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Brooke Penaluna

Headshot photo of Brooke Penaluna.

Research Fish Biologist
HJ Andrews Experimental Forest Lead Scientist
Pacific Northwest Research Station
Corvallis Forestry Sciences Lab

Contact via email
Phone: (541)758-8783
Fax: (541)750-7329
USFS R&D Profile
ResearchGate profile
Google Scholar search
HJ Andrews Experimental Forest website

Statement of Research:

My research focuses on understanding the effects of climate change, contemporary forest harvest and disturbances on fish and both riparian and aquatic habitats, and more generally on the ecological linkages among water, land, and people. My goals are to use multiple lines of inquiry from various approaches to understand the complexities of fish and the aquatic and riparian world with implications for management and policy planning. In 2021, I was appointed to be the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest Lead Scientist, in addition to my duties as a Research Fish Biologist.

Projects & Activities:

Brooke Penaluna wades in to collect streamwater samples for eDNA testing for the presence of aquatic species.

Brooke Penaluna wades in to take a water sample for eDNA testing to detect aquatic species.

Exploring Aquatic Biodiversity Using eDNA
Biodiversity is disappearing faster than at any time in
recorded history, and freshwater species are among the most
vulnerable to extinction, making it imperative to understand
aquatic biodiversity. We are applying eDNA metabarcoding to
identify aquatic biodiversity and population genetic diversity,
which will help managers meet multiple management
objectives.<Read more>

Collaborators: Rich Cronn, USDA FS PNW Research Station
Tiffany Garcia, Oregon State University 

Featured on Oregon Public Broadcasting (OPB):
"Tiny scoops of water are unlocking worlds of information
about Oregon watersheds"

Distribution map of Cutthroat Trout subspecies.

Excerpt of distribution map of Cutthroat Trout subspecies (Oncorhynchus clarkii ssp.) in western North America from Penaluna et al. 2016, Fisheries

Diversity of Pacific Trout
Pacific trout are greatly valued for ecological, socioeconomic, and
cultural reasons, and have been the subject of substantial research
and conservation efforts. However, substantial declines in abundance
and contractions in distribution across species and subspecies, by at
least two thirds from historical levels, have led to elevated protection
in some or whole portions of their range. <Read more>

Link: Native Pacific Trout: Swimming into the Future?
PNW Research Station Science Stories

This pool below a small waterfall marks the upper extent of fish in Nevergo Creek, Willamette River basin, Oregon.

Understanding the Upper Extent of Fish
The distribution boundary at the upper extent of fish across North
America receives extra attention because stream reaches with fish
are managed differently and often have more protections than
fishless reaches. In western North America, Coastal Cutthroat Trout
(Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) are the fish generally found the highest
in their stream networks and are, therefore, the central focus when
considering the upper extent of fish in streams.  <Read more>

Partners: This work is an example of successful coproduction amongst partners, including USDA Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Forestry, Weyerhaeuser Company, Hancock Forest Management, and Port Blakely.

Link: Rte Radio 1 Program (Ireland) (Penaluna segment begins after minute 29):

Cutthroat trout using cover object to hide from stream predators.

Local Habitat Conditions Can Safeguard Trout Against Forest Harvest and Climate Change
Local variability in environmental conditions may play a key role for
understanding emerging responses of populations to land use and
climate change, but it has been overlooked. Local habitat conditions
can be managed and, hence, managers have the potential to
safeguard the local persistence of populations. Combining field
experiments and models offers key information on the role of local
habitat conditions to trout, helping to ensure their long-term
conservation in streams of the Pacific Northwest .  <Read more>

Collaborators: Jason Dunham, US Geological Survey

Cartoon faces placed in the outlines of two fish approximate the current (bottom) and potential (top) diversity of the U.S. fisheries science profession.

Cover of the June 2016 issue of BioScience.

Diversity and Inclusion in Fisheries and Natural Resources
Fisheries and aquatic sciences confront exceptional challenges
owing to complicated problems from the overexploitation and
degradation of aquatic-riparian ecosystems worldwide. It involves
focusing on a diverse array of natural resources and working with
diverse groups of people. However, progress towards changing the
human face of the fisheries and aquatics sciences workforce so
that it more closely reflects everyone who uses and depends on
those resources has been slow.  <Read more>

Collaborators: Ivan Arismendi, Oregon State University, Dept.
of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Sciences

Team of four field technicians electrofishing a stream segment below a reach net to sample for fish and amphibians.

Electrofishing a stream reach for the SCALER field experiment. Photo: Lina di Gregorio, Oregon State University.

Linking Fish, Forests, Fire, and Stream Function
What is relationship of stream consumers of fish and amphibians
to macroinvertebrates and stream functional processes, including
nutrient uptake and metabolism? How do riparian forests and fire
affect those relationships?  <Read more>

Link to YouTube video of SCALER project

Alba Argerich, University of Missouri, School of Natural Resources
Ashley Coble, NCASI (National Council on Air and Stream Improvement)

Selected Publications:

Note: Most PDF files linked in the publications section of this page were not created by the USDA Forest Service, and may not be accessible to screen-reader software. Many publications are open access, and links to the html versions on the journal websites are also provided, where applicable.


Armstrong, J.B., A.H. Fullerton, C.E. Jordan, J.L. Ebersole, J.R. Bellmore, I. Arismendi, B.E. Penaluna, G.H. Reeves. 2021. The significance of warm habitat to the growth regime of coldwater fishes. Nature Climate Change 11: 354-361. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-021-00994-y

Di Prinzio, C.Y., B.E. Penaluna, M.G. Grech, L.M. Manzo, M.L. Miserendino, and R. Casaux. 2021. Impact of Chaiten Volcano ashfall on native and exotic fish recovery, recolonization, and abundance. Science of the Total Environment 752: 141864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141864

Penaluna B.E., J.M. Allen, T. Levi, I. Arismendi, T.S. Garcia, and J.K. Walter. 2021. Better boundaries: delimiting the upper fish distribution boundary of fish in forested streams with electrofishing and environmental DNA. Ecosphere 12(1):e03332. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3332 (open access)

Penaluna, B.E., H.V. Andersen, and J.B. Dunham. 2021. Nowhere to hide: the importance of cover selection to stream-living trout. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 30(2):256–269. https://doi.org/10.1111/eff.12581

Weitemier, K.A., B.E. Penaluna, L.L. Hauck, L.J. Longway, T.S. Garcia, and R. Cronn. 2021. Estimating the genetic diversity of Pacific salmon and trout using multi-gene eDNA metabarcoding. Molecular Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15811 [open access]


Abernathy, E.F., I. Arismendi, A.G. Boegehold, C. Colon-Gaud, M.R. Cover, E.I. Larson, E.K. Moody, B.E. Penaluna, A.J. Shogren, A.J. Webster, and M.M. Woller-Skar. 2020. Diverse, equitable, and inclusive societies: Progress and opportunities in the Society for Freshwater Science. Freshwater Science 39:363–376. https://doi.org/10.1086/709129

Arismendi, I., B.E. Penaluna, and C. Jara. 2020. Introduced beavers improve growth for non-native trout in streams of southern South America. Ecology and Evolution 10:9454–9465. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6636

Batavia, C., B.E. Penaluna, T.R. Lemberger, and M.P. Nelson. 2020. Considering the case for diversity in natural resources. BioScience 70: 708–718. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biaa06

Coble, A.A, H. Barnard, E. Du, S. Johnson, J. Jones, E. Keppeler, H. Kwon, T.E. Link, B.E. Penaluna, M. Reiter, M. River, K. Puettmann, and J. Wagenbrenner. 2020. Long-term hydrological response to forest harvest during seasonal low flow: Potential implications for current forest practices. Science of the Total Environment 730:138926 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138926

Murphy, C.A., L. Zatkos, K. Antonelli, A.B. Cárdenas, C. Linkem, M. Manning, J.A. Olivos, B.E. Penaluna, A. Pollock, I. Arismendi. 2020. Mothers of Fishes. Fisheries 45: 369–376. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsh.10485

Penaluna, B.E., D. Shively, B.R. Roper, L. Cerveny, S. Witt, and J. Rothlisberger. 2020. Mentoring relates to job satisfaction for fish biologists: A longitudinal study of the USDA Forest Service. Fisheries. 45(12): 656–663. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsh.10500 | https://www.fs.usda.gov/pnw/publications/mentoring-relates-job-satisfaction-fish-biologists-longitudinal-study-usda-forest

Youn, S., B.E. Penaluna, and S. Chian Phang. 2020. Increasing diversity and inclusion in fisheries. In: Lessons in Leadership: Integrating courage, vision, and innovation for the future of sustainable fisheries. American Fisheries Society. Taylor, W. and A.K. Carlson (eds.) https://doi.org/10.47886/9781934874608

Zatkos, L., C.A. Murphy, A. Pollock, B.E. Penaluna, J.A. Olivos, E. Mowlds, C. Moffitt, M. Manning, C. Linkem, L. Holst, A.B. Cárdenas, and I. Arismendi. 2020. Emmeline Moore, all things to all fishes. Fisheries 45(8): 435–443. Treesearch: https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/61596


Arismendi, I., B.E. Penaluna, D. Gomez-Uchida, Cecilia Di Prinzio, D. Rodriguez-Olarte, F.M. Carvajal-Vallejos, J.I. Mojica, R. Mazzoni, V. Cussac, M. Maldonado, E. Pellegrini Caramaschi, A.J. Zeballos, A. Villalba, P.A. Van Damme, L. Cordova, R. Iglesias-Rios, D. Canas-Rojas, M. Canas-Merino, J.N. Benavente, M. Nunez-Flores, S.S. Musleh, and P. Savaria. 2019. Trout and Char of South America. Chapter 9 in: Kershner, J.L., J.E. Williams, R.E. Gresswell, and J. Lobon-Cervia (eds.), Trout and Char of the World. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. 777 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.47886/9781934874547

Budy, P., K.B. Rogers, Y. Kanno, B.E. Penaluna, N.P. Hitt, G. P. Thiede, J. Dunham, C. Mellison, W.L. Somer, and J. DeRoito. 2019. Distribution and status of trout and Char in North America. Chapter 7 In: Kershner, J.L., J.E. Williams, R.E. Gresswell, and J. Lobon-Cervia (eds.), Trout and Char of the World. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. 777 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.47886/9781934874547

Coble, A.A., C.A. Flinders, J.A. Homyack, B.E. Penaluna, R.C. Cronn, and K. Weitemier. 2019. eDNA as a tool for identifying freshwater species in sustainable forestry: a critical review and potential future applications. Science of the Total Environment 649: 1157–1170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.370

Flitcroft, R., I. Arismendi, C. Davis, G. Giannico, S. Lewis, B.E. Penaluna, M. Santelmann, M. Safeeq, and J. Snyder. 2019. Using expressed behavior to evaluate vulnerability of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) upriver migrants to future hydrologic regimes: management implications and conservation planning. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29(7):1083–1094. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3014

Hauck, L.L., K.A. Weitemier, B.E. Penaluna, T.S. Garcia, and R. Cronn. 2019. Casting a broader net: Using microfluidic metagenomics to capture aquatic biodiversity data from diverse taxonomic targets. Environmental DNA 1(3):251–267. https://doi.org/10.1002/edn3.26

Johnson, S.L., and B.E. Penaluna. 2019. Climate change and interactions between climate change and multiple stressors in rivers. Chapter 2. Pages 23–44 in: S. Sabater, A. Elosegi, and R. Ludwig (eds.), Multiple Stressors in River Ecosystems: Status, Impacts and Prospects for the Future. Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands/Oxford, UK/Cambridge, MA, USA. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-811713-2.00002-9 https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780128117132/multiple-stressors-in-river-ecosystems

Penaluna, B.E., and L. Ellenburg. 2019. Reoccurrence of the Umpqua Chub Oregonichthys kalawatseti in the North Umpqua River after almost a century. Northwestern Naturalist 100(3): 208–210. Open Access https://doi.org/10.1898/1051-1733-100.3.208

Shepard, B., I. Arismendi, B. David, A. Caudron, M. Dedual, M. Draper, Z. Hogan, D. Impson, B.E. Penaluna, D. Vermillion, and K.A. Young. 2019. Global perspectives on the Management of Trout and Char. Chapter 15 In: Kershner, J.L., J.E. Williams, R.E. Gresswell, and J. Lobon-Cervia (eds.), Trout and Char of the World. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. 777 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.47886/9781934874547

Whitely, A., B.E. Penaluna, E.B. Taylor, S. Weiss, A. Abadia-Cardoso, D. Gomez-Uchida, Itsuro Koizumi, and P. Trotter. 2019. Trout and Char: Genetics, Taxonomy, and Systematics. Chapter 5 in: Kershner, J.L., J.E. Williams, R.E. Gresswell, and J. Lobon-Cervia (eds.), Trout and Char of the World. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. 777 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.47886/9781934874547


Penaluna, B.E., G.H. Reeves, Z. Barnett, P.A. Bisson, J.M. Buffington, A. Dolloff, R. Flitcroft, C.H. Luce, K. Nislow, J. Rothlisberger, and M. Warren. 2018. Using natural disturbance and portfolio concepts to guide aquatic–riparian ecosystem management. Fisheries Special Issue, August 2018. Fisheries 43(9): 406–422. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsh.10097

Penaluna, B.E., and I Arismendi. 2018. Unraveling the hidden lives of warm-water fish communities. Environmental Biology of Fishes 101(11): 1639–1640. DOI: 10.1007/s10641-018-0803-6 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10641-018-0803-6


Olson, D.H., S.L. Johnson, P.D. Anderson, B.E. Penaluna, and J.B. Dunham. 2017. Aquatic-riparian systems. Chapter 14, pages 191-206 in D.H. Olson and B. Van Horne, editors. People, forests and change - Lessons from the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC/Covelo, CA/London: Island Press.

Olson, D.H., B.E. Penaluna, B.G. Marcot, M.G. Raphael, and K.B. Aubry. 2017. Biodiversity. Chapter 13, pages 174-190 in D.H. Olson and B. Van Horne, editors. People, forests and change - Lessons from the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC/Covelo, CA/London: Island Press.

Penaluna, B.E. 2017. Conservación de truchas del Pacifico. Pages 183-188 in A. Ruiz Luna and F. Garcia de Leon, editors. La trucha dorada Mexicana. AGT Press.

Penaluna, B.E., I. Arismendi, C.M. Moffit, and Z.L. Penney. 2017. Nine proposed action areas to enhance diversity and inclusion in the American Fisheries Society. Fisheries 42: 8, 399-402. Link to doi.10.1080/03632415.2017.1345549.

Penaluna, B.E., D.H. Olson, R.L. Flitcroft, M. Weber, J.R. Bellmore, S.M. Wondzell, J.B. Dunham, S.L. Johnson, and G.H. Reeves. 2017. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 3125–3155. doi:10.1007/s10531-016-1148-0.

Schwartz, M., B.E. Penaluna, and T.M. Wilcox. 2017. Not just for fisheries biologists anymore: Environmental DNA sampling makes strides in wildlife. The Wildlife Professional. 11(6): 47–51.


Arismendi, I., and B.E. Penaluna. 2016. Examining diversity inequities in fisheries science: A call to action. BioScience 66(7):584–591. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw041

Penaluna, B. 2016. The histories and destinies of Chile and California. Book review: "Strangers on Familiar Soil", by Edward Dallam Melillo. Northwest Science 90(4):498–499. Link to doi: 10.3955/046.090.0410

Penaluna, B.E., A. Abadia-Cardoso, J.B. Dunham, F.J. Garcia de Leon, R.E. Gresswell, A. Ruiz-Luna, E.B. Taylor, B.B. Shepard, R. Al-chokhachy, C.C. Muhlfeld, K.R. Bestgen, K. Rogers, M.A. Escalante, E.R. Keeley, G. Temple, J.E. Williams, K. Matthews, R. Pierce, R.L. Mayden, R.P. Kovach, J.C. Garza, and K.D. Fausch. 2016. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America. Fisheries 41(6):286–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03632415.2016.1175888

Penaluna, B.E., J.B. Dunham, and D.L.G. Noakes. 2016. Instream cover and shade mediate avian predation on trout in semi-natural streams. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 25(3): 405-411. https://doi.org/10.1111/eff.12221

Penaluna, B.E., D.H. Olson, R.L. Flitcroft, M. Weber, J.R. Bellmore, S.M. Wondzell, J.B. Dunham, S.L. Johnson, and G.H. Reeves. 2016. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 3125–3155. doi:10.1007/s10531-016-1148-0


Penaluna, B.E., and L.R. Bodensteiner. 2015. North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) presence in eelgrass habitat in the Salish Sea, Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 96(3): 222–226. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1898/1051-1733-96.3.222

Penaluna, B., and D.L.G. Noakes. 2015. Instream cover and shade mediate avian predation on trout in semi-natural streams. StreamNotes. August. http://www.fs.fed.us/biology/nsaec/assets/streamnotes2015-8.pdf

Penaluna, B.E., J.B. Dunham, S.F. Railsback, I. Arismendi, S. Johnson, R.E. Bilby, M. Safeeq, and A.E. Skaugset. 2015. Local variability mediates vulnerability of trout populations to land use and climate change. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0135334.

Penaluna, B.E., S.F. Railsback, J.B. Dunham, S. Johnson, R.E. Bilby, and A.E. Skaugset. 2015. The role of environmental regimes and the geophysical template to stream-living trout. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 72: 893–901.

2014 and earlier

Arismendi, I., B.E. Penaluna, J.B. Dunham, C. Garcia de Leaniz, D. Soto, I.A. Fleming, D. Gomez-Uchida, G. Gajardo, P.V. Vargas, and J. Leon-Munoz. 2014. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 24: 919–941. DOI 10.1007/s11160-014-9351-0

Arismendi I., J. Gonzalez, D. Soto, and B. Penaluna. 2012. Piscivory and diet overlap between two non-native fishes in southern Chilean streams. Austral Ecology 37:346–354.

Arismendi I., B. Penaluna, and D. Soto. 2011. Body condition indices as a rapid assessment of the abundance of introduced salmonids in oligotrophic lakes of southern Chile. Lake and Reservoir Management 27:61–69.

Penaluna, B., I. Arismendi, and D. Soto. 2009. Evidence of interactive segregation between introduced trout and native fishes in Northern Patagonian Rivers, Chile. Transactions of American Fisheries Society 138:839–845.

Arismendi I., D. Soto, B. Penaluna, C. Jara, C. Leal, and J. León-Muñoz. 2009. Aquaculture, non-native salmonid invasions, and associated declines of native fishes in lakes of the northern Chilean Patagonia. Freshwater Biology 54:1135–1147.

Arismendi, I., and B. Penaluna. 2009. Native and introduced inland fishes of the Chilean Patagonia: A bilingual field fish guide. Universidad Austral de Chile-Valdivia. Funded by ICM Mideplan Chile.