USDA Forest Service

Pacific Northwest Research Station

Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 SW First Ave.
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 808-2100

US Forest Service

2004 Publication Abstracts

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-627 (2005) 04-492 Developing an agenda to guide forest social science, economics, and utilization research, by R.W. Haynes (393 Kb)

The USDA Forest Service has had a longstanding presence in utilization, economics, and social sciences research and development activities. The magnitude and diversity of these activities have changed as the questions and the people asking them have changed over the past century. These changes challenge the social science and utilization research community to develop this collective research agenda for utilization, economics, and social sciences research and development activities conducted by the Forest Service. It sets the context for the utilization, economics, and social sciences research and development activities in the Forest Service. It deals with the need to balance knowledge creation with the constantly changing demand for information that guides various land management decisions and shapes policymaker perceptions in various environmental debates. The research agenda is built around six common themes that will help us create a larger pool of experience from which we can form judgments relative to outcomes and develop tools that can be used to solve a variety of problems. It assumes that the worth of utilization, economics, and social sciences research and development activities will be judged by our ability to create lasting solutions that alter outcomes. Finally, creating and implementing such a research agenda depends on leaders who can advocate for problem selection that recognizes the full integrated nature of contemporary questions, who can synchronize research oriented toward major questions with knowledge creation, and who can serve as defenders of social science research against ideological attacks by emphasizing the true nature of questions and the importance of taking integrative approaches.

Keywords: Research direction, program formulation, research leadership.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-623 04-329 (2004) Economic assessment of using a mobile Micromill® for processing small-diameter ponderosa pine, by D.R. Becker, E.E. Hjerpe, E.C. Lowell (285 Kb)

An economic assessment of an SLP5000 Diesel Micromill® was conducted to determine the maintenance and operation costs and the logistics of a mobile sawmill used to process small-diameter ponderosa pine. The Micromill® was first introduced in 1997 and has since received considerable attention. In 2003, the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station conducted a detailed financial analysis of a Micromill® in Escalante, Utah. Productive and nonproductive time was recorded, and the feasibility and logistics of periodically moving the mill closer to the raw material source were assessed in terms of delivered log costs and mobilization costs. Product volume and grade recovery were collected to examine market options. Results of the analysis indicate that cashflow, support equipment, delivered log costs, and product markets significantly affect the financial viability of a mobile Micromill® enterprise.

Keywords: Small-diameter ponderosa pine utilization (Southwest), economic assessment, small-log mobile processing.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-622 04-077 (2004) A strategic assessment of crown fire hazard in Montana: potential effectiveness and costs of hazard reduction treatments, by C.E. Fiedler, C.E. Keegan III, C.W. Woodall, T.A. Morgan (1.13 MB)

Estimates of crown fire hazard are presented for existing forest conditions in Montana by density class, structural class, forest type, and landownership. Three hazard reduction treatments were evaluated for their effectiveness in treating historically fire-adapted forests (ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), dry mixed conifer) that rate high/moderate for fire hazard. Comprehensive restoration treatments that address density, structure, and species composition of high-hazard forests are significantly more effective at reducing hazard than thin-from below approaches that remove smaller trees only. Trees removed as a byproduct of the restoration treatment yielded net revenues averaging over $600 per acre, whereas the thin-from-below approach would require an out-of-pocket expenditure of over $600 per acre. Posttreatment conditions were projected forward 30 years and reevaluated for hazard. Projections revealed that effectiveness of all treatments diminished over time; however, forests receiving the comprehensive restoration treatment remained substantially lower hazard 30 years after treatment than they would have had they received the alternative treatments.

Keywords: Montana, wildfire, forest inventory, forest restoration, Forest Inventory and Analysis, hazard reduction, treatments, costs.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-621 04-268 (2004) Assessing the volume of wood products used to build and maintain recreational structures on the Tongass National Forest: potential opportunities for Alaska wood products substitution, by R.A. Cantrell (1.16 MB)

Although the Tongass National Forest (TNF) possesses abundant stands of redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg), most of its buildings, bridges, and trails are constructed from imported materials. The costs incurred in importing lumber building materials to the TNF seemingly could be offset by manufacturing a slightly more costly product from within the region. To better understand the potential opportunities foregone by southeast Alaska’s lumber manufacturers, this study explores the market volume of wood products required to build and maintain the recreational structures (buildings, bridges, and trails) on the TNF. Findings suggest that after accounting for the estimated 23 percent of native materials used in trail construction, the wood products market potential arising from an additional 77-percent Alaska wood species substitution could be, on average, approximately 1.1 million board feet annually. This volume represents 1.3 percent of the regional output for 2000 and increases overall demand in southeast Alaska by 13.9 percent for this same period. These same figures for 2002 are more dramatic with the TNF potential consumption representing 2.8 percent of the region’s output and increasing its overall demand by 57 percent.

Keywords: Buildings, trails, trailways, pedestrian bridges, utility bridges, structures, infrastructure.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-620 04-290 (2004) An assessment of growth and development paths for southeast Alaska, by P. Tsournos, R.W. Haynes (765 KB)

The intuitive explanation for why an economy grows or develops often involves the ways in which land (resources), labor, and capital interact. Here we review the literature for what is known about the different pathways for economic growth and development in resource-abundant regions. We discuss the effectiveness of the forest products industry as a determinant of economic development and how comparative advantages of different forest goods and services have changed. Much of our discussion is based on southeast Alaska where the development of a forest products industry was seen as offering potential economic opportunities that would increase the stability of local communities. The experience of the last several decades there suggests that a more comprehensive strategy than just the development of a timber industry is required to sustain economic growth.

Keywords: Economic development, southeast Alaska, Tongass National Forest.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-619 (2004) CalPro: a spreadsheet program for the management of California mixed-conifer stands, by J. Liang, J. Buongiorno, R.A. Monserud (1.74 MB)

CalPro is an add-in program developed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth and management of uneven-aged mixed-conifer stands in California. Its built-in growth model was calibrated from 177 uneven-aged plots on industry and other private lands. Stands are described by the number of trees per acre in each of nineteen 2-inch diameter classes in two species groups, hardwoods and softwoods. CalPro allows managers to predict stand development by year and for many decades from a specific initial state. Users can choose cutting regimes by specifying the interval between harvests (cutting cycle) and a target distribution of trees remaining after harvest. A target distribution can be a reverse-J-shaped distribution or any other desired distribution. Diameter-limit cuts can also be simulated. Tabulated and graphic results show diameter distributions, basal area, volumes, income, net present value, and indices of stand diversity by species and size. This manual documents the program installation and activation, provides suggestions for working with Excel, and gives background information on CalPro’s growth model. It offers a comprehensive tutorial in the form of two practical examples that explain how to start the program, enter simulation data, execute a simulation, compare simulations, and plot summary statistics.

Keywords: Mixed conifers, uneven-aged management, economics, ecology, CalPro, simulation, software, growth model, diversity.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-618 (2004) Ecophysiological parameters for Pacific Northwest trees, by A.E. Hessl, C. Milesi, M.A. White, D. L. Peterson, R.E. Keane (473 Kb)

We developed a species- and location-specific database of published ecophysiological variables typically used as input parameters for biogeochemical models of coniferous and deciduous forested ecosystems in the Western United States. Parameters are based on the requirements of Biome-BGC, a widely used biogeochemical model that was originally parameterized for the forests of the Pacific Northwest. Several other ecosystem models, including Century 5, Daycent, TEM, and PnET, also use some of the inputs described here. This database provides a compendium of ecophysiological data for the Pacific Northwest that will provide easily accessible information for particular tree species, parameters, and ecosystems for application to simulation modeling.

Keywords: Ecological modeling, ecophysiology, Pacific Northwest forests.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-617 04-093 (2004) The economics of amenities and migration in the Pacific Northwest: review of selected literature with implications for national forest management, by B.E. Garber-Yonts (962 KB)

This paper reviews literature on the influence of nonmarket amenity resources on population migration. Literature reviewed includes migration and demographic studies; urban and regional economics studies of amenities in labor markets, retirement migration, and firm location decisions; nonmarket valuation studies using hedonic price analysis of amenity resource values; land use change studies; and studies of the economic development influence of forest preservation. A synthesis of the literature finds that the influence of amenities is consistently shown to be a positive factor contributing to population growth in urban and rural areas characterized by proximity to public forest lands. Beyond this broad finding, however, little research has been conducted at an appropriate scale to be directly useful in forest management and planning decisions. Areas for further research are identified.

Keywords: Amenities, migration, hedonic studies, rural development, land use change, regional economics.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-616 04-136 (2004) Contemporary wood utilization research needs in the Western United States, by R.A. Monserud, E.C. Lowell, D.R. Becker, S.S. Hummel, E.M. Donoghue, R.J. Barbour, K.A. Kilborn, D.L. Nicholls, J. Roos, R.A. Cantrell (873 Kb)

Contemporary wood utilization research needs in the Western United States are examined in this problem analysis. Key focal areas include: A. Changes in forest management actions and policies affect forest conditions and people, which in turn affect wood quality and wood utilization opportunities. B. Effects of natural disturbances (e.g., wildfire, insect outbreaks) on wood quality, wood utilization, and people are poorly understood. C. Regional differences throughout the Western States are poorly understood in the context of wood utilization. D. Technical assistance and feasibility analyses are needed by resource managers, technical organizations, users of natural resources, and others interested in the physical characteristics, processing, and marketing of forest products.

Keywords: Wood utilization, forest products, forest management, wood quality, small-diameter wood utilization.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-615 (2004) California’s forest products industry: a descriptive analysis, by T.A. Morgan, C.E. Keegan III, T. Dillon, A.L. Chase, J.S. Fried, M.N. Weber (1.51 MB)

This report traces the flow of California’s 2000 timber harvest through the wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, operations, and condition of California’s primary forest products industry; and briefly summarizes timber inventory and growth. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, and sales. Employment and worker earnings in the state’s forest products industry also are examined, and an industry leaders’ assessment of past and future operating conditions is provided.

Keywords: Forest products, California, timber harvest, employment, bioenergy.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-614 Climate change, carbon, and forestry in northwestern North America: Proceedings of a workshop November 14-15, 2001 Orcas Island, Washington, by J.L. Innes, D.L. Peterson, and K. O'Brian, eds. (1.28 MB)

Interactions between forests, climatic change and the Earth’s carbon cycle are complex and represent a challenge for forest managers – they are integral to the sustainable management of forests. In this volume, a number of papers are presented that describe some of the complex relationships between climate, the global carbon cycle and forests. Research has demonstrated that these are closely connected, such that changes in one have an influence not only on the other two, but also on their linkages. Climatic change represents a considerable threat to forest management in the current static paradigm. However, carbon sequestration issues offer opportunities for new techniques and strategies, and those able to adapt their management to this changing situation are likely to benefit. Such changes are already underway in countries such as Australia and Costa Rica, but it will probably take much longer for the forestry sector in the Pacific Northwest region of North America (encompassing Oregon, Washington, Montana, Idaho, British Columbia and Alaska) to change their current practices.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-613 Area changes for forest cover types in the United States, 1952 to 1997, with projections to 2050, by R.J. Alig, and B.J. Butler (3.82 MB)

The United States has a diverse array of forest cover types on its 747 million acres of forest land. Forests in the United States have been shaped by many natural and human-caused forces, including climate, physiography, geology, soils, water, fire, land use changes, timber harvests, and other human interventions. The major purpose of this document is to describe area projections of forest cover changes on timberland areas of the United States, in support of the 2000 Resources Planning Act assessment by the USDA Forest Service. Forest area projections differ markedly by region, owner, and forest cover type. Although some regions such as the North are projected to have relatively small percentage changes in common types such as maple-beech-birch (less than 5 percent), others in the South have relatively large projected changes: reductions of 19 percent for upland hardwood on nonindustrial private forest timberlands and 58 percent on forest industry timberlands in the South Central region; and increases in excess of 25 percent for planted pine for both private ownerships in the South. Although the area of softwoods is projected to increase across many regions of the country, especially on forest industry lands, hardwoods will remain the dominant forest type on private lands.

Keywords: Forest land area, forest type transitions, succession, forest cover, timber harvesting, Renewable Resources Planning Act.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-612 Preliminary research findings from a study of the sociocultural effects of tourism in Haines, Alaska, by L.K. Cerveny (2.51 MB)

This report examines the growth and development of the tourism industry in Haines, Alaska, and its effects on community life and land use. It also describes the development of cruise-based tourism and its relation to shifts in local social and economic structures and patterns of land use, especially local recreation use trends. A multisited ethnographic approach was used featuring participant observation and in-depth interviews with local residents, cruise line industry personnel, and visitors to southeast Alaska. Results show that tourism brings both positive and negative changes to Alaska communities. Data from this report can assist Forest Service planners to identify factors involved in the relation between tourism growth and community well-being. It also may assist small southeast Alaska communities in decisionmaking related to tourism development.

Keywords: Tongass National Forest, southeast Alaska, tourism, communities.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-611 Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska, by R. Mazza, tech. ed. (615 Kb)

This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast Alaska, such as the decline in the manufacturing sector, are reflections of broad-scale changes in the greater U.S. economy. Other changes, such as the increase in nonwage income as a percentage of total income, have been greater in rural southeast Alaska than at the larger scales of comparison. In chapter 1, Robertson describes these changes and their underlying causes and outlines some of their implications for the management of the Tongass National Forest. Providing forest-based recreational opportunities and aesthetic amenities is becoming increasingly important as tourism and residential activity compose a larger portion of the region’s economy. In chapter 2, Crone provides a historical context for the economic changes in rural southeast Alaska. She also establishes the global context for these changes, concluding that forces at local, national, and international scales have shaped economic growth patterns in rural southeast Alaska.

Keywords: Southeast Alaska, economy, economic trends, income, rural manufacturing, wood products, community resiliency.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-610 Methods for integrated modeling of landscape change: Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System, by J.L. Hayes, A.A. Ager, R.J. Barbour, tech. eds.

The Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) links a number of resource, disturbance, and landscape simulations models to examine the interactions of vegetative succession, management, and disturbance with policy goals. The effects of natural disturbance like wildfire, herbivory, forest insects and diseases, as well as specific management actions are included. The outputs from simulations illustrate potential changes in aquatic conditions and terrestrial habitat, potential for wood utilization, and socioeconomic opportunities. The 14 chapters of this document outline the current state of knowledge in each of the areas covered by the INLAS project and describe the objectives and organization of the project. The project explores ways to integrate the effects of natural disturbances and management into planning and policy analyses; illustrate potential conflicts among current policies, natural distrubances, and management activities; and explore the policy, economics, and ecological constraints associated with the application of effective fuel treatments on midscale landscapes in the interior Northwest.

Keywords: Forest simulation analysis, midscale, vegetation succession, disturbance, management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-609 Southeast Alaska forests: inventory highlights, by S. Campbell, W.S. van Hees, B. Mead (3.14 MB)

This publication presents highlights of a recent southeast Alaska inventory and analysis conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). Southeast Alaska has about 22.9 million acres, of which two-thirds are vegetated. Almost 11 million acres are forest land and about 4 million acres have nonforest vegetation (herbs and shrubs). Species diversity is greatest in western hemlock–Alaska cedar closed-canopy forests, in mixed-conifer open and woodland forests, and in open tall alder-willow shrub type. Of the forest land, 4.1 million acres are classified as timberland (unreserved productive forest land). About 4.4 million acres of forest land are reserved from harvest; the majority of this reserved land (80 percent) is on the Tongass National Forest (USDA Forest Service). The volume of timber on timberland was estimated at 21,040 million cubic feet; the majority of volume—88 percent—is on the Tongass National Forest. Seventy-four percent of timberland acres and 84 percent of the growing-stock volume is in sawtimber stands older than 150 years, with western hemlock or western hemlock–Sitka spruce mix predominating. Most timberland in southeast Alaska is of relatively low productivity, producing less than 85 cubic feet per acre per year. For most timberland acres, average annual growth exceeds average annual mortality and harvest.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-608 Alternatives to preplant soil fumigation for Western forest nurseries, by D.M. Hildebrand, J.K. Stone, R.L. James, S.J. Frankel (707 Kb)

Field trials at six bare-root forest tree nurseries in the Western United States compared cultural treatments including timing and depth of sowing; bare fallow (with and without periodic tilling); organic amendments including sawdust, composts, and cover crops; mulches including pine needles, sawdust, and rice straw; and fumigation with methyl bromide/chloropicrin or dazomet. Measured effects included population levels of potential soil-borne pathogens (species of Fusarium and Pythium), disease incidence, seedbed density, and sizes of conifer seedlings. Several nonfumigation treatments resulted in production of seedlings with densities and sizes similar to or better than those produced in beds treated with chemical fumigation. Results varied within the nurseries depending on conifer species, field history, and disease presence. Beneficial cultural practices included (1) incorporation of slowly decomposing organic soil amendments, e.g., aged sawdust with additional nitrogen provided later to seedlings; (2) bare fallowing with periodic tilling, and bare fallowing without periodic tilling plus supplemental weed control; and (3) sowing of conifer seed earlier and more shallow than sown conventionally, and covering seed with a nonsoil mulch such as aged sawdust or hydromulch.

Keywords: Methyl bromide, chloropicrin, dazomet, conifer seedlings, bare fallowing, Fusarium, Pythium.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-607 Assessing socioeconomic resiliency in Washington counties, by J.M. Daniels (1.13 MB)

The link between forest management and the well-being of communities in forested areas has traditionally been defined by forest sector employment opportunities. Attempts to redefine this relationship have produced methods that use a more comprehensive approach by combining both economic and social indicators to evaluate community well-being. The goal of this study is to evaluate socioeconomic resilience and forest dependence in Washington counties in order to identify counties where changes in forest management could negatively affect the well-being of nearby residents, allowing land managers and decisionmakers to anticipate the effects of land management policies. Results indicate that Ferry, Pend Oreille, Pacific, Skamania, Stevens, and Wahkiakum Counties all have socioeconomic systems that could be particularly vulnerable to forest management changes. The same analyses were performed for the Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR) by using only counties on the west side of the Cascade Range. Results show that two counties, Wahkiakum and Pacific, may experience disproportionate negative impacts from changes in DNR state forest management. These findings are preliminary in nature; findings should be reassessed using community-level data to determine the optimum geographic scale necessary for detailed evaluation of policy effects.

Keywords: Sustainable forest management, socioeconomic resilience, forest dependency, criteria and indicators, Washington Department of Natural Resources.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-606 Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in Montana, by R.J. Barbour, R.D. Fight, G.A. Christensen, G.L. Pinjuv, and R.V. Nagubadi (1.27 MB)

This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project “Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard.” This paper compares the future mix of timber products under two treatment scenarios for the state of Montana. We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily available tools to evaluate pre- and posttreatment stand conditions; size, species, and volume of merchantable wood removed during thinnings; size and volume of submerchantable wood cut during treatments; and financial returns of prescriptions that are applied repeatedly over a 90-year period.

Keywords: Wood products, thinning, fire hazard, financial return, Montana.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-605 Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in New Mexico, by R. D. Fight, J.R. Barbour, G.A. Christensen, G.L. Pinjuv, R.V. Nagubadi (708 Kb)

This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project “Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard.” This paper compares the future mix of timber projects under two treatment scenarios for New Mexico.We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily available tools to evaluate pre- and posttreatment stand conditions; size, species, and volume of merchantable wood removed during thinnings; size and volume of submerchantable wood cut during treatments; and financial returns of prescriptions that are applied repeatedly over a 90-year period.

Keywords:Wood products, thinning, fire hazard, financial return, New Mexico.


Gen Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-604 Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products: Proceedings of IUFRO Division 5 Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12, Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11–15, 2003, by E.M. Donoghue, G.L. Benson, J.L. Chamberlain, tech. coords. (2.02 MB)

This proceedings is a collection of 18 papers and extended abstracts based on talks presented at the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Division 5 Conference, held in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11–15, 2003. This conference emphasized the many ways that forest products research can contribute to sustainable choices in forest management. The two IUFRO Research Groups represented in this proceedings are the Sustainable Production of Forest Products Research Group (5.12) and the Non-wood Forest Products Research Group (5.11). The papers address many aspects of wood and non-wood forest products including: forest management; product development; economic development implications; local, national, and international protocols; assessments; and research strategies.

Keywords: Forest products, non-timber forest products, non-wood products, sustainable forest management, wood products.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-603 Guide to the common Potentilla species of the Blue Mountains ecoregion, M. Aitken, C.G. Parks (2.11 MB)

This guide will assist field identification of Potentilla species likely to be found in the Blue Mountains region. Many species formerly classified in the genus Potentilla are also included. Illustrations accompany the descriptions and glossary.

Keywords: Potentilla, plant key, Blue Mountains.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-602 Effects of alternatives to clearcutting on invertebrate and organic detritus transport from headwaters in southeastern Alaska, by J. Musslewhite, M.S. Wipfli (1.68 MB)

We examined the transport of invertebrates and coarse organic detritus from headwater streams draining timber harvest units in a selective timber harvesting study, alternatives to clearcutting (ATC) in southeastern Alaska. Transport in 17 small streams (mean measured discharge range: 1.2 to 14.6 L/s) was sampled with 250- µ m-mesh drift nets in spring, summer, and fall near Hanus Bay at an ATC installation on Catherine and Baranof Islands. Samples were taken before (1996) and after (1999, 2000) nine timber harvesting treatments were applied. Invertebrate and organic detritus drift densities and community composition were used to assess treatment effects. A comparison of drift densities before and after treatment showed year-toyear differences comparable to natural variation at other sites in this study, but no clear relationship to intensity or type of timber harvest treatments. Natural variation in drift densities prevented detection of any potential timber harvesting effects. Coefficients of variation showed transport was most variable among streams, followed by seasons and then days. A trend toward an increase in the proportion of true flies (Diptera) and a decrease in the proportion of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) was seen in more intensive treatments. Although transport rates were extremely variable, a mean of 220 mg invertebrate dry mass and 18 g detritus per stream per day was being transported downstream. The transport of this material suggests that headwaters are potential source areas of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and detritus, linking upland ecosystems with habitats (commonly fish bearing) lower in the catchment.

Keywords: Alternatives to clearcutting, headwater streams, invertebrates, organic detritus, riparian.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-599 (2004) Bridging the worlds of fire managers and researchers: lessons and opportunities from the Wildland Fire Workshops, by S.M. White (1.14 MB)

In March and April of 2003, over 250 managers, researchers, and other participants gathered for a series of workshops at Oregon State University, the University of Arizona, and Colorado State University, near the largest wildfires of 2002. In response to the need for better understanding of large fires, the Wildland Fire Workshops were designed to create an atmosphere for quality interactions between managers and researchers and to accomplish the following objectives: (1) create a prioritized list of recommendations for future wildland fire research; (2) identify the characteristics of effective partnerships; (3) identify types of effective information, tools, and processes; and (4) evaluate the workshops as a potential blueprint for similar workshops in other regions. Through a series of professionally facilitated workshops, participants worked toward speaking with one voice about many key issues. Although differences emerged among individuals, disciplines, and geographic locations, many common themes emerged. Participants suggested that research should be framed in the larger picture of fire ecology and ecosystem restoration, be interdisciplinary, be attentive to the effects of fire at different scales over the landscape and through time, and be focused on social issues. Effective partnerships occur when direct interaction takes place between people at multiple stages, adequate time is allowed for partnership building, partners are rewarded and held accountable for their roles, and when dedicated individuals are identified and cultivated. Participants identified effective information, tools, and processes as those that are adequately and consistently funded, user-friendly, interactive between people at multiple levels, and often championed by key, dedicated individuals. A survey of participants at the final meeting in Colorado revealed that the workshops did in fact create an atmosphere for positive interactions between managers and researchers, and that with some refinements, similar workshops could be carried out in other regions with productive results.

Keywords: Wildfire, fire, communication, technology transfer, applied research, management, information, partnerships.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-598 (2004) Silvicultural options for young-growth Douglas-fir forests: the Capitol Forest study—establishment and first results, by R.O. Curtis, D.D. Marshall, D.S. DeBell, eds. (990 Kb)

This report describes the origin, design, establishment and measurement procedures and first results of a large long-term cooperative study comparing a number of widely different silvicultural regimes applied to young-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands managed for multiple objectives. Regimes consist of (1) conventional clearcutting followed by intermediate thinning; (2) retention of reserve trees to create a two-aged stand; (3) small patch cuts dispersed within a thinned matrix, repeated at approximately 15-year intervals to create a mosaic of age classes; (4) group selection within a thinned matrix on an approximate 15-year cycle; (5) continued thinning on an extended rotation; and (6) an untreated control. Each of these regimes is on operationsize units (about 30 to 70 acres each). Output variables to be evaluated include conventional timber growth and yield statistics, harvest costs, sale layout and administration costs, aesthetic effects and public acceptance, soil disturbance, bird populations, and economic aspects. Descriptive statistics and some initial results are presented for the first replicate, established in 1997-98.

Keywords: Silvicultural systems, multiple use, ecosystem management, landscape management, forest ecology, aesthetics, Pseudotsuga menziesii


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-597 (2004) Estimation procedures for the combined 1990s periodic forest inventories of California, Oregon, and Washington, by T.M. Barrett (414 Kb)

During the 1990s, forest inventories for California, Oregon, and Washington were conducted by different agencies using different methods. The Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis program recently integrated these inventories into a single database. This document briefly describes potential statistical methods for estimating population totals, means, and associated sampling errors for these inventories. Differences in estimates using past methods for periodic inventories compared to estimates from proposed methods for a new annual inventory system were generally minor. This document is intended to be a resource for researchers using the 1990s forest inventory data for these states; examples are included to illustrate issues.

Keywords: Forest inventory, double sampling for stratification, west coast forests.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-596 (2004) Proceedings: views from the ridge—considerations for planning at the landscape scale, by H. Gucinski, C. Miner, B. Bittner, eds. (1.04 MB)

When resource managers, researchers, and policymakers approach landscape management, they bring perspectives that reflect their disciplines, the decisions they make, and their objectives. In working at a landscape level, they need to begin developing some common scales of perspective across the variety of forest ownerships and usages. This proceedings is a compilation of 22 papers presented at a conference that addressed divergent views on landscape management. The conference was a forum for exchanging concepts and knowledge from research and management experiences about managing landscapes. The program addressed the issues of managing landscapes when everyone has a different perspective; approaching landscape management from aquatic, terrestrial, and socioeconomic viewpoints; and characterizing landscape management.

Keywords: Landscape management, forest policy, forest management, aquatic, terrestrial, socioeconomic.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-595 (2004) A review of scientific information on issues related to the use and management of water resources in the Pacific Northwest, by F.H. Everest, D.J. Stouder, C. Kakoyannis, L. Houston, G. Stankey, J. Kline, R. Alig (1.40 MB)

Fresh water is a valuable and essential commodity in the Pacific Northwest States, specifically Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and one provided abundantly by forested watersheds in the region. The maintenance and growth of industrial, municipal, agricultural, and recreational activities in the region are dependent on adequate and sustainable supplies of fresh water from surface and ground-water sources. Future development, especially in the semiarid intermountain area, depends on the conservation and expansion of the region’s water resource. This synthesis reviews the state of our knowledge and condition of water resources in the Pacific Northwest.

Keywords: Water distribution, flow regimes, water demand, conflicts, tools, water use.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-594 (2004) Social acceptability of alternatives to clearcutting: discussion and literature review with emphasis on southeast Alaska, by D.L. Clausen, R.F. Schroeder, comps. (688 Kb)

Changing social contexts have necessitated a new approach to forest management. Growing dissatisfaction with clearcutting has made the USDA Forest Service the focus of criticism by various public interest groups.We discuss and provide a comprehensive annotated list of published and unpublished references on the subject of socially acceptable alternatives to clearcutting, with emphasis on southeast Alaska. The literature reveals that social acceptability is a complex synthesis of multiple opinions, values, and attitudes, and indicates that both qualitative and quantitative social science research are required to identify socially acceptable alternatives to clearcutting in southeast Alaska.

Keywords: Acceptability, Alaska, alternatives to clearcutting, clearcutting, forest management, Forest Service, forest values, public attitudes, social acceptability, social values, southeast Alaska, Tongass National Forest, values.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-593 (2004) Classification and management of aquatic, riparian, and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington: series descripton, by B.L. Kovalchik, R.R. Clausnitzer.

This is a classification of aquatic, wetland, and riparian series and plant associations found within the Colville, Okanogan, and Wenatchee National Forests. It is based on the potential vegetation occurring on lake and pond margins, wetland fens and bogs, and fluvial surfaces along streams and rivers within Forest Service lands. Data used in the classification were collected from 1,650 field plots sampled across the three forests. This classification identifies 32 series separated into four physiognomic classes: coniferous forests, deciduous forests, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation. In addition, keys to the identification of 163 plant associations or community types are presented. The report includes detailed descriptions of the physical environment, geomorphology, ecosystem function, and management of each series. This classification supplements and expands information presented in upland forest plant association classifications previously completed for the three eastern Washington forests. It is a comprehensive summary of the aquatic, riparian, and wetland series and contributes to the understanding of ecosystems and their management in eastern Washington.

Keywords: Riparian, aquatic, wetland, vegetation classification, series description, plant association, plant community, riparian vegetation, riparian ecosystems, eastern Washington.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-584 (2004) The 1930s survey of forest resources in Washington and Oregon, by C.A. Harrington, comp.

Forest resources in Washington and Oregon were surveyed in the early 1930s by employees of the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station (the original name of the current Pacific Northwest Research Station). This was the first of many periodic forest surveys conducted nationwide by the USDA Forest Service. Many publications and maps were produced from the Washington and Oregon 1930s survey data. Forest cover maps created from that data (at an original scale of 1:253,440) have recently become available in digital formats, but little documentation was provided with the electronic files, and the older publications are not readily available to most users. This report provides a brief overview of the survey and reprints excerpts from, or complete versions of, early publications that dealt with the planning, conduct, or results from the survey. A list of county-level maps, prepared at a scale of 1:63,360, that have been located is also included. A companion CD-ROM includes (1) the overview of the survey and the early publications in PDF format, (2) a link to the free Adobe Acrobat® Reader? to enable users to read the PDF files, (3) the forest type maps in several geographic information system (GIS) or graphics formats (ArcView? shape files, ArcExplorer? project files, and .jpg, a graphics file format), and (4) a copy of ArcExplorer? (to view and print the ArcExplorer? files).

Keywords: Forest inventory, forest survey, 1930s, forest cover, forest type maps, Washington, Oregon, Douglas-fir region, ponderosa pine region.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-577 Effectiveness monitoring for the aquatic and riparian component of the Northwest Forest Plan: conceptual framework and options, by G.H. Reeves, D.B. Hohler, D.P. Larsen, D.E. Busch, K. Kratz, K. Reynolds, K.F. Stein, T. Atzet, P. Hays, M. Tehan (564 Kb)

An Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Plan (AREMP) for the Northwest Forest Plan is intended to characterize the ecological condition of watersheds and aquatic ecosystems. So to determine the effectiveness of the Northwest Forest Plan to meet relevant objectives, this report presents the conceptual foundation of options for use in pilot testing and implementing an effectiveness monitoring program for aquatic and riparian systems. The base program would evaluate status and trends of watershed, stream, and riparian conditions by using decision-support models. Although the focus of AREMP is on characterizing ecosystem status and trend, implementing it will also supply information that will be useful in determining causal relations to help explain those trends.

Keywords: Effectiveness monitoring, aquatic ecosystems, riparian ecosystems, decision-support models.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-244 04-355 (2004)American Samoa’s forest resources, 2001, by J.A. Donnegan, S.S. Mann, S.L. Butler, B.A. Hiserote (899 Kb)

The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the Pacific Northwest Research Station collected, analyzed, and summarized data from field plots, and mapped land cover on four islands in American Samoa. This statistical sample provides estimates of forest area, stem volume, biomass, numbers of trees, damages to trees, and tree size distribution. The summary provides detailed tables and graphical highlights to help inform resource managers and policymakers, as well as educating the public regarding the status and trends in their natural resources.

Keywords: American Samoa, biomass, damage, FIA, forest inventory, timber volume.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-243 04-356 (2004) Guam’s forest resources, 2002, by J.A. Donnegan, S.L. Butler, W. Grabowiecki, B.A. Hiserote, D. Limtiaco (1.07 MB)

The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program collected, analyzed, and summarized field data on 46 forested plots on the island of Guam. Estimates of forest area, tree stem volume and biomass, the numbers of trees, tree damages, and the distribution of tree sizes were summarized for this statistical sample. Detailed tables and graphical highlights provide a summary of Guam’s forest resources and a baseline from which to detect future change following remeasurement of the permanent field plots.

Keywords: Guam, biomass, damage, FIA, forest inventory, volume.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-242 (2004) Timber resource statistics for Oregon, by S. Campbell, P. Dunham, A. Azuma (2.02 MB)

This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for all ownerships in Oregon. Data were collected as part of several statewide multiresource inventories, including those conducted by the Pacific Northwest Region (Region 6) on National Forest System lands in Oregon, by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on BLM lands in western Oregon, and by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program on BLM lands in eastern Oregon and state and private lands across Oregon. Statistical tables provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest for the state and half-state units (western and eastern Oregon).

Keywords: Forest inventory, statistics (forest), timber resources, timberland, resources (forest), Oregon, western Oregon, eastern Oregon.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-241 (2004) Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters of 2002, by D.D. Warren

Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

Keywords: Forestry business economics, lumber prices, plywood prices, timber volume, stumpage prices, employment (forest products industries), marketing (forest products), imports and exports (forest products).


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-238 (2004) Timber resource statistics for eastern Oregon, 1999, Rev., by D.L. Azuma, P.A. Dunham, B.A. Hiserote, and C.F. Veneklase (684 Kb)

This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for eastern Oregon, which includes Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled all private and public lands except those administered by the National Forest System. The National Forest System provided area statistics from their regional inventories of the various forests. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest.

Keywords: Forest surveys, forest inventory, statistics (forest), timber resources, resources (forest), eastern Oregon.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-237 (2004) Timber resource statistics for western Oregon, 1997, Rev., by D.L. Azuma, L.F. Bednar; B.A. Hiserote, and C.F. Veneklase (944 Kb)

This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for western Oregon, which includes Benton, Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Hood River, Jackson, Josephine, Lane, Lincoln, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled all private and public lands except those administered by the National Forest System and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The National Forest System and BLM provided data from regional inventories. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest for individual survey units and at the half-state level.

Keywords: Forest surveys, forest inventory, statistics (forest), timber resources, resources (forest), western Oregon.


Res. Note PNW-RN-545 04-130 (2004) Estimating sawmill processing capacity for tongass timber, by K.A. Kilborn, D.J. Parrent, R.D. Housley (325 Kb)

In spring 2001 and 2003, sawmill capacity and utilization information was collected directly from 20 producers (usually the largest and most active) in southeast Alaska. The estimated mill capacity in southeast Alaska for calendar year (CY) 2000 was 501,850 thousand board feet (MBF) (log scale) and for CY 2002 was 453,850 MBF (log scale). The actual production by these mills for CY 2000 was 87,117 MBF (log scale) and for CY 2002 was 39,701.6 MBF (log scale).

Keywords: Alaskan sawmills, lumber capacity.


Res. Note PNW-RN-544 (2004) Characterizing meadow vegetation with multitemporal landsat thematic mapper remote sensing, by A.A. Ager, and K.E. Owens (669 Kb)

Wet meadows are important biological components in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Many meadows in the Blue Mountains and elsewhere in the Western United States are in a state of change owing to grazing, mining, logging, road development, and other factors. This project evaluated the utility of remotely sensed data to characterize and monitor meadow vegetation for 32 meadows in the Wallowa Whitman and Umatilla National Forests. The meadows had been previously classified into different plant community types based on the occurrence of specific indicator species of sedge (Carex spp). We analyzed the spectral signature of the sample meadows by using the Kauth-Thomas (tasseled-cap) transformation calculated for a temporal series of five Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images. The Landsat TM images were obtained for monthly intervals from April to September in 2000. We found that the sequence of Landsat TM scenes provided ample resolution to differentiate most of the plant communities examined. A larger sample size and additional field verification of the meadow vegetation data would have provided a more definitive evaluation of the methods. The multitemporal approach holds promise for monitoring change in wetland indicator species like the sedges, and for rapid characterization of grass, grasslike, and herbaceous vegetation over large areas. The technique also may be useful to detect the current location and spread of plants, especially those with distinctive vegetative or floral phenologies.

Keywords: Meadows, Carex, Landsat, multitemporal, sedge.


Res. Note PNW-RN-542 04-290 (2004) Issues in evaluating the costs and benefits of fuel treatments to reduce wildfire in the Nation’s forests, by J.D. Kline (807 Kb)

Wildland fire has been perhaps the most vexing forest management and policy issue in the United States in recent years, stirring both passionate and reasoned debate among managers, policymakers, researchers, and citizens alike. Years of fire suppression and increasing constraints on natural and prescribed burning, possibly along with climate change, have altered historical wildfire regimes resulting in increased wildfire severity in the Nation’s forests. The growing wildfire threat has motivated increasing interest in reducing hazardous fuels through prescribed burning, thinning, and harvesting. Debate about whether such fuel treatments are necessary persists owing in part to the complexity of the wildfire issue and to general disagreement among managers, policymakers, researchers, and citizens about whether long-term wildfire impacts and current trends present a real problem. Although scientific research continues to resolve many aspects of the wildfire issue, comprehensive economic analyses examining the wisdom of investing in fuel treatments to reduce wildfire threat are lacking. This report presents one way of conceptualizing the costs and benefits of fuel treatments and wildfire and briefly reviews issues related to their evaluation. The intent is to enrich ongoing debate by organizing management and policy dialogue around a conceptual framework that characterizes the long-term impacts of fuel treatments on forest conditions and wildfires, within an analytical context that includes both wildfire- and nonwildfirerelated forest management activities.

Keywords: Fuel treatments, wildfire, wildland/urban interface, cost-benefit analysis.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-562 (2005) Influence of precommercial thinning on snowshoe hares, by E.L. Bull, T.W. Heater, A.A. Clark, J.F. Shepherd, A.K. Blumton (554 Kb)

Relative abundance, survival, home range, and habitat use of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) were evaluated in five precommercial thinning treatments in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) stands in northeastern Oregon between June 2000 and July 2003. A combination of track surveys, trapping grids, and radiocollared hares was used to evaluate these characteristics. Relative abundance of snowshoe hare tracks was highest in unthinned control stands and lowest in the recently thinned stands. The highest abundance of snowshoe hares in trapping grids occurred in patch cuts (10-m-wide cuts interspersed with unthinned patches 10 to 30 m wide). Hare home ranges were smallest in the patch cuts. Habitat use changed seasonally, with hares using denser stands during summer and more open stands in winter. In the short term, the patch cut appeared to provide the best hare habitat of the treatments investigated.

Keywords: Fuel reduction, Lepus americanus, northeastern Oregon, snowshoe hare, thinning.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-561 (2004) Reconsidering price projections for selected grades of Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber, by R.W. Haynes, R.D. Fight (772 Kb)

Grade-specific price projections were once again developed for Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber. These grade-specific price projections can be used to demonstrate the returns to land management of practices that lead to high-quality logs that produce a larger proportion of high grades of lumber. The price ratios among low, medium, and high grade groupings have been consistent, and interest in these “high-quality” forestry regimes has been persistent.

Keywords: Lumber prices, Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, ponderosa pine.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-560 (2004) Southwest Oregon Biscuit Fire, by D.L. Azuma, J. Donnegan, D. Gedney (2.11 MB)

The Biscuit Fire in southwestern Oregon was one of the largest and most costly in recent history, burning over 499,000 acres and costing over 150 million dollars in suppression efforts. This study uses prefire resource information in conjunction with postfire burn severity to generate statistically reliable prefire resource estimates for the land within the Biscuit Fire perimeter. Resource parameters such timber volume, down woody material, area by forest type, and understory cover compared between burn severity classes.

Keywords: Forest inventory, fire severity, forest resources, Biscuit Fire.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-558 (2004) Tree growth and soil relations at the 1925 Wind River spacing test in coast Douglas-fir, by R.E. Miller, D.L. Reukema, H.W. Anderson (881 Kb)

The 1925 Wind River spacing test is the earliest field trial seeking to determine the most appropriate spacing for planting Douglas-fir. Spacing treatments were not replicated, although individual spacings were subsampled by two to four tree-measurement plots. Previously, greater growth occurred at the wider spacings (10 and 12 ft) than at the closer spacings (4, 5, 6, and 8 ft). We considered three possible explanations: (1) close spacing eventually retarded growth, (2) soil quality may be better in the 10- and 12-ft spacings than at closer spacings, and (3) tree spacing and soil quality combined affected growth. To test these explanations, we (1) measured and mapped several site factors (topographic relief, depth to bedrock, and soil properties) and (2) related these factors to tree and stand growth. We infer from the strong correlation between spacing and soil variables that the influence of soil and spacing cannot be separated; differences in soil depth and available water capacity confound spacing effects and vice versa. Because soils in the wider spacings are generally deeper and have more available water capacity than do soils in the closer spacings, we conclude that some of the superior tree growth attained in the 10-and 12-ft spacings is due to more favorable soil conditions. Visual comparisons of tree size, however, suggest that spacing is probably the stronger factor affecting tree growth at this location.

Keywords: Douglas-fir, tree spacing, tree size, stand yields, soil depth, available water capacity, site productivity.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-557 (2004) Forest resources of southeast Alaska, 2000: results of a single-phase systematic sample, by Willem W.S. van Hees (2.14 MB)

A baseline assessment of forest resources in southeast Alaska was made by using a single-phase, unstratified, systematic-grid sample, with ground plots established at each grid intersection. Ratio-of means estimators were used to develop population estimates. Forests cover an estimated 48 percent of the 22.9-million-acre southeast Alaska inventory unit. Dominant forest types are the western hemlock Sitka spruce, mixed conifer, and western hemlock types. The timberland portion of productive forest land for all owners is estimated to be 4.1 million acres. Net volume on timberland was estimated at 21,040 million cubic feet. Estimated gross growth of timberland forests exceeded estimated mortality by 55.8 million cubic feet. Field data collection was conducted from 1995 to 2000, and data compilation progressed through 2002.

Keywords: Forest surveys, timber resources, statistics (forest), Alaska (southeast).


US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
Last Modified: Thursday,13October2016 at17:01:59CDT

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