomic effects of forest policies in coastal Oregon. Ecological Applications 17(1): 5-17.

Williams, I.; Reeves, G.H.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L. 2007. Genetic investigation of natural hybridization between rainbow and coastal cutthroat trout in the Copper River Delta, Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136: 926-942. DOI: 10.1577/T06-214.1

2006

Bormann, B.T.; Lee, D.C.; Kiester, A.R.; Spies, T.A.; Haynes, R.W.; Reeves, G.H.; Raphael, M.G.; Martin, J.R.; Busch, D.E.; Molina, N.; Molina, R.; Marcot, B.G.; Brookes, M.H. 2006. Synthesis: interpreting the plan as more than the sum of its parts. In: Haynes, R.W.; Bormann, B.T.; Lee, D.C.; Martin, J.R., tech. eds. Northwest Forest Plan – the first 10 years (1994-2003): synthesis of monitoring and research results. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-651. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 23-48.

Burnett, K.M.; Reeves, G.H.; Clarke, S.E.; Christiansen, K.C. 2006. Comparing riparian and catchment influences on stream habitat in a forested, montane landscape. American Fisheries Society Symposium 48: 175-197.

Lang, D.W.; Reeves, G.H.; Hall, J.D.; Wipfli, M.S. 2006. The influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on growth and production of juvenile coho salmon rearing in beaver ponds on the Copper River Delta, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63: 917-930. Doi: 10.1139/F05-268

Lee, D.C.; Bormann, B.T.; Haynes, R.W.; Spies, T.A.; Reeves, G.H.; Raphael, M.G.; Busch, D.E.; Martin, J.R.; Kiester, A.R.; Molina, N.; Molina, R.; Marcot, B.G. 2006. Progress to date. In: Haynes, R.W.; Bormann, B.T.; Lee, D.C.; Martin, J.R., tech. eds. Northwest Forest Plan – the first 10 years (1994-2003): synthesis of monitoring and research results. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-651. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 49-57.

Reeves, G.H. 2006. The aquatic conservation strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan: an assessment after 10 years. In: Haynes, R.W.; Bormann, B.T.; Lee, D.C.; Martin, J.R., tech. eds. Northwest Forest Plan – the first 10 years (1994-2003): synthesis of monitoring and research results. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-651. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 181-218.

Reeves, G.H.; Bisson, P.A.; Rieman, B.E.; Benda, L.E. 2006. Postfire logging in riparian areas. Conservation Biology 20(4): 994-1004. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00502.x

Reeves, G.H.; Williams, J.E.; Burnett, K.M.; Gallo, K. 2006. The Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan. Conservation Biology 20(2): 319-329. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00380.x

2004

Benda, L.; Poff, L.; Miller, D.; Dunne, T.; Reeves, G.; Pess, G.; Pollock, M. 2004. The network dynamics hypothesis: how channel networks structure riverine habitats. BioScience 54(5): 413-427.

2003

Burnett, K.; Reeves, G.; Miller, D.; Clarke, S.; Christiansen, K.; Vance-Borland, K. 2003. A first step toward broad-scale identification of freshwater protected areas for Pacfic salmon and trout in Oregon, USA. In: Beumer, J.P.; Grant, A.; Smith, D.C., eds. Aquatic protected areas – what works best and how do we know? World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas proceedings, 2002: Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Australia: Australian Society for Fish Biology: 144-154.

Reeves, G.H.; Burnett, K.M.; McGarry, E.V. 2003. Sources of large wood in the main stem of a fourth-order watershed in coastal Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Resources 33: 1363-1370. doi: 10.1139/X03-095

Reeves, G.H.; Hohler, D.B.; Larsen, D.P.; Busch, D.E.; Kratz, K.; Reynolds, K.; Stein, K.F.; Atzet, T.; Hays, P; Tehan, M. 2003. Aquatic and riparian effectiveness monitoring plan for the Northwest Forest Plan. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-577. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 70 p.

2002

Hobbs, S.D.; Hayes, J.P.; Johnson, R.L.; Reeves, G.H.; Spies, T.A.; Tappeiner, J.C. II. 2002. Moving toward sustainability. In: Hobbs, S.D.; Hayes, J.P.; Johnson, R.L.; Reeves, G.H.; Spies, T.A.; Tappeiner, J.C. II; Wells, Gail E., eds. Forest and stream management in the Oregon Coast Range. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 242-259. Chapter 10.

Reeves, G.H.; Burnett, K.M.; Gregory, S.V. 2002. Fish and aquatic ecosystems of the Oregon Coast Range. In: Hobbs, S.D.; Hayes, J.P.; Johnson, R.L.; Reeves, G.H.; Spies, T.A.; Tappeiner, J.C. II; Wells, Gail E., eds. Forest and stream management in the Oregon Coast Range. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 68-98. Chapter 4.

Skaugset, A.E.; Reeves, G.H.; Keim, R.F. 2002. Landslides, surface erosion, and forest operations in the Oregon Coast Range. In: Hobbs, S.D.; Hayes, J.P.; Johnson, R.L.; Reeves, G.H.; Spies, T.A.; Tappeiner, J.C. II; Wells, Gail E., eds. Forest and stream management in the Oregon Coast Range. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 213-242. Chapter 9.

Zimmerman, C.E.; Reeves, G.H. 2002. Identification of steelhead and resident rainbow trout progeny in the Deschutes River, Oregon, revealed with otolith microchemistry. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131: 986-993.

2000

Zimmerman, C.E.; Reeves, G.H. 2000. Population structure of sympatric anadromous and nonanadromous Oncorhynchus mykiss: evidence from spawning surveys and otolith microchemistry. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 2152-2162.

1990s

Parrish, D.L.; Behnke, R.J.; Gephard, S.R.; McCormick, S.D.; Reeves, G.H. 1998. Why aren’t there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55(Suppl. 1): 281-287.

Reeves, G.H.; Benda, L.E.; Burnett, K.M.; Bisson, P.A.; Sedell, J.R. 1995. A disturbance-based ecosystem approach to maintaining and restoring freshwater habitats of evolutionarily significant units of anadromous salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17: 334-349.

Dolloff, C.A.; Hankin, D.G.; Reeves, G.H. 1993. Basinwide estimation of habitat and fish populations in streams. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-83. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 25 p.

Reeves, G.H.; Everest, F.H.; Sedell, J.R. 1993. Diversity of juvenile anadromous salmonid assemblages in coastal Oregon basins with different levels of timber harvest. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122(3): 309-317.

Reeves, G.H.; Bottom, D.L.; Brookes, M.H., tech. coords. 1992. Ethical questions for resource managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-288. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 39 p.

1980s

Hankin, D.G.; Reeves, G.H. 1988. Estimating total fish abundance and total habitat area in small streams based on visual estimation methods. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 834-844.

Reeves, G.H.; Everest, F.H.; Hall, J.D. 1987. Interactions between the redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus) and the steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) in western Oregon: the influence of water temperature. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 1603-1613.