USDA Forest Service

Pacific Northwest Research Station

Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 SW First Ave.
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 808-2100

US Forest Service

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-565 Measures of progress for collaboration: case study of the Applegate Partnership, by S. Rolle (286 Kb)

Using the Applegate Partnership as a case study, this paper proposes a number of ways to measure the success of collaborative groups. These measures allow for providing evaluation and feedback, engaging needed participants, and responding to groups critical of the collaborative process. Arguing for the concept of progress in place of success, this paper points out that success is relative and should not be measured in absolute terms; tracking progress gives the sense of movement toward a goal or desired situation.

Keywords: Natural resources, collaboration, monitoring for success, progress, partnerships.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-564 Compatibility between wood production and other values and uses on forested lands: a problem analysis, by C.E. Peterson, R.A. Monserud (890 Kb)

We provide background documentation for the Pacific Northwest Research Station’s Wood Compatibility Initiative, a 5-year multidisciplinary research effort that began in response to 1997 Congressional direction. This problem analysis was the initial effort to examine the state of knowledge regarding compatibility between wood production and other values and to develop a framework for directing a research initiative (Wood Compatibility Initiative) that examines the central question: Can we as a society produce wood commodities and other forest values in an environmentally acceptable and sustainable manner? Forest policy issues are often framed as two-dimensional debates such as “jobs versus the environment.” That framework assumes that forest management is a zero-sum enterprise, in which actions such as timber harvest inevitably mean substantial tradeoffs for other forest values such as wildlife habitat, clean water, and recreation. The debate ignores the possibility that instead of direct tradeoffs, opportunities exist for compatible changes that can provide more of both. The research challenge is to determine if, and at what level, timber harvest and other forest services and products can complement one another. Compatibility is seen as the degree to which we can manage for wood production without impairing other values.

Keywords: Compatible wood production, alternative silviculture, joint production, social acceptance, forest management, management options, biodiversity, aquatics, wildlife, economics.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-563 Congruent management of multiple resources: proceedings from the Wood Compatibility Initiative workshop, by A.C. Johnson, R.W. Haynes, R.A. Monserud, eds. (Part A: 2.91 MB) (Part B: 2.97 MB)

The Wood Compatibility Initiative (WCI) addresses options that may increase the compatibility between wood production and other societal values derived from forestlands. The set of 25 papers included in this proceedings presents the summaries of WCI-related research, compiled from a workshop held December 4-7th 2001 at the Skamania Lodge in Stevenson, Washington. The workshop proceedings papers are grouped into six general topics: 1) workshop keynote papers, 2) aquaticrelated studies, 3) issues relating to scale, 4) silviculture studies, 5) nontimber forest products related research, and 6) social/economic studies. These papers set the context for scientific and management inferences as well as illustrate the complex and diverse array of information needed in the development of land management strategies at different spatial scales.

Keywords: Forest management, societal values, wood production, tradeoffs, compatibility.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-556 Public lands and private recreation enterprise: policy issues from a historical perspective by Tom Quinn. (1.47 Mb)

This paper highlights a number of the historical events and circumstances influencing the role of recreation enterprises on public lands in the United States. From the earliest debates over national park designations through the current debate on the ethics of recreation fees, the influence of recreation service providers has been pervasive. This history is traced with particular attention to the balance between protecting public interests while offering opportunities for profit to the private sector. It is suggested that the former has frequently been sacrificed owing to political pressures or inadequate agency oversight.

Keywords: National Park Service, USDA Forest Service, concessions, recreation, public lands, public good, public utilities.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-555 Adjusting for radiotelemetry error to improve estimates of habitat use by Scott L. Findholt, Bruce K. Johnson, Lyman L. McDonald, [and others]. (265 Kb)

Animal locations estimated from radiotelemetry have traditionally been treated as error-free when analyzed in relation to habitat variables. Location error lowers the power of statistical tests of habitat selection. We describe a method that incorporates the error surrounding point estimates into measures of environmental variables determined from a geographic information system. We estimated a bivariate ellipsoidal probability density for errors surrounding radio collars placed at 20 random sites. This probability density of errors was used to construct probability-weighted estimates of environmental variables. Computer simulations indicated that slope, sine and cosine of aspect, and canopy cover at radiotelemetry locations differed from probability-weighted estimates of those variables (P 0.031). However, these differences were based on large sample sizes (n 305) and were probably too small to influence power of statistical tests of habitat selection. The frequency with which soil, plant community, and canopy cover types were correctly classified with simulated radiotelemetry point estimates increased with increasing patch sizes (P 0.005). Our method could be used to assess how accurately environmental variables can be determined across extremes of habitat and topography and the spatial scale at which analyses retain adequate power. It also could be used with other radiotelemetry systems, including those based on global positioning system technology, if sufficient locations are obtained to describe their probability distribution.

Keywords: Automated tracking, error neighborhood, habitat selection, LORAN-C, Oregon, principal components analysis, radiotelemetry location error, Starkey.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-554 A bibliography for Quercus garryana and other geographically associated and botanically related oaks by Constance A. Harrington and Melanie A. Kallas Compilers. (3.61 Mb)

Interest in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook., commonly known as Oregon white oak or Garry oak, has increased in recent years as scientists, resource managers, and the general public focus attention on a forest type in decline. To aid those interested in learning what has previously been reported on this species, we have compiled a comprehensive bibliography for Q. garryana. This bibliography includes articles published in scientific or technical journals, accepted theses and dissertations, published or widely distributed documents from federal and state organizations, published conference proceedings (as well as chapters from those proceedings), and books (including chapters or articles in edited books). The citations pertain primarily to Q. garryana. Some references pertaining to geographically associated oaks, Q. alba L. (an eastern species closely related to Q. garryana), and general information about the genus Quercus also are included. There are 488 citations that refer to Q. garryana, 191 that pertain to geographically associated oaks, 131 that pertain to Q. alba, and 27 general oak citations. A section entitled “Topics and Keywords” is included to facilitate searching the paper copy of the bibliography for topics of interest. This section lists the citations that pertain to each topic. Keywords are provided for each citation. This bibliography also is available as a portable document format (PDF) file and as an online searchable database.

Keywords: Bibliography, Quercus garryana, Quercus alba, California oaks.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-553 Altered rangeland ecosystems in the interior Columbia basin by Stephen C. Bunting, James L. Kingery, Miles A. Hemstrom [and others]. (2.68 Mb)

A workshop was held to address specific questions related to altered rangeland ecosystems within the interior Columbia basin. Focus was primarily on public lands administered by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management. Altered ecosystems were considered to be those where humaninduced or natural disturbances are of sufficient magnitude to affect ecosystem processes, causing long-term loss or displacement of native community types and loss of productivity, making it difficult or impossible to restore these ecosystems to historical conditions. Seventeen rangeland potential vegetation types (PVT) were identified by the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project and briefly described. Reasons that rangeland ecosystems are altered include presence of invasive species, uncharacteristic grazing effects, climatic change, change in fire regime, and other factors related to human presence. However, primary causes of alteration and restoration potential differ among PVTs. Some altered rangeland ecosystems may be restored by stabilizing ecosystem processes, restoring native plant communities, reducing the spread of invasive species, or conserving existing biota. In some altered conditions, these options have a relatively high probability of success over the short term with low to moderate cost at the site scale. However, in other altered areas, restoration options are expensive, have a low probability of success, and require long timeframes. Restoration of rangeland PVTs is also necessary for the survival of some animal species whose populations are in decline such as the Columbian sharp-tailed grouse and greater sage grouse.

Keywords: Altered rangelands, Columbia sharp-tailed grouse, greater sage grouse, restoration, potential vegetation types, rangeland ecosystems.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-552 A survey of innovative contracting for quality jobs and ecosystem management by Cassandra Moseley (265 Kb)

This survey identifies and defines innovative contracting mechanisms developed in the Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region and northern California. A survey of nine case studies reveals that several new mechanisms have facilitated ecosystem management, quality jobs, and administrative efficiencies, but at times innovation was hampered by Forest Service institutional structures and downsizing.

Keywords: Contracting, stewardship, innovation, workforce development, economic development, ecosystem management, Pacific Northwest, rural communities.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-551 Recreation and tourism in south-central Alaska: patterns and prospects by Steve Colt, Stephanie Martin, Jenna Mieren, and Martha Tomeo.

Based on data from various sources, this report describes the extent and nature of recreation and tourism in south-central Alaska. Current activities, past trends, and prospective developments are presented. Particular attention is given to activities that occur on, or are directly affected by management of, the Chugach National Forest. Recreation and tourism in and around the forest are also placed in a larger context. The Chugach National Forest is heavily used as a scenic resource by motorists and waterborne passengers; road access to the forest supports recreation activities such as fishing, camping, hiking, and wildlife viewing. Although the annual rate of increase in visitors to south-central Alaska seems to have slowed in the late 1990s, evidence indicates that currently both visitors and Alaska residents are increasingly seeking active forms of recreation and “soft adventure.” These demands, combined with likely capacity constraints at well-known attractions in Alaska and entrepreneurial efforts to provide short-duration recreation and tourism experiences, may lead to increasing use of the Chugach National Forest.

Keywords: Tourism, recreation, south-central Alaska, Chugach National Forest, land management planning.

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-550 Economics research supporting water resource stewardship in the Pacific
Economics research supporting water resource stewardship in the Pacific Northwest by Laurie L. Houston, Jeffrey D. Kline, and Ralph J.Alig (338 K)

The use of water increasingly involves complex tradeoffs among biophysical, economic, ecological, and societal values. Knowledge about the value of water to different users and methods with which to evaluate biophysical, economic, ecological, and social tradeoffs associated with allocating limited water resources among competing uses is vital to devising appropriate and effective water resource policies. A review and synthesis of water resource economics research can contribute to a foundation on which to plan and conduct interdisciplinary research evaluating tradeoffs regarding water. It also can assist in setting research priorities for developing analytical processes and tools with which to evaluate tradeoffs, as well as develop water resource management strategies that are ecologically sound, economically efficient, and socially acceptable. Intended primarily for noneconomists, this report reviews existing water resource economics literature concerning the economic value of water in different uses in the Pacific Northwest, the evaluation of tradeoffs among uses, and the use of economic incentives for water conservation and protection or enhancement of water quality. The synthesis of water economics literature culminates in the identification of priority research topics relevant to the Pacific Northwest. An annotated bibliography of a sampling of water resource economics research is provided in an appendix.

Keywords: Economic values and tradeoffs, water quality and quantity, riparian species.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-549 Assessing the viability and adaptability of Oregon communities by Ellen M. Donoghue and Richard W. Haynes (1.63 M)

This work responds to the need to assess progress toward sustainable forest management as established by the Montréal Process Criteria and Indicators. The focus is on a single indicator (commonly referred to as Indicator 46) that addresses the “viability and adaptability to changing economic conditions, of forest-dependent communities, including indigenous communities.” Communities in Oregon were assessed in terms of their connectivity to service centers, socioeconomic well-being, and proximity to public lands. Fifty-four communities rated relatively low in these combined characteristics and were considered less adaptable to changing socioeconomic conditions.

Keywords: Community resiliency, criteria and indicators, forest dependency, Montréal Process, socioeconomic well-being, sustainable forest management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-548 Evaluating benefits and costs of changes in water quality by Jessica Koteen, Susan J. Alexander, and John B. Loomis (1.61 M)

Water quality affects a variety of uses, such as municipal water consumption and recreation. Changes in water quality can influence the benefits water users receive. The problem is how to define water quality for specific uses. It is not possible to come up with one formal definition of water quality that fits all water uses. There are many parameters that influence water quality and that affect benefits to water users. This paper examines six water quality parameters and their influence on six water uses. The water quality parameters are clarity, quantity, salinity, total suspended solids, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Changes in these parameters are evaluated to determine values for municipal, agricultural, recreational, industrial, hydropower, and nonmarket uses of water. Various techniques can be used to estimate nonmarket values for changes in water quality, such as the travel cost method, the contingent valuation method, and the hedonic property method. The data collected on changes in water quantity per acre-foot and its effect on recreationists’ benefits were analyzed by using multiple regression in a meta-analysis. Results from the regression were used to analyze changes in consumer surplus for particular activities and uses for an additional acre-foot of water. Information in tables is included to provide empirical evidence as to how certain water quality parameters affect a particular use. The tables provide values from previous studies and the valuation techniques used in each study. From these values, we find mean values of changes in water quality and how this change monetarily affects the use in question.

Keywords: Dissolved oxygen, instream flow, nonmarket values, recreation, salinity, water clarity, meta-analysis.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-547 Harvest, employment, exports, and prices in Pacific Northwest forests, 1965–2000 by Debra D. Warren (1.76 M)

Provides historical information on log harvest; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and chips; and volume and average prices of sawtimber stumpage sold by national forests.

Keywords: Log harvest, employment (forest products industries), exports (forest products), and stumpage prices.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-546 Beyond 2001: a silvicultural odyssey to sustaining terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems—proceedings of the 2001 national silviculture workshop, May 6-10, Hood River, Oregon.

The 2001 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Hood River, Oregon, and hosted by the Mt. Hood National Forest, the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The Washington Office Vegetation Management and Protection Research and Forest and Grassland staffs are ongoing sponsors of the biennial workshop, which began in 1973 in Marquette, Michigan. The general purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for scientists and land managers to exchange ideas and information and to develop opportunities for future collaboration. The 2001 workshop focused on the role of silviculture in supporting wildlife habitat and riparian management objectives. This topic was chosen to emphasize current issues in forestry and to underscore the important contribution of silviculture to ecosystem management. Papers were solicited on projects that demonstrated the use of silviculture in achieving wildlife and fish management goals. This document contains the papers that were offered at the 2001 workshop, and are grouped according to four themes: wildlife, vegetation, aquatic systems, and social systems. Authors are presented in the order in which papers were presented at the 2001 workshop. Nancy Lankford, Forest Silviculturist on the Mt. Hood National Forest, and Bob Obedzinski, Silviculturist on the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, were instrumental in organizing the 2001 workshop. The planning committee included Frank Burch, WO-FM; Sharon Friedman, WO-VMPR; Fred Zensen and Grant Gunderson, Pacific Northwest Regional Office; Andrew Carey, Peter Bisson, Connie Harrington, and Susan Stevens Hummel, Pacific Northwest Research Station.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-544 Lumber recovery studies of Alaska sawmills, 1997 to 1999 by Kenneth A. Kilborn

This report looks at solid wood product recovery based on the results of 23 studies conducted from April 1997 to July 1999 of 22 sawmills in Alaska (during these years, these mills represented over 90 percent of the State’s annual lumber production). Results for all mills studied within the State were reviewed for differences (1) in recovery by regions of the State, (2) in recovery by size of operation, or (3) by type of break-down machinery. Two outstanding areas of opportunity to improve product recovery for nearly every sawmill within the State were reducing target thickness to eliminate over-sizing and reducing sawing variation. There were no significant differences in product recovery when comparing studies by region, production level, or equipment type. Requirements of markets during these years were definite factors in sawmills producing oversized products. There was less thickness variation with bandsaw breakdown equipment than with circular saw breakdown equipment. Followup studies conducted at sawmills where improvements have been made would document the value of the improvements.

Keywords: Alaska, sawmill, lumber, product recovery, forest products.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-543 A public utility model for managing public land recreation enterprises by Tom Quinn

Through review of relevant economic principles and judicial precedent, a case is made that public-land recreation enterprises are analogous to traditionally recognized public utilities. Given the historical concern over the societal value of recreation and
associated pricing issues, public-land management policies failing to acknowledge these utilitylike characteristics and a subsequent agency regulatory responsibility are shown to be deficient. Existing institutional barriers, however, sometimes limit the options available to agency managers. Eight strategies for performance enhancement are offered.

Keywords: Public land, recreation, concessioner, public utilities, government regulation, National Park Service, USDA Forest Service, monopolies, public goods.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-542 Montague Island vole: a conservation assessment by Ellen Weintraub Lance

Montague Island tundra voles were first described in the early 1900s. Based on their large size and dark coloration relative to other island and mainland populations, tundra voles from Montague Island were classified as a distinct subspecies. Research conducted in the 1990s revealed significant differences in the size and shape of Montague Island voles, but not significant genetic differentiation. Montague Island voles appeared abundant in the 1990s, although there was no attempt to estimate population size. Montague Island voles may be reproductively and genetically isolated. More sensitive genetic techniques now can be used to test genetic distinctiveness across populations. A conservation concern exists owing to the unknown population status and still questionable taxonomy of this island endemic subspecies, because it is unknown if land management practices affect this isolated population.

Keywords: Tundra vole, island endemics, Microtus oeconomus elymocetes, Montague Island, Montague Island vole, taxonomy.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-541 Montague Island marmot: a conservation assessment by Ellen Weintraub Lance (415 Kb)

The hoary marmot, from Montague Island, south-central Alaska, was classified as a distinct subspecies based on smaller size and skull characteristics relative to other island and mainland populations. The taxonomic validity of the Montague Island marmot (Marmota caligata sheldoni) is questionable, as conclusions were based on the analysis of no more than eight specimens. With the exception of one relatively recent sight record, Montague Island marmots have not been reported or collected since the early 1900s. A conservation concern exists, particularly owing to the unknown population status and questionable taxonomy of this island endemic subspecies that may be negatively affected by land management practices.

Keywords: Hoary marmots, island endemics, Marmota caligata sheldoni, Montague Island, Montague Island marmot, taxonomy.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-540 Highlights of science contributions to implementing the Northwest Forest Plan—1994 to 1998 by Nancy M. Diaz and Richard W. Haynes (944 Kb)

During 5 years of research (1994-98) in support of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP), Pacific Northwest Research Station scientists and their collaborators have made significant progress in both validating some of the NWFP’s major assumptions and providing research that sets the stage for further evolution of the plan. Studies have provided new information in the areas of wildlife conservation and population viability, aquatic conservation measures, adaptive management, the socioeconomic dimension, ecological processes and functions, landscape-scale issues, and stand-development strategies. A key theme in the findings is the need for NWFP implementation and research efforts to increasingly address the significant ecological variation throughout the region, the dynamic nature of our forest ecosystems, the need to integrate information across science disciplines, and the benefits of managing adaptively.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, ecosystem management, conservation, land management, alternative silviculture, landscape ecology, adaptive management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-539 Understanding the compatibility of multiple uses on forest land: a survey of multiresource research with application to the Pacific Northwest by James A. Stevens, Claire A. Montgomery (235 Kb)

In this report, multiresource research is described as it has coevolved with forest policy objectives—from managing for single or dominant uses, to managing for compatible multiple forest uses, to sustaining ecosystem health on the forest. The evolution of analytical methods for multiresource research is traced from impact analysis to multiresource modeling, and examples of true joint production of forest products, goods, and services are given. Empirical results from studies related to wood compatibility in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are compiled. We found that:

- In most cases, joint production research has been too specific or too theoretical to be directly applicable by land managers. Meta-analysis may prove useful for generating general management guidelines.
- Compatibility studies generally demonstrate compatibility between wood production and other uses. This result depends on geographic scale of analysis.
- Increasing sophistication in modeling method and the dramatic increase in data describing interactions among forest uses will likely make future tradeoff analysis more realistic and useful. Current work in modeling timber-wildlife tradeoffs shows promise.
- Compatibility analysis can be useful for policy analysis by establishing standards of efficiency against which to evaluate policy alternatives.

Keywords: Multiple use, multiresource research, compatibility, joint production, production possibilities, tradeoff analysis, forest management, forest planning models.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-538 A comparative study of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, with special emphasis on policy measures for nonindustrial private forests in Norway and the United States by Berit Hauger Lindstad.

In recognition of the cultural, economic, and ecological importance of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, this paper compares forest resource data, ownership patterns, management issues, and the impact the forest sector has on the national economies of these four countries. There is particular emphasis on the analysis of policy measures that affect nonindustrial private forests (NIPFs) in Norway and the United States. This comparison of similarities and differences in the management of NIPFs serves to identify different solutions to common challenges faced by the forest sectors of Norway and the United States.

Keywords: Nonindustrial private forests, NIPFs, forest policy, forest regulations, ownership, taxation, economics, Finland, Norway, Sweden, United States, Nordic.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-537 Social acceptability of forest conditions and management practices: a problem analysis by Bruce A. Shindler, Mark Brunson, and George H. Stankey.

The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of the complex sociopolitical processes related to resource management and to help structure management response to conflict and contentiousness, misunderstanding among participants, and failed citizen-agency interactions. Public acceptance is essential to every resource management decision public agencies must make. Regardless of the issue—forest health, fuels management, riparian restoration, recreation impacts, or threatened and endangered species—the political environment surrounding most decisions is never about just single questions, nor is it about just ecological questions. Social acceptability involves many diverse factors that are only now beginning to be understood and given credence by resource professionals. In this analysis, we describe the social acceptability concept and identify 10 key problem areas needing indepth consideration for durable decisions to be made about forest conditions and practices on federal lands. A central conclusion is that public judgments are always provisional, never absolute or final. Each situation, each context, produces a unique set of circumstances affecting the formation of public acceptance. By its nature, social acceptability is a process rather than an end product.We conclude by presenting five basic strategies to help guide resource professionals and citizens toward more integrated solutions.

Keywords: Social acceptability, forest management, decisionmaking, public participation, strategic planning.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-536 Assessing and evaluating recreational uses of water resources: implications for an integrated management framework by Christina Kakoyannis and George H. Stankey (583K)

To resolve conflicts over water, we need an understanding of human uses and values for water. In this study, we explore how water-based recreation affects and is affected by the water regime and water management and how key social trends might influence future water-based recreation. We found that although water is a critical component of many recreational experiences, our failure to understand current and anticipated water-based recreation use trends hampers our ability to effectively manage for recreation. Furthermore, we examined certain key drivers of social change, including population growth and migration, that will likely alter future recreation trends in the Pacific Northwest. We identified changes to the water resource, such as altered flow regimes, that have important consequences for the availability and quality of recreation opportunities. Although there are a variety of conflicts among recreationists and between recreation and other uses of water, we have a limited understanding of how to resolve them. Effective management will require examining the links between recreational opportunities and water management to minimize negative impacts to both recreation and the water regime.

Keywords: Recreation, water management, demographics.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-535 Multiresource effects of a stand-replacement prescribed fire in the Pinus contorta-Abies lasiocarpa vegetation zone of central Washington by Arthur R. Tiedemann, and Paul M. Woodard.

A stand-replacement prescribed fire in an over-mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stand (snag area) and in a mature lodgepole pine thicket (thicket area) resulted in lower plant diversity within the first year after burning, and as fire energy outputs increased, postburn plant cover and diversity decreased. There was no reestablishment of the original plant cover where total heat output exceeded 100 000 kcal/m2. Apparently, most plants in this habitat were not fire resistant. Postfire recovery appears to depend on immigration of seeds from adjacent unburned areas or on seeds and rhizomes that survive on unburned microsites (refugia) within the burn. After fire, temperatures increased in the forest floor fermentative layer (FL) (10 to 19 °C) and upper 10 cm of the soil layer (SL) (3 to 7 °C) on several dates in summer 1976. Increased pH levels in FL (about 2 units) and SL (about 0.5 unit) after burning provided an improved environment for bacterial development, and counts of total bacteria and proteolytic bacteria both increased. Both nitrogen fixation and nitrification were increased after burning. Despite the apparent increase in microbiological activity, microbial respiration declined after burning—apparently because of reduced forest floor organic carbon energy reservoir. Diversity of birds increased the year after burning. New species of birds included hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus), black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus), common flicker (Colaptes auratus), and mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides). Numbers of needle-foraging species, such as Townsend’s warbler (Dendroica townsendi), hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus), golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa), and western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana), declined or were absent after fire. Responses of small mammals to fire were not definitive, but there was a marked decline in Townsend’s chipmunk (Tamias townsendii) after burning. In the first year after burning, forage for elk (Cervus elaphus) in the burned area was higher in crude protein than in unburned areas, but low productivity and distance from water diminished the value of the burned area for elk.

Keywords: Forest succession, forest floor, understory vegetation, fuels, soil physical properties, wildlife, snags, downed wood, microbial populations, nitrification, nitrogen fixation, small mammals, birds, elk.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-534 Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism by Dorceta E. Taylor.

This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people’s environmental experiences, and consequently their activism and environmental discourses.

Historical data show that while some middle class whites fled the cities and their urban ills to focus attention on outdoor explorations, wilderness and wildlife issues, some of their social contemporaries stayed in the cities to develop urban parks and help improve urban environmental conditions. Though there were conflicts between white middle and working class activists over the use of open space, the white working class collaborated with white middle-class urban environmental activists to improve public health and worker health and safety, whereas, people of color, driven off their land, corralled onto reservations, enslaved, and used as low-wage laborers, developed activist agendas and environmental discourses that linked racism and oppression to worker health and safety issues, limited access to resources, loss of or denial of land ownership, and infringement on human rights.

Keywords: Environmental discourses, environmental movement, activism, environmental justice, social justice, gender, class, race, racism, people of color, wilderness, wildlife, urban parks, civil rights, labor, outdoor recreation, African Americans, Native Americans, Asians, Chicanos, Latinos, Whites.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-533 Feasibility of using wood wastes to meet local heating requirements of communities in the Kenai Peninsula in Alask by by David L. Nicholls, Peter M. Crimp

Wood energy can be important in meeting the energy needs of Alaska communities that have access to abundant biomass resources. In the Kenai Peninsula, a continuing spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) infestation has created large volumes of standing dead spruce trees ( Picea spp.). For this evaluation, a site in the Kenai-Soldotna area was chosen for a small, industrial-scale (4 million British thermal units (BTUs) per hour) wood-fired hot water heating system, which could be fueled by salvaged spruce timber and also by sawmilling residues. Thirty-six different scenarios were evaluated by using wood fuel costs ranging from $10 to $50 per delivered ton, alternative fuel costs from $1 to $2 per gallon, and fuel moisture contents of either 20 percent or 50 percent (green basis). In addition, two different capital costs were considered. Internal rates of return varied from less than 0 to about 31 percent, and project payback periods varied from 4 years to greater than 20 years. Potential barriers to the long-term sustainability of a wood energy system in the Kenai Peninsula include the availability of biomass material once current spruce salvage activities subside. The estimated wood fuel requirements of about 2,000 tons per year are expected to be easily met by spruce salvage operations over the short term and by sawmill residues after salvage inventories diminish. It is expected that a wood energy system this size would not significantly reduce overall fuel loads in the area, but instead would be a good demonstration of this type of system while providing other community benefits and energy savings.

Keywords: Economics, wood energy, biomass, wood products, Alaska.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-532 Utilization of Oregon’s timber harvest and associated direct economic effects by Krista M. Gebert, Charles E., III Keegan, Sue Willits, and Al Chase.

With more than 16 million acres of commercial timberland, Oregon’s forest products industry is an important part of Oregon’s economy and a major player in the Nation’s wood products market. Despite declining production over the last decade, in 1998 Oregon was still the leading producer of softwood lumber and plywood in the United States, and the timber harvested in Oregon is the major supplier of the raw material used by Oregon’s wood-processing mills. This report traces the flow of Oregon’s 1998 timber harvest through the various primary wood-using industries and investigates the relations between the harvest and key economic variables such as the value of production, employment, and workers’ earnings. Also included is a section on Oregon’s secondary wood products industry.

Keywords: Wood products industry, timber harvest, economic effects, employment, labor income, sales value, Oregon.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-531 Land ownership dynamics in the Big Elk Valley in Oregon during the 20th century by Brett J. Butler, and Brooks J. Stanfield.

Land ownership is a key link between society and natural resources. The dynamics of landowner patterns are demonstrated by the examination of five land ownership maps in the Big Elk Valley of the central Oregon Coast Range. These patterns are further illustrated with the presentation of a land patents map of the Big Elk Valley. We selected this watershed because of its high diversity of ownership classes and the ability of the resulting dynamics to capture many aspects of ownership dynamics. Maps of land ownership are presented for 1907, 1930, 1956, 1979, and 1998. We also provide brief, illustrative descriptions of processes underlying the changing ownership patterns.

Keywords: Land ownership, Big Elk Valley, Oregon.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-530 The status of whitebark pine along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest.

Because of concern over widespread population declines, the distribution, stand conditions, and health of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Englem.) were evaluated along the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail on the Umpqua National Forest. Whitebark pine occurred on 76 percent of the survey transects. In general, whitebark pine was found in stands with lower overall densities and fewer late-seral species, particularly Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shatensis A. Murr.) and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana [Bong.] Carr.). Whitebark pine stocking differed widely, from less than 1 up to 24 percent of the trees on transect plots. Most whitebark pines (87 percent) were less than 5 m tall. Of all whitebark pine encountered, 44 percent were alive and healthy, 46 percent were alive but infected by Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch) (cause of white pine blister rust), and 10 percent were dead. Two-thirds of the mortality was due to white pine blister rust. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) alone accounted for 13 percent of the mortality, whereas evidence of mountain pine beetle was found with white pine blister rust on 18 percent of the dead whitebark pines.

White pine blister rust affected trees in all but the largest size class; 70 percent of the whitebark pines greater than 1.5 m tall and less than 7.6 cm diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were infected. Most (92 percent) of infected whitebark pines had bole cankers or cankers within 15 cm of the bole. No cones were observed on whitebark pines in any of the survey plots. Whitebark pine was common in centers of laminated root rot (caused by the fungus Phellinus weirii(Murrill.) R.L. Gilbertson) where substantial canopy openings were found. In these centers, whitebark pine contributed 73 percent of the large tree stocking. The results of this survey constitute a reference condition for whitebark pine that can be used to assess change in its status in this part of southwest Oregon. Measures to reduce the impacts of disease and bark beetles and to maintain whitebark pine populations are discussed.

Keywords: Whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Umpqua National Forest.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-529 A basis for understanding compatibility among wood production and other forest values by Richard W. Haynes, and Robert A. Monserud

In the public debate over forest management, many issues are portrayed as tradeoffs between biophysical and socioeconomic components of ecosystems. This simplistic portrayal ignores potential opportunities for compatible changes in outputs (either goods or services) among alternative management strategies. In response, a research effort called the Wood Compatibility Initiative (WCI) builds on an extensive body of existing work to examine biophysical and socioeconomic compatibility of managed forests. In this paper, we introduce the conceptual model for the WCI, the scale of analysis, and the overall research strategy. After a short discussion on joint production, we provide examples of compatible wood production at each of four scales: stand, watershed landscape, ecological province, and region level. These examples highlight the progress of WCI during the first three years (1998-2000). We then discuss our progress toward understanding compatibility. Four key research questions address the extent to which we may judge compatibility between wood production and other forest values. Finally, we present our strategy for synthesizing this broad collection of research information on compatible wood production.

Keywords: Joint production, compatible production, forest management research.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-528 Ex situ gene conservation for conifers in the Pacific Northwest by Sara R. Lipow, J. Bradley St. Clair, and G.R. Johnson

Recently, a group of public and private organizations responsible for managing much of the timberland in western Oregon and Washington formed the Pacific Northwest forest tree Gene Conservation Group (GCG) to ensure that the evolutionary potential of important regional tree species is maintained. The group is first compiling data to evaluate the genetic resource status of several species of conifers both at their original location (in situ) and at some other location (ex situ).We summarize the ex situ genetic resources present in seed orchards, provenance and progeny tests, seed stores, and clone banks both in western Oregon and Washington and in other countries with germplasm that originated in western Oregon and Washington. Some species, such as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) are found to have extensive genetic resources in ex situ forms. The resources for western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), for example, are more limited. Disease greatly influenced the development of ex situ genetic resources for western white pine (P. monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), sugar pine (P. lambertiana Dougl.), and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.). The summaries of genetic resources are, therefore, placed in the context of issues affecting each species. This provides land managers with the accurate information necessary for assessing the potential value of each resource for gene conservation and for prioritizing future actions.

Keywords: Ex situ gene conservation, seed orchard, progeny tests, seed storage, clone bank, breeding population, Pacific Northwest, gymnosperm.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-526 Photo point monitoring handbook: part A—field procedures

This handbook describes quick, effective methods for documenting change in vegetation and soil through repeat photography. It is published in two parts: field procedures in part A and concepts and office analysis in part B. Topics may be effects of logging, change in wildlife habitat, livestock grazing impacts, or stream channel reaction to land management. Land managers, foresters, ranchers, wildlife biologists, and land owners may find this monitoring system useful. Part A discusses three critical elements: (1) maps to find the sampling location and maps of the photo monitoring layout; (2) documentation of the monitoring system to include purpose, camera and film, weather, season, sampling system, and equipment; and (3) precise replication in the repeat photography.

This handbook describes quick, effective methods for documenting change in vegetation and soil through repea photography. It is published in two parts: concepts and office analysis in part B, and field procedures in part A. Topics monitored may be effects of logging, change in wildlife habitat, livestock grazing impacts, or stream channel reaction to land management. Land managers, foresters, ranchers, wildlife biologists, and land owners may find this monitoring system useful. In part B, (1) concepts and procedures required to use photographs for analyzing change in photographs are presented, (2) monitoring equipment specifications are given, and (3) forms for recording information and mounting photographs are provided.

Keywords: Monitoring, photography.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-525 Forests of western Oregon: an overview by Sally Campbell, Dave Azuma, and Dale Weyermann

This publication provides highlights of forest inventories and surveys from 1993 to 2000. It presents both traditional and nontraditional information about western Oregon’s forests.The amount of forest land in western Oregon has changed little since the earliest inventory in 1930. About 80 percent of western Oregon is forested. Fifty tree species were tallied in forest inventories during the 1990s, with Douglas-fir the predominant species in all ecological units in western Oregon. About 52 percent of western Oregon forest land is managed by the Forest Service, BLM, and other federal agencies; about 41 percent is privately owned; and the remaining 7 percent is managed by the Oregon Department of Forestry and other nonfederal public agencies. Growth of trees in western Oregon exceeds the amount removed by harvest and mortality. One-third of inventory plots on nonfederal lands have one or more noxious weeds. Down wood and snags are important forest components and were tallied in these last inventories. Western spruce budworm, bark beetles, root diseases, dwarf mistletoes, and Swiss needle cast have affected many acres of forest land in western Oregon from 1987 to 2000. Lichens, as indicators of air pollution, climate, and forest age and structure, have been tallied on a portion of western Oregon inventory plots beginning in 1998. Monitoring for ozone injury on several sensitive forest species also was begun in 1998; no ozone injury has been detected in western Oregon.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-524 Domestic market activity in solid wood products in the United States, 1950-1998.

Solid wood is important to the construction, manufacturing, and shipping segments of the U.S. economy. Nearly all new houses are built with wood, and wood building products are used in the construction of nonresidential buildings, and in the upkeep and improvement of existing structures. Solid wood is used extensively to produce and transport manufactured products. It also provides a renewable energy source for industrial, commercial, and residential applications. In 1998, 19.6 billion cubic feet, roundwood equivalent, of all timber products were consumed in the United States, down slightly from 1996, but considerably greater than in 1962. About 87 percent of this was for industrial products, and 13 percent for fuelwood. Excluding fuelwood, solid wood timber products accounted for about 67 percent of the industrial roundwood consumed, and pulpwood products about 33 percent. Large amounts of residues are generated in the production of solid wood products, about 10 to 15 percent of total industrial roundwood consumption. Thus, solid wood products and pulpwood products each account for about half of the industrial roundwood consumed. This report examines solid wood timber products consumption in the United States over the past 40 to 45 years, relates changes in consumption to economic, social, and institutional factors during the period, and presents estimates of consumption in major end-use markets. Trends in timber products production, foreign trade, and domestic consumption over the past half century also are examined.

Keywords: Production, consumption, timber products consumption, industrial roundwood production, solid wood consumption, wood use, softwood lumber, hardwood lumber, structural panels, softwood plywood, oriented strandboard, OSB, waferboard, nonstructural panels, hardwood plywood, particleboard, medium-density fiberboard, MDF, hardboard, insulation board, engineered wood products, wood I-joists, gluelaminated timbers, glulam, structural composite lumber, laminated veneer lumber, LVL, parallel strand lumber, PSL, oriented strand lumber, OSL, fuelwood, construction, housing, new residential construction, single-family, multifamily, apartments, mobile homes, repair, remodeling, upkeep, improvements, expenditures, nonresidential construction, railroads, manufacturing, furniture, shipping, wooden containers, pallets, fuelwood.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-493 Evaluation of the retail market potential for locally produced paper birch lumber in Alaska by David L. Nicholls

An evaluation of the retail market potential for random-width paper birch ( Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber in Alaska was conducted. Information from lumber manufacturers and retail managers was used to identify current barriers to customer acceptance of locally produced paper birch lumber. Major retail markets and paper birch producing regions throughout Alaska were considered in this study. Results indicated generally favorable retail market potential for Alaska paper birch with strong interest from both lumber producers and retail store managers. Key issues that were identified included (1) the ability of lumber producers to secure dependable log supplies, (2) consistent moisture content control and dimensional stability of kiln-dried lumber, and (3) appearance features that could potentially influence purchasing decisions, such as heartwood or sapwood variations. Finding suitable selling arrangements between relatively small lumber producers and retailers also was identified as a potential barrier to successful sales programs. Recent trends in Alaska indicate that greater volumes of paper birch lumber are being kiln dried to the quality standards needed for retail market sales.

Keywords: Market potential, paper birch, lumber, wood products, Alaska.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-238 Timber resource statistics for eastern Oregon, 1999 by David L. Azuma, Paul A. Dunham, Bruce A. Hiserote, and Charles F. Veneklase (503 Kb)

This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for eastern Oregon, which includes Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled all private and public lands except those administered by the National Forest System. The National Forest System provided area statistics from their regional inventories of the various forests. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest.

Keywords: Forest surveys, forest inventory, statistics (forest), timber resources, resources (forest), eastern Oregon.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-237 Timber resource statistics for western Oregon, 1997 by David L. Azuma; Larry F. Bednar; Bruce A. Hiserote; Charles F. Veneklase (834 K)

This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for western Oregon, which includes Benton, Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Hood River, Jackson, Josephine, Lane, Lincoln, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled all private and public lands except those administered by the National Forest System and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The National Forest System and BLM provided data from regional inventories. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest for individual survey units and at the half-state level.

Keywords: Forest surveys, forest inventory, statistics (forest), timber resources, resources (forest), western Oregon.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-236 Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2000 by Debra D. Warren

Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest
industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage
sold by public agencies; and other related items.

Keywords: Forestry business economics, lumber prices, plywood prices, timber volume,
stumpage prices, employment (forest products industries), marketing (forest products), imports
and exports (forest products).


Res. Note PNW-RN-535 Assessing visual soil disturbance on eight commercially thinned sites in northeastern Washington by Jeffrey S. Tepp (82 Kb)

Randomly located transects were used to assess visual soil disturbance on eight units in the Fritz Timber Sale, Colville National Forest. Equipment trails, mostly designated, accounted for about 25 percent of the total area. The cut-to-length harvester and forwarder combination with 130-foot trail spacing produced the least visual disturbance. Leaving slash on trails appeared to reduce displacement and rutting. Rehabilitation of trails, landings, and temporary roads could move seven of the eight units toward compliance with regional standards for detrimental disturbance. Validation of these regional standards is needed to determine the effects of soil disturbance on soil productive capacity.

Keywords: Soil disturbance, soil monitoring, harvesting effects, thinning, skyline, Pacific Northwest, assessment.


Res. Note PNW-RN-534 Midscale analysis of streamside characteristics in the upper Grande Ronde subbasin, northeastern Oregon by Miles A. Hemstrom, Tim Smith, Donald Evans [and others]. [(340 Kb)

Riparian or streamside areas are the focus of considerable management and public interest in the interior Northwest. Unfortunately, the vegetation and geomorphic characteristics of streamside areas are difficult to assess across large landscapes because streamside areas are geographically small in much of the arid interior. However, managers and scientists need methods to assess streamside conditions across large landscapes for land management planning, watershed analysis, and landscape simulation modeling. We present proposed methods for characterizing streamside vegetation and topography by using geographic information systems, terrain models, and photointerpreted vegetation maps. We propose application of resulting information for restoration planning and linkage to landscape wildlife and aquatic habitat models in the upper Grande Ronde subbasin of northeastern Oregon.


Res. Note PNW-RN-533 Site index equations and mean annual increment equations for Pacific Northwest Research Station forest inventory and analysis inventories, 1985-2001 by Erica J. Hanson, David L. Azuma, and Bruce A. Hiserote (478 Kb)

Site index equations and mean annual increment equations used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program at the Portland Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The equations are for 24 tree species in California, Oregon, and Washington.

Keywords: Site index equations, mean annual increment equations.


Res. Note PNW-RN-532 Comparisons of estimated standard error for a ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator for a mapped-plot sample design in Southeast Alaska by Willem W.S. van Hees (52 Kb)

Comparisons of estimated standard error for a ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator are presented for forest resource inventories conducted in southeast Alaska between 1995 and 2000. Estimated standard errors for the ROM were generated by using a traditional variance estimator and also approximated by bootstrap methods. Estimates of standard error generated by both traditional and bootstrap methods were similar. Percentage differences between the traditional and bootstrap estimates of standard error for productive forest acres and for gross cubic-foot growth were generally greater than respective differences for nonproductive forest acres, net cubic volume, or nonforest acres.

Keywords: Sampling, inventory (forest), error estimation.


Res. Pap PNW-RP-549 Landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington: a geographic information system weighted-distance and least-cost corridor assessment by Peter H. Singleton, William L. Gaines, John F. Lehmkuhl

We conducted a regional-scale evaluation of landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington and adjacent portions of British Columbia and Idaho. We developed geographic information system based landscape permeability models for wolves (Canis lupus), wolverine (Gulo gulo), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos). We also developed a general large carnivore model to provide a single generalization of the predominant landscape patterns for the four focal species. The models evaluated land cover type, road density, human population density, elevation, and slope to provide an estimate of landscape permeability. We identified five concentrations of large carnivore habitat between which we evaluated landscape permeability. The habitat concentration areas were the southern Cascade Range, the north-central Cascade Range, the Coast Range, the Kettle-Monashee Ranges, and the Selkirk-Columbia Mountains. We evaluated landscape permeability in fracture zones between these areas, including the I-90 Snoqualmie Pass area, the Fraser-Coquihalla area, the Okanogan Valley, and the upper Columbia and Pend Oreille River valleys. We identified the portions of the Washington state highway system that passed through habitat linkages between the habitat concentration areas and areas accessible to the focal species. This analysis provides a consistent measure of estimated landscape permeability across the analysis area, which can be used to develop conservation strategies, contribute to future field survey efforts, and help identify management priorities for the focal species.

Keywords: Washington, corridors, fragmentation, habitat connectivity, landscape permeability, endangered species, reserve design.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-548 Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 17–the Skykomish study, 1961–93; the Clemons study, 1963–94.

Stand treatments were completed as prescribed with an initial calibration cut and five thinnings resulting in eight new regimes for management of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Measurements were continued for an additional 14 years to observe stability and yields of stands in a postthinning holding period. Detailed descriptions of each regime based on measurements at each thinning are summarized in stand development tables. Regimes with the most growing stock after the last thinning produced 30 to 38 percent more gross-cubic-volume yield (live and cumulative thinnings and mortality) per acre than regimes with the least growing stock. The complete regimes are compared at three stages of stand development followed by recommendations for applications.

Keywords: Thinning, growing stock, growth and yield, stand density, Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii, series–Douglas-fir LOGS.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-547 Thinning shock and response to fertilizer less than expected in young Douglas-fir stand at Wind River Experimental Forest by Dean S. DeBell, Constance, A. Harrington, and John. Shumway (252 Kb)

Three thinning treatments (thinned to 3.7 by 3.7 m, thinned to 4.3 by 4.3 m, and an unthinned control treatment with nominal spacing averaging 2.6 by 2.6 m) were installed in a 10-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation growing on a low-quality site at the Wind River Experimental Forest in southwest Washington. Two years after thinning, two fertilizer treatments were superimposed on the design (0 and 224 kg per ha of nitrogen applied as ammonium nitrate). Diameter growth increased with increasing spacing throughout the 6-year study period, and it was also increased by fertilizer in both the thinned and unthinned (control) treatments. Thinning shock, a reduction in height growth after thinning, was expected at this study site because severe thinning shock had been documented in earlier nearby trials. Height growth was initially reduced slightly by thinning, but by the third 2-year period after thinning, height growth in thinned, unfertilized treatments was equal to or greater than height growth in the unthinned, unfertilized treatment. Fertilizer application increased height growth on average by 13 percent in the first 2 years after fertilization. In the third and fourth years after fertilization, however, fertilizer increased average height growth by 9 percent, but the increase was substantial (16 percent) only in the unthinned control treatment. The mild, ephemeral nature of thinning shock in our study was in contrast to the severe, long-lasting shock in earlier studies at Wind River. The milder shock in our study could be related to one or more of the following: (1) thinning was done at an early age, (2) impacts of fire (natural or prescribed) preceding planting were minor, and (3) seed source of the planted stock was appropriate for the location. Based on comparisons with other studies at Wind River and elsewhere, we suspect that use of nonlocal, maladapted seed sources in the earlier studies may have predisposed those trees to thinning shock. Furthermore, we suspect that the much higher responses to fertilizer application reported in the earlier studies may be associated with intense natural fires prior to planting, and the reduced nutritional status of those sites may have been further exacerbated by the use of maladapted seed sources.

Keywords: Thinning, thinning shock, fertilization, nitrogen, seed source, fire, Wind River.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-546 Effect of ecosystem disturbance on diversity of bark and wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae) in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) ecosystems of Alaska by Richard A. Werner

Fire and timber harvest are the two major disturbances that alter forest ecosystems in interior Alaska. Both types of disturbance provide habitats that attract wood borers and bark beetles the first year after the disturbance, but populations then decrease to levels below those in undisturbed sites. Populations of scolytids, buprestids, and cerambycids are compared 1, 5, and 10 years after burning and timber harvest on flood-plain and upland white spruce sites. This paper reports the effects of ecosystem disturbance, such as silvicultural practices and prescribed fire, on the diversity of wood-inhabiting bark beetles and wood borers in upland and flood-plain white spruce stands in interior Alaska.

Keywords: Bark beetles, wood borers, prescribed fire, timber harvest, silvicultural practices, white spruce, Picea glauca.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-544 Release rates of methylcyclohexenone and verbenone from bubble cap and bead releasers under field conditions suitable for the management of bark beetles in California, Oregon, and Alaska.

Devices releasing antiaggregation pheromones, such as MCH (3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) and verbenone (4-methylene-6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)hept-2-ene), are used experimentally to manipulate destructive populations of bark beetles. Two slow release devices, bubble caps attached to boles of trees and granular beads placed on the ground, were tested in forests of California, Oregon, and Alaska to determine their release rates. The hypothesis was that ambient air and soil temperatures were major determinants in the release rates of the releaser devices. Release rates of both bubble caps and beads differed greatly. The fastest rate was for bubble caps at a warm, California pine (Pinus spp.) site where it was 15 times faster than the rate at a cool Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr.) site in Alaska. Beads released MCH quickly and were rendered ineffective in less than 2 weeks. Little or no release occurred thereafter, regardless of the amount of pheromone remaining in the bead, or litter layer temperature. Release rates determined under field conditions are useful for the field entomologist and are vital to the development of models for semiochemical dispersion.

Keywords: Semiochemicals, release rates, antiaggregation pheromones, bark beetles, temperature, MCH, verbenone.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-543 Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 14––Stampede Creek: 30-year results by Robert O. Curtis and David D. Marshall (1.22 M)

Results of the Stampede Creek installation of the levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) are summarized. To age 63 (planned completion of 60 feet of height growth), volume growth on the site III natural stand has been strongly related to level of growing stock, but basal area growth-growing stock relations were considerably weaker. Marked differences in tree size distributions have resulted from thinning. Periodic annual volume increments at age 63 are two to three times greater than mean annual increment; this stand is still far from culmination. Results for this southwest Oregon installation are generally similar to those reported from other LOGS installations, although development has been slower than on the site II installations that make up the majority of the series.

Keywords: Thinning, growing stock, growth and yield, stand density, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, series––Douglas-fir LOGS.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-542 Effect of fertilizer applications and grazing exclusion on species composition and biomass in wet meadow restoration in eastern Washington by John Beebe, Richard Everett, George Scherer, and Carl Davis

Fertilizer applications and grazing exclusion were used as restoration strategies in degraded wet meadows in eastern Washington to grow biomass in the root systems where it could not be grazed. We used a split-block design to test vegetation responses to six fertilizer rates, eight fertilizer types, and three grazing treatments after three growing seasons. Little change in plant composition was detected, but weed biomass was reduced by 50 percent in cattle plus elk grazing. Although forb shoot biomass did not increase, grass shoot biomass doubled but was influenced by grazing treatments. Root biomass doubled under fertilizer applications. A 10-percent decline in soil bulk density suggested a reduction in soil compaction. These responses were attributed to the increased root biomass. Optimum fertilization rates of 100 kg/ha were recommended along with carefully administered grazing schedules for meadow community restoration.

Keywords: Meadow restoration, grazing treatments, soil bulk density, root biomass, weed reduction, plant composition.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-541 Use of semiochemicals of secondary bark beetles to disrupt spruce beetle attraction and survival in Alaska by Richard A. Werner, and Edward H. Holsten

Field experiments using baited multiple-funnel traps and baited felled trees were conducted to test the hypothesis that semiochemicals from secondary species of scolytids could be used to disrupt spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) attraction. Semiochemicals from three secondary species of scolytids, (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) [(±)-ipsdienol], Dryocoetes affaber (Mannerheim) [(±)-exo- and (±)-endo-brevicomin], and Polygraphus rufipennis (Kirby) [methyl butenol] were used to disrupt spruce beetle trap catches and reduce attacks on felled trees. Trap catches of spruce beetles were reduced by 87 percent by the combinations of semiochemicals from these secondary scolytids. Addition of MCH (methylcyclohexenone) to these semiochemicals reduced attack density by 62 to 87 percent. Results indicate that inducing attacks by I. perturbatus and D. affaber on felled susceptible host trees by using semiochemicals could be a viable method to minimize spruce beetle attack and brood development.

Keywords: Dendroctonus rufipennis, Ips perturbatus, Dryocoetes affaber, Polygraphus rufipennis, bark beetle, semiochemicals, Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii), Alaska.

Res. Pap. PNW-RP-540 Constancy and cover of plants in the Petersburg and Wrangell Districts, Tongass National Forest and associated private and other public lands, southeast Alaska by Bert R. Mead

This study provides a comprehensive and inclusive description and inventory of the vegetation within the Stikine area of southeast Alaska. Private and other public lands were included as well as Tongass National Forest lands contained in the Petersburg and Wrangell Ranger Districts. Previous inventories have concentrated almost exclusively on tree species within forest lands. There has been recent recognition, however, that forest management plans must incorporate detailed information on other vegetation and resources. During an information needs assessment, prior to the inventory, Tongass National Forest managers requested that data be collected on all plant species. This information would feed into vegetation databases to be used by forest managers for various purposes but would be collected by using the same method and in one format for the entire Tongass National Forest.

Constancy and foliar cover tables are presented for the Stikine area of the Tongass National Forest and adjacent private and other public lands of southeast Alaska. The methods used to estimate occurrence in the area are described and discussed. Average cover and constancy value for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 18 forest and 12 nonforest Alaska vegetation classification system level IV vegetation types is shown.

Vegetation classification was attempted by using the preliminary forest plant associations of the Stikine area of the Tongass National Forest. Only a small percentage of the plots fit neatly into this classification system. Because the plots were located systematically, many plots did not fall into average or typical plant-association series descriptions. We discovered that we could not obtain tree cover by species using the four 7.43-radius subplots, making the first-level branches of the plant association key borderline between several associations, and a correct placement was not possible.

Keywords: Alaska, southeast, foliar cover, species constancy, inventory, plant ecology, Stikine, Wrangell, Kake, Petersburg, Tongass, Zaremo, Kuiu, Kupreanof, Etolin, Cleveland Peninsula, temperate rain forest, Alaska vegetation classification system, species composition.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-538 Research in adaptive management: working relations and the research process by Amanda C. Graham and Linda E. Kruger (2.42 M)

This report analyzes how a small group of Forest Service scientists participating in efforts to implement adaptive management approach working relations, and how they understand and apply the research process. Nine scientists completed a questionnaire to assess their preferred mode of thinking (the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument), engaged in a facilitated conversation to “map” their ideas about research (Conceptual Content Cognitive Mapping, or “3CM”), and participated in several open-ended interviews. Recommendations are made for future adaptive management efforts, and propositions for further study are suggested.

Keywords: Adaptive management, social learning, collaboration, research, natural resources.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-537 Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no.15-Hoskins: 35-year results by David D. Marshall, and Robert O. Curtis.

The cooperative levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was begun to study the relations between growing stock, growth, cumulative wood production, and tree size in repeatedly thinned stands. This report summarizes results from the Hoskins installation through age 55. Growing stock has been allowed to accumulate for 19 years since the last treatment thinning was applied in this high site class II natural stand. Volume and diameter growth were strongly related to growing stock. Basal area growth-growing stock relations were considerably weaker. Differences in tree size and volume distribution were considerable. Culmination of mean annual increment has not occurred for any of the treatments, although the control has culminated for total stem cubic volume and is near culmination for merchantable cubic volume. Only small differences are seen in growth percentages between thinning treatments. Results demonstrate potential flexibility in managing Douglas-fir to reach a range of objectives.

Keywords: Thinning, growing stock, growth and yield, stand density, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, series-Douglas-fir LOGS.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-536 Dispersal flight and attack of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, in south-central Alaska by Edward H. Holsten, and John S. Hard

Data from 1999 and 2000 field studies regarding the dispersal flight and initial attack behavior of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) are summarized. More dispersing beetles were trapped in flight near the middle to upper tree bole than the lower bole. There were no significant differences between trap location and ambient temperatures. Initial attacks, however, were concentrated on the lower tree bole. Dispersal flight preceded initial attacks by 1 to 2 weeks.

Keywords: Bark beetles, Dendroctonus rufipennis, dispersal, flight, attack patterns, white spruce, Picea glauca, Lutz spruce, Picea X lutzii, Alaska (south-central), Kenai Peninsula


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-534 Global effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector to 2010. by Shushuai Zhu, Joseph Buongiorno, and David J. Brooks

This study projects the effects of tariff elimination on the world sector. Projections were done for two scenarios: (1) progressive tariff elimination according to the schedule agreed to under the current General Agreement on Tariff or Trade (GATT) and (2) complete elimination of tariff on wood products as proposed within the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Accelerated Tariff Liberalization (ATL) initiative. Projections were made by using the global forest products model, which provides equilibrium projections of prices and quantities produced, consumed, and traded for 14 commodity groups. Key assumptions include rates of economic growth, availability of wood, demand (price) elasticities, and tariff scenarios.

Keywords: Accelerated tariff liberalization, ATL, import tariffs, equilibrium projection, market model, forest products, fuelwood, industrial roundwood, pulp, recycled fibers, paper, paperboard.

US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
Last Modified: Thursday,13October2016 at17:01:58CDT

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