USDA Forest Service

Pacific Northwest Research Station

Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 SW First Ave.
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 808-2100

US Forest Service

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-505 Interpreting landscape change in high mountains of northeastern Oregon from long-term repeat photography by Jon M. Skovlin, Gerald S. Strickler, Jesse L. Peterson, and Arthur W. Sampson.

We compared 45 photographs taken before 1925 to photographs taken as late as 1999 and documented landscape changes above 5,000 feet elevation in the Wallowa, Elkhorn, and Greenhorn Mountains of northeastern Oregon. We noted the following major changes from these comparisons: (1) the expansion of subalpine fir into mountain grasslands, (2) the invasion of moist and wet meadows by several tree species, (3) a loss of whitebark pine from subalpine habitats, (4) continued soil erosion stemming from livestock grazing long since discontinued, and (5) a high rate of natural gravitational mass wasting. The most important factor contributing to changes in woody vegetation has been a reduction in fire frequency. Fires that occurred before 1925 were nine times more frequent than those that occurred at the end of the 20th century. Historical land uses and origins of place names are described.

Keywords: Wallowas, Elkhorns, Greenhorns, Oregon, photography (repeat), photo history, land use, long-term change, landscape ecoloogy, tree encroachment, whitebark pine, recreation, Eagle Cap Wilderness Area, erosion, fire frequency, climate, subalpine ecosystem.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-502 Anabat bat detection system: description and maintenance manual by Douglas W. Waldren

Anabat detection systems record ultrasonic bat calls on cassette tape by using a sophisticated ultrasonic microphone and cassette tape interface. This paper describes equipment setup and some maintenance issues. The layout and function of display panels are presented with special emphasis on how to use this information to troubleshoot equipment problems. The maintenance section describes opening the equipment, identifying an internal battery, removing panels for maintenance, reinstalling a dislodged light sensor, replacing a broken switch, constructing and replacing a critical battery stack, and making an external power cable. A short discussion on the Anabat software describes how to access, install, and check the Anabat 5 program for use with the Anabat equipment. The unit used to access field data collected on a cassette recorder, the zero crossings analysis interface module (ZCAIM), is briefly addressed with a section on how to adjust the tape recorder head skew so that field data can be reproduced accurately on a laboratory recorder. Tips for handling 12-folt rechargeable batteries also are included.

Keywords: Anabat, delay switch, detector, N/S, ultrasonic, ZCAIM.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-501 A habitat-based point-count protocol for terrestrial birds, emphasizing Washington and Oregon by Mark H. Huff, Kelly A. Bettinger, Howard L. Ferguson, Martin J. Brown, and Bob Altman

We describe a protocol and provide a summary for point-count monitoring of landbirds that is designed for habitat-based objectives. Presentation is in four steps: preparation and planning, selecting monitoring sites, establishing monitoring stations, and conducting point counts. We describe the basis for doing habitat-based point counts, how they are organized, and how they differ from other approaches using point counts. We discuss links between local scale and larger scale monitoring and methods to evaluate sample size for monitoring. We develop a framework for identifying potential monitoring sites and provide an attribute database to characterize the potential sites, including rules to select sites. We describe individual requirements for sites, rules for distances between points, ways to mark individual count stations, and alternative methods for riparian areas. We conclude with guidelines for counting birds and recording data.

Keywords: Bird sampling, avifauna, monitoring, point count, Pacific Northwest, bird protocol, avian field methods, population trends, bird detections.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-500 Proceedings: linking healthy forests and communities through Alaska value-added forest products by Theodore L. Laufenberg and Bridget K. Brady, eds.

The Alaska forest products industry is experiencing significant changes in its structure due to economic, ecological, and social pressures. Papers presented at this workshop brought together technical specialists and exhibitors from forest products industry, associations, universities, and private, state, and federal land management agencies. Topics included: policy and management shifts necessary to link healthy forests, communities, and industries; silvicultural concerns for future forest potential; enhancing value in lumber, engineered timber products, processing of finished wood products, and special (craft and nontimber) forest products; and assessment of Alaska forest product industry's competitive position within state, national, and in Pacific Rim markets.

As the first technology transfer of the Wood Utilization Research and Development Center, the Alaska value-added forest products workshop set the stage for developing a strong research and development program for the new center. The center's mission includes working with community partners to identify and evaluate the opportunities for small businesses and examining how small businesses benefit the local economy. The Alaska Wood Utilization Research and Development Center opened in Sitka in January 1999. Congress directed its creation to identify and evaluate "value-added" activities that may provide a durable mix of employment, profits, and forest products industry in Alaska. The Center is a part of the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Keywords: Forest products, Alaska, wood, timber, logs, economics, forest management, silviculture, land use, engineered products, lumber, special forest products, nontimber forest products, markets, international, secondary processing, value-added, forest health, Sitka spruce, yellow-cedar, western redcedar, hemlock, white spruce, red alder, small business, community development, research needs, industry capacity.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-499 Social assessment for the Colville National Forest CROP program by Angela J. Findley, Matthew S. Carroll, and Keith A. Blatner

A qualitative social assessment targeted salient issues connected to the Colville National Forest creating opportunities (CROP) research program that examines forest management alternatives for small-diameter stands in northeastern Washington. Research spanned various communities in three counties and investigated the diversity of fundamental values people attach to small-diameter stands, beliefs about appropriate forest management directions, and perceived impacts from the CROP program. To focus on people's knowledge of and interest in small-diameter stand management, semistructured interviews (n=76) were conducted in person with local residents and other people associated with the Colville National Forest. Breadth and depth of interviewee's value orientations and forest use were explored to develop a comprehensive inductive analysis of the social complexity surrounding the CROP program. Seven distinct groups were differentiated to develop a social typology that juxtaposed positions, perceptions, and preferred small-diameter stand-management alternatives. Several themes emerged. Practical implications of these themes are offered as guidelines to resource managers to improve public involvement as the decisionmaking process moves to public forums.

Keywords: Social assessment, qualitative methodology, natural resource conflict, public involvement, collaborative learning, Colville National Forest.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-498 Northwest Forest Plan research synthesis by Richard W. Haynes and Gloria E. Perez, Technical Editors

This document synthesizes research accomplishments initiated and funded under the Northwest Forest Plan (hereafter referred to as the Forest Plan) since its inception in 1994. Three major parts in this document cover, the context for this effort, eight Forest Plan research accomplishments, and a synthesis. This eight accomplishments described in part two, chapter 4 as follows:

Wildlife conservation and population variability issues

- Aquatic conservation strategy
- Adaptive management concepts and decision support
- Adaptive management areas: synthesis of an ongoing experiment
- Socioeconomic research
- Ecological processes and function
- The struggle to deal with landscapes
- Developing new stand-management strategies for the Douglas-fir region

These accomplishments and the ongoing work are synthesized around the following converging themes:

- Conserving biological diversity
- Science support for implementing the plan
- Cross-disciplinary science
- Science and policy issues

Much of our research success has rested on a merging of several separate, largely functional research efforts that built incrementally on past work . Our legacy of post-Forest Plan work differs in that it has many successful development and application efforts, and early efforts at larger scale and more integrative work. Although there are many findings in the various Forest Plan research areas, the ecosystem management framework of the Forest Plan has created an impetus toward greater integration, system approaches, and holistic perspectives.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, ecosystem management, conservation, land management, alternative silviculture, landscape ecology, adaptive management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-496 Stand-density study of spruce-hemlock stands in southeastern Alaska by Donald J. DeMars

The lack of growth and yield information for young even-aged western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)-Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stands in southeastern Alaska served as the impetus for a long-term stand-density study begun in 1974. The study has followed permanent growth plots in managed stands under various thinning regimes. Between 1974 and 1987, 272 plots were established at 59 locations throughout southeastern Alaska. Remeasurement of the plots occurs every two to four years and will continue until harvest. Additional thinnings will occur on a portion of the plots. Future plans include extending the study through establishment of installations in stand types not currently represented. Once data for an entire rotation are obtained, a comprehensive set of growth and yield tables for various management regimes can be developed. This information will answer questions forest managers have on whether and when to thin a stand, at what level of intensity, and how frequently to enter the stand.

Keywords: Thinning, stand density, southeastern Alaska, western hemlock, Sitka spruce.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-495 Monitoring for ozone injury in West Coast (Oregon, Washington, California) forests in 1998 by Sally Campbell, Gretchen Smith, Pat Temple [and others].

In 1998, forest vegetation was monitored for ozone injury on permanent plots in two Sierra Nevada national forests in California, at three locations in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington, and at 68 forest health monitoring (FHM) locations throughout Washington, Oregon, California. This was the first year that extensive monitoring of forest vegetation for ozone injury was carried out in Oregon and Washington. Injury was detected on ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in the Sierra Nevada permanent plots and on red elderberry at one FHM location in southwest Washington. No injury was detected at the Mount Rainier sites. We also report on results of a trial where red alder, huckleberry, blue elderberry, and chokecherry were exposed to ozone under controlled conditions.

Keywords: Ozone, plant injury, biomonitoring, forest health monitoring.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-494 Alternatives to clearcutting in the old-growth forests of southeast Alaska: study plan and establishment report by Michael H. McClellan, Douglas N. Swanston, Paul E. Hennon, Robert L. Deal, Toni L. De Santo, and Mark S. Wipfli

Much is known about the ecological effects, economics, and social impacts of clearcutting, but little documented experience with other silvicultural systems exists in southeast Alaska. The Pacific Northwest Research Station and the Alaska Region of the USDA Forest Service have cooperatively established an interdisciplinary study of ecosystem and social responses to alternative silvicultural systems to evaluate their ability to provide for sustainable wood production and protection of other forest values. This information is needed to select appropriate systems for managing old-growth stands on timber-producing lands in southeast Alaska. We present the study plan and establishment report because of the large-scale and long-term nature of this study, and in response to significant interest from resource managers, researchers, and the public.

A short-term retrospective study and a longer term, operational-scale, experimental study are planned. Ecosystem and social responses to be evaluated include tree regeneration, growth, and mortality; plant diversity and abundance; tree damage agents, deer habitat quality; bird diversity and abundance; headwater stream ecology; ground-water changes; slope stability; visual quality; and social acceptability. The extensive pretreatment site assessments will add significant new knowledge of old-growth forests and associated aquatic ecosystems.

Keywords: Ecosystem management, clearcutting, alternative silviculture, silvicultural systems, wildlife habitat, fish habitat, visual quality, slope stability, forest ecology.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-492 True fir-hemlock spacing trials: design and first results by Robert O. Curtis, Gary W. Clendenen, and Jan A. Henderson

A series of 18 precommercial thinning trials was established in true-fir hemlock stands in the Olympic Mountains and along the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon from 1987 through 1994. This paper documents establishment of these installations and presents some preliminary observations and results. Substantial differences in growth rates in height and diameter were observed among Pacific silver fir, western hemlock, and noble fir. Diameter growth of all species increased as spacing increased, but height growth of silver fir and noble fir decreased at wider spacings in some areas. These installations will provide a unique source of information on early development of managed stands of these species, for which little information is now available.
Keywords: Abies, spacing, precommercial thinning, true firs.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-491 Earthworms (annelida: oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area by Sam James

Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status of the soil. The three main ecological types of earthworms found in the basin assessment area are epigeic, endogeic, and anecic. Each type has a different life history pattern, resource requirement area on these three types are summarized. Key ecological functions of earthworms are presented in relation to the ecological functions include the effects of earthworms on soils, their role in nutrient cycling, and their relation to other fauna.

Distributions of earthworm species in the basin assessment area also are summarized. Although most of the known species from the area are exotics from Europe, at least three species are native to the region. Unpublished records indicate that there may be many more species that have either not yet been collected or for which descriptions have not yet been published. Both the possibility of discovering additional macrofaunal biodiversity and the precarious status of at least one known species argue for additional research on earthworms in the basin assessment area.

Effects of land use and management practices on earthworms are explored by examining research on similar human influences in other ecosystems as no research on these issues has been done in the Western United States. Suggestions for land use and future research priorities are provided.

Keywords: Earthworm, Oligochaeta, Columbia River basin, soil biota, land management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-490 Connecting people with ecosystems in the 21st century: an assessment of our nation's urban forests by John F. Dwyer, David J. Nowak, Mary Heather Noble, and Susan M. Sisinni

Urban areas (cities, towns, villages, etc.) cover 3.5 percent of the 48 conterminous states and contain more than 75 percent of the population. In urban areas, about 3.8 billion trees cover 27.1 percent of the land. On a broader scale, metropolitan areas (urban counties) cover 24.5 percent of the conterminous United States and contain 74.4 billion trees that cover 33.4 percent of these counties. Between 1950 and 1990, metropolitan areas nearly tripled in size; urban areas doubled in size over the past 20 to 25 years.

This report is the first national assessment of urban forest resources in the United States and details variations in urbanization and urban tree cover across the United States by state, county, and individual urban area. It illustrates local-scale variation, complexity, and connectedness of the urban forest resource and how this resource changes through time in response to a wide range of powerful forces. The report concludes by outlining future areas of emphasis that will facilitate comprehensive, adaptive, and sustainable urban forest management and improve environmental quality, enhance human health, and connect people with ecosystems in the 21st century.

Keywords: Urban forests, urban forestry, tree cover, sustainability, adaptive management, urbanization, urban ecosystems, urban populations, metropolitan areas, RPA assessment.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-489 Understanding human uses and values in watershed analysis by Roger D. Fight, Linda E. Kruger, Christopher Hansen-Murray [and others]

Watershed analysis is used as a tool to understand the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and to assess opportunities to restore or improve those processes and associated watershed conditions. Assessing those opportunities correctly requires an understanding of how humans have interacted with the watershed in the past and how they likely will interact with the watershed in the future. This paper provides a systematic approach to developing relevant information about human interactions with a watershed. The approach was originally developed as a technical supplement to the Federal process for watershed analysis. This document does not address American Indian traditional cultural and religious issues in depth; those are to be discussed in a separate technical supplement.

Keywords: Watershed analysis, planning, passive use, cultural use, commercial use, recreation, infrastructure, human dimensions.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-488 Effects of forest management on understory and overstory vegetation: a retrospective study by David R.Thysell and Andrew B. Carey

Management for wood production through long rotations and thinning and management for biodiversity through legacy retention, protection, and no subsequent manipulation are two approaches to managing second-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. We describe how these two strategies have affected tree size, tree density, and native and exotic vascular plant diversity and abundance.

Keywords: Diversity, second growth, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii understory vegetation, species richness, thinning, forest development, legacies.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-487 Korean pine-broadleaved forests of the Far East: Proceedings from the international conference by Peyton W. Owston, William E. Schlosser, Dmitri F. Efremov and Cynthia L. Miner, tech. eds.
Korean pine-broadleaved forests are very biologically diverse. In the Russian Far East, these forests are subject to a high level of use by humans and are systematically influenced by fire. Intensive exploitation in the past has led to a decrease in the resource potential. Sound decisionmaking and scientific advancement have lacked sufficient exchange of scientific information. A symposium was convened to share information through presentations of a comprehensive set of topics including forest structure, seed science, genetics, regeneration, fire, wildlife biodiversity, nontimber forest products, economics, and forest management. The main focus of the symposium was the Russian Far East with some participation fro Japan and the United States. Because Siberian pine dominates in Siberia, several presentations and abstracts also address this forest species.

Keywords: Korean pine-broadleaved forests, Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, biodiversity, forest structure, regeneration, nontimber forest products, genetics, Russian Far East, Siberia.
Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-486 Environmental effects of postfire logging: literature review and annotated bibliography by James D. McIver and Lynn Starr, tech. eds.

The scientific literature on logging after wildfire is reviewed with a focus on environmental effects of logging and removal of large woody structure. Rehabilitation, the practice of planting or seeding after logging, is not reviewed here. Several publications are cited that can be described as “commentaries”, intended to help frame the public debate. Twenty-one postfire logging studies are reviewed and interpreted in the context of how wildfire itself affects stands and watersheds.

Keywords: Postfire logging, salvage harvest, fuel, down wood, wildlife habitat, recovery, hydrology, wildfire, habitat structure, literature review.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-485 Source habitats for terrestrial vertebrates of focus in the interior Columbia basin: broad-scale trends and management implications by Michael J. Wisdom, Richard S. Holthausen, Barbara C. Wales, Christina D. Hargis, Victoria A. Saab, Danny C. Lee, Wendel J. Hann, Terrell D. Rich, Mary M. Rowland, Wally J. Murphy, and Michelle R. Eames

We defined habitat requirements (source habitats) and assessed trends in these habitats for 91 species of terrestrial vertebrates on 58 million ha (145 million acres) of public and private lands within the interior Columbia basin (hereafter referred to as the basin). We also summarized knowledge about species-road relations for each species and mapped source habitats in relation to road densities for four species of terrestrial carnivores. Our assessment was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP), a multiresource, multidisciplinary effort by the USDA Forest Service (FS) and the USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to develop an ecosystem-based strategy for managing FS and BLM lands within the basin. Our assessment was designed to provide technical support for the ICBEMP and was done in five steps. First, we identified species of terrestrial vertebrates for which there was ongoing concern about population or habitat status (species of focus), and for which habitats could be estimated reliably by using a large mapping unit (pixel size) of 100 ha (247 acres) and broad-scale methods of spatial analysis. Second, we evaluated change in source habitats from early European settlement (historical, circa 1850 to 1890) to current (circa1985 to 1995) conditions for each species and for hierarchically nested groups of species and families of groups at the spatial scales of the watershed (5th hydrologic unit code [HUC], subbasin (4th HUC), ecological reporting unit, and basin. Third, we summarized the effects of roads and road-associated factors on populations and habitats for each of the 91 species and described the results in relation to broad-scale patterns of road density. Fourth, we mapped classes of the current abundance of source habitats for four species of terrestrial carnivores in relation to classes of road density across the 164 subbasins and used the maps to identify areas having high potential to support persistent populations. And fifth, we used our results, along with results from other studies, to describe broad-scale implications for managing habitats deemed to have undergone long-term decline and for managing species negatively affected by roads or road-associated factors.

Our results indicated that habitats for species, groups, and families associated with old-forest structural stages, with native grasslands, or with native shrublands have undergone strong, widespread decline. Implications of these results for managing old-forest structural stages include consideration of (1) conservation of habitats in subbasins and watersheds where decline in old forests has been strongest; (2) silvicultural manipulations of mid-seral forests to accelerate development of late-seral stages; and (3) long-term silvilcultural manipulations and long-term accommodation of fire and other disturbance regimes in all forested structural stages to hasten development and improvement in the amount, quality, and distribution of old-forest stages. Implications of our results for managing rangelands include the potential to (1) conserve native grasslands and shrublands that have not undergone largescale reduction in composition of native plants; (2) control or eradicate exotic plants on native plant communities by using intensive range practices where potential for restoration is highest.

Our analysis also indicated that >70 percent of the 91 species are affected negatively by one or more factors associated with roads. Moreover, maps of the abundance of source habitats in relation to classes or road density suggested that road-associated factors hypothetically may reduce the potential to support persistent populations of terrestrial carnivores in many subbasins. Management implications of our summarized road effects include the potential to mitigate a diverse set of negative factors associated with roads. Comprehensive mitigation of road-associated factors would require a substantial reduction in the density of existing roads as well as effective control of road access in relation to management of livestock, timber, recreation, hunting, trapping, mineral development, and other human activities.

A major assumption of our work was that validation research will be conducted by agency scientists and other researchers to corroborate our findings. As a preliminary step in the process of validation, we found high agreement between trends in source habitats and prior trends in habitat outcomes that were estimated as part of the habitat outcome analysis for terrestrial species within the basin. Results of our assessment also were assumed to lead to finer scale evaluations of habitats for some species, groups, or families as part of implementation procedures. Implementation procedures are necessary to relate our findings to local conditions; this would enable managers to effectively apply local conservation and restoration practices to support broad-scale conservation and restoration strategies that may evolve from our findings.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, conservation, forest management, habitat, habitat condition, habitat management, habitat trend, interior Columbia basin, Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project, landscape ecology, landscape analysis, population viability, rangeland management, terrestrial vertebrates, spatial analysis, species of focus, sink, sink environment, source, source environment, source habitat, source habitats, restoration, species groups, monitoring, validation research, viability, wildlife, wildlife-habitat relations.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-482 Deconstructing the timber volume paradigm in management of the Tongass National Forest by John P. Caouette, Marc G. Kramer, and Gregory J. Nowacki

Timber volume maps have been widely used at the Tongass National Forest for land-use planning and timber and wildlife management. Although considerable effort has been expended to improve these maps, little has been done to evaluate the suitability of timber volume as a descriptor of forest character. In this paper, we establish a rough indicator of forest structure using trees per acre and quadratic mean diameter to examine the reslations between timber volume and forest structure. Results indicate that timber volume and forest structure are not interchangeable attributes.

Keywords: Timber volume, forest structure, aerial photointerpretation, canopy texture, quadratic mean diameter, trees per acre.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-481 Interactions between white spruce and shrubby alders at three boreal forest sites in Alaska by Tricia L. Wurtz
To document possible soil nitrogen mosaics before timber harvesting on three boreal forest sites in Alaska, maps of the distribution of understory green (Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh) and Sitka alder (A.sitchensis (Reg.) Rydb.) stems were made. Understory alders were regularly distributed throughout the northernmost site (Standard Creek) and very irregularly distributed at the southernmost site (Cooper Landing). No consistent relations existed between alder stem location and total soil nitrogen. In undisturbed forest, soils collected beneath alders tended to have more nitrogen than soils without alder, but after the sites were harvested, soil chemistry differed. To examine the interactions of alder and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) on secondary successional sites, mixed plantations of white spruce and alder were established after each site was harvested. Despite good survival, the planted alder grew poorly. No differences were found between nursery-grown alder seedlings and wildlings in either growth or survival. Although fifth-year survival and growth of white spruce were excellent on all sites, they were not related to either the preharvest distribution of naturally occurring alder or to alders planted in the mixed plantations. Locational information and site maps are provided for future evaluation of these plantations.

Keywords: White spruce, green alder, Sitka alder, boreal forest, interior Alaska, mixed-species plantations, nitrogen


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-480 Alaska's Copper River: humankind in a changing world by Harriet H. Christensen, Louise Mastrantonio, John C. Gordon, and Bernard T. Bormann, tech. eds.
Opportunities for natural and social science research were assessed in the Copper River ecosystem including long-term, integrated studies of ecosystem structure and function. The ecosystem is one where change, often rapid, cataclysmic change, is the rule rather than the exception. The ecosystem also contains a variety of people pursuing various human purposes. Although few people dwell in the ecosystem, their signatures are evident in many ways, and their numbers and effects are increasing. Thus, the Copper River ecosystem presents the opportunity to "watch creation," in the sense of both natural change and human influence.

A multidisciplinary group of 16 scientists and specialists with a wide range of experience in natural resource science and education defined the Copper River ecosystem in scientific terms and described dimensions of the ecosystem including vegetation, wild life, land ownership, and human occupation. Opportunities for science are described followed by recommendations. A section on "Knowledge as a Management Goal" also is included.

Keywords: Copper River ecosystem, science opportunities, natural and social science, integration, ecosystem structure and function.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-479 Social assessment for the Wenatchee National Forest wildfires of 1994: targeted analysis for the Leavenworth, Entiat, and Chelan Ranger Districts by Matthew S. Carroll, Angela J. Findley, Keith A. Blatner, Sandra Rodriguez Mendez, Steven E. Daniels, and Gregg B. Walker

A purposive social assessment across three communities explored reactions of local residents to wildfires in the Wenatchee National forest in north-central Washington. Research concentrated on identifying the diversity of fundamental beliefs and values held by local residents about wildlife and forest management. Semistructured interviews were conducted with people representing a diverse set of values, attachments to the National Forest, and beliefs about forest management. For each of the three communities, an indepth discussion described social dynamics relative to fire recovery in the National Forest by juxtaposing value orientations and beliefs across 15 fire recovery issues. Conclusions targeted improved public involvement processes in the aftermath of severe ecological disturbances and traumatic human experiences.

Keywords: Social assessment, qualitative methodology, value orientations, natural resource conflict, public involvement processes, collaborative learning, Wenatchee National Forest.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-478 Atlas of human adaptation to environmental change, challenge, and opportunity: northern California, western Oregon, and western Washington by Harriet H. Christensen, Wendy J. McGinnis, Terry L. Raettig, and Ellen Donoghue

This atlas illustrates the dimensions, location, magnitude, and direction of social and economic change since 1989 in western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California that have occurred during a major transition period in natural resource management policy as well as large decreases in timber harvests. The diversity and the social and economic health of the Northwest Forest Plan region are synthesized by examining the fundamental attributes of the region, provinces, and communities; the atlas includes information about ourselves, our settlements, and our natural resources. We set the stage for dialogue, debate, and developing a set of indicators to monitor the dimensions of well-being for sustainable development. The atlas is a tool for decisionmakers, civic leaders, economic development practitioners, researchers, and others interested in understanding change, easing the transition, and finding and pursuing opportunities to enrich society.

Keywords: Northwest Forest Plan, social and economic indicators, GIS, atlas, regional scale, provincial state, county scale.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-477 Rural communities in the inland Northwest: an assessment of small communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basins by Charles Harris, WIlliam McLaughlin, Greg Brown, and Dennis R. Becker

An assessment of small rural communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basin was conducted for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The characteristics and conditions of the rural communities in this region, which are complex and constantly changing, were examined. The research also assessed the resilience of the region's communities, which was defined as a community ability to respond and adapt to change in the most positive, constructive ways possible for mitigating the impacts of change on the community. The study found that a town's population size, autonomy, economic diversity, quality of life, and experience with change were all factors related to the town's resiliency and the extent to which it was changing and preparing for change.

Keywords: Rural communities, forest communities, resource dependence, community assessment, ecosystem assessment, social impact assessment, resiliency, Columbia basin.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-472 Scenery assessment: scenic beauty at the ecoregions scale by Steven J. Galliano and Gary M. Loeffler

Scenic quality is an important amenity on public lands in the interior Columbia basin. People’s interests in and expectations about ecosystems can help establish desired aesthetic conditions for the different landscapes found in the basin. This paper, a portion of the social science assessment for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project, explains the procedures used to inventory scenic quality throughout the basin by using two primary indicators: landscape character and scenic condition. Most landscapes in the basin are forests and shrub-grasslands having a predominantly natural appearance. Urban and rural developments visually dominate few of the basin’s landscapes, although they are highly visible where they do occur. The overall scenic integrity of landscapes in the basin remains at a relatively high level with over 80 percent dominated by natural-appearing views.

Keywords: Scenery assessment, landscape character, scenic integrity, landscape themes, scenic beauty.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-469 Classification of community types, successional sequences, and landscapes of the Copper River Delta, Alaska by Keith Boggs

A classification of community types, successional sequences, and landscapes is presented for the piedmont of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. A total of 75 community types, 42 successional sequences, and six landscapes are described. Diagnostic keys, based on indicator species, are provided to aid in field identification of community types and successional sequences.

Keywords: Alaska, Copper River delta, classification, community type, succession, landscape, outwash, flood plain, delta, dune, barrier islands.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-468 Biological characteristics and population status of anadromous salmon in southeast Alaska by Karl C. Halupka, Mason D. Bryant, Mary F. Willson, and Fred H. Everest

Populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in southeast Alaska and adjacent areas of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory show great variation in biological characteristics. An introduction presents goals and methods common to the series of reviews of regional salmon diversity presented in the five subsequent chapters. The primary goals were to (1) describe patterns of intraspecific variation and identify specific populations that were outliers from prevailing patterns, and (2) evaluate escapement trends and identify potential risk factors confronting salmon populations. Stock-specific information was compiled primarily form management research conducted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. These reviews provide insight into the ecological and evolutionary ramifications of intraspecific variation for managing diversity and sustaining productivity of salmon resources.

Keywords: Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus, southeast Alaska, intraspecific diversity, population status, variation.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-451 Characterization and assessment of economic systems in the interior Columbia basin: fisheries by David L. Fluharty

Economic value of commercial, recreational, and tribal fishing is one measure of the importance of fisheries in the interior Columbia River basin (the basin) but only part of the values associated with fish of that region. The basin historically has provided substantial intraregional anadromous stock fisheries and contributes to interregional fisheries along the entire west coast of the United States and Canada. Harvest management, construction of dams and irrigation facilities, changes in habitat, and other factors have led to significant declines in some stocks of fish, thereby diminishing their economic importance to the region. Future economic and societal values of fisheries can be expected to increase because of major ongoing efforts to recover stocks of anadromous salmon. Increasing human populations in the basin along with steady or increased demand for recreational fishing will continue to raise the value of both native and introduced species. Shifts in social preferences, global climate change, intermittent drought, and interdecadal shifts in ocean conditions provide additional complexity and uncertainty that will affect fish values.

Keywords: Fish, economics, native fish, resident fish, anadromous fish, recreation, tribal, warm water fish, cold water fish, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, Columbia River, Snake River.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-231 Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 1998 by Debra D. Warren

Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

Keywords: Forestry business economics, lumber prices, plywood prices, timber volume, stumpage prices, employment (forest products industries), marketing (forest products), imports and exports (forest products).


Res. Note PNW-RN-528 Managing stands of the future based on lessons of the past: estimating western timber species product recovery by using historical data by James A. Stevens and R. James Barbour

Researchers at the Pacific Northwest Research Station have completed over 100 forest product recovery studies over the past 40 years. Tree, log, and product data from these studies have been entered into a database, which will allow further analysis within, between, and across studies. Opportunities for analysis include stand-to-log-to-final product estimates of volume, quality, and value. Examples of possible database queries include determining the variation in recovery volume and product yield from different age or diameter classes, the relation between percentage of sound log volume and product yield, and the relation between product quality and age.

Keywords: Wood quality, silviculture, modeling, simulation, timber, lumber recovery, veneer recovery.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-529 Attractant semiochemicals of the engraver beetle, Ips perturbatus, in south-central and interior Alaska by Edward H. Holsten, Roger E. Burnside, Steven J. Seybold

From 1996 through 1999, field tests of various engraver beetle (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) semiochemicals in funnel traps were conducted in south-central and interior Alaska in stands of Lutz (Picea xlutzii Little) and white spruce (P.glauca (Moench) Voss). The European spruce beetle (I. typographus (L.)) is believed to be taxonomically similar to I. perturbatus. Commercially available European spruce beetle lures, which include 2-methyl-3buten-2-ol, however, were no more attractive to I. perturbatus than the combination of racemic ipsdienol and 83%-(+)-cis-verbenol. The addition of >97%-(--)-ipsenol to ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, however, was more attractive than the binary combination alone. Racemic ipsenol dispersed from bubble caps did not prevent I. perturbatus from colonizing fresh logging debris. Thus ipsenol was found to function as an attractant rather than as an antiaggregant as previously shown.

Keywords: Bark beetles, Ips perturbatus, semiochemicals, pheromones, aggregation pheromones, antiaggregation pheromones, white spruce, Picea glauca, Lutz spruce, Picea xlutzii, Alaska (interior, south-central).


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-527 Modification of mixed-conifer forests by ruminant herbivores in the Blue Mountains ecological province by Robert A. Riggs, Arthur R. Tiedemann, John G. Cook, and others

Secondary plant succession and the accumulation of biomass and nutrients were documented at seven ruminant exclosures in Abies and Pseudotsuga forests variously disturbed by logging, burning, and grass seeding. Long-term (25 or more years) foraging by ROcky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) suppressed the development of deciduous shrubs. Ruminant herbivores influenced vegetation to extents equal to those of the initial episodic disturbances. Food preferences of elk were linearly correlated with long-term development of plant taxa. Accumulations of understory and forest floor biomasses were greater inside exclosures than outside. Accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium were greater inside exclosures than outside.

Keywords: Abies, biomass, Bos, Cervus, cycling, disturbance, ecosystem, fire, forest, herbivory, logging, nutrients, Odocoileus, Ovis, productivity, Pseudotsuga, seeding, shrubs, site, succession, understory.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-526 Smoke exposure among firefighters at prescribed burns in the Pacific Northwest by Timothy E. Reinhardt, Roger D. Ottmar, and Andrew J.S. Hanneman

Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters during prescribed burns in the Pacific Northwest between 1991 and 1994 showed that a small but significant percentage of workers experienced exposure to carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants that exceeded occupational exposure limits. This most often was caused by unfavorable winds or fire behavior and occurred mostly among workers involved in maintaining the fire within the prescribed boundaries. Smoke exposure in such peak exposure situations was up to three times above recommended limits. Exposure to acrolein benzene, formaldehyde, and respirable particulate matter could be predicted from measurements of carbon monoxide. Electronic dosimeters were the best tool to assess smoke exposure routinely, so long as quality assurance concepts were included in the monitoring program.

Keywords: Smoke hazards, firefighters, health effects, pollutants, Pacific Northwest.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-525 Smoke exposure at western wildfires by Timothy E. Reinhardt and Roger D. Ottmar

Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not significant, although the data for the latter were limited in scope. The highest short-term exposures to smoke occurred during initial attack of small wildfires, but the shift-average exposures were less during initial attack than those at extended (project) fire assignments because of unexposed time during the shift. Among workers involved in direct attack of actively burning areas and maintaining fireline boundaries, peak exposure situations could be several times greater than recommended occupational exposure limits for short-term exposures. The study found that exposure to acrolein, benzene, formaldehyde, and respirable particulate matter could be predicted from measurements of carbon monoxide. Electrochemical dosimeters for carbon monoxide were the best tool for routinely assessing smoke exposure, so long as quality assurance provisions were included in the monitoring program. Suggested procedures for reducing overexposure to smoke include (1) hazard awareness training, (2) routinely monitoring smoke exposure, (3) evaluating health risks and applicable exposure criteria, (4) improving health surveillance and injury recordkeeping, (5) limiting use of respiratory protection when other mitigation is not feasible, and (6) involving workers, managers, and regulators to develop a smoke exposure management strategy.

Keywords: Smoke exposure, firefighters, occupational health, pollutants, safety, industrial hygiene, smoke hazards.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-524 Classifying plant series-level forest potential vegetation types: methods for subbasins sampled in the midscale assessment of the interior Columbia basin by Paul F. Hessburg, Bradley G. Smith, Scott D. Kreiter, Craig A. Miller, Cecilia H. McNicoll, and Michele Wasienko-Holland

In the interior Columbia River basin midscale ecological assessment, we mapped and characterized his-torical and current vegetation composition and structure of 337 randomly sampled subwatersheds (9500 ha average size) in 43 subbasins (404 000 ha average size). We compared landscape patterns, vegetation structure and composition, and landscape vulnerability to wildfires and 21 major forest insect and pathogen disturbances of historical and current forest vegetation coverages. We report on methods used to classify and map potential vegetation of individual patches of sampled subwatersheds at the plant level.

Keywords: Ecological assessment, interior Columbia River basin, potential natural vegetation, ecological site, site potential, potential vegetation type.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-523 Phytomass in southwest Alaska by Bert R. Mead

Phytomass tables are presented for southwest Alaska. The methods used to estimate plant weight and occurrence in the river basin are described and discussed. Average weight is shown for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 19 forest and 48 nonforest vegetation types. Species frequency of occurrence and species constancy within the type are presented. Comparisons are made with the results of similar inventories of the Tanana River basin and the southeast Alaska archipelago.

Keywords: Alaska, southwest, phytomass, biomass, inventory, plant ecology, Alaska Peninsula, Kuskokwim Census Division, Bristol Bay Census Division, Bethel Census Division, Nunivak, Togiak, Katmai, Lake Clark, Yukon Delta, Illiamna, Alaska vegetation classification system, species composition.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-522 Forest cover dynamics in the Pacific Northwest west side: regional trends and projections by Ralph J. Alig, Daolan Zheng, Thomas A. Spies, and Brett J. Butler

The objectives of this paper were to (1) analyze recent rates of transitions among forest cover types on private timberland, (2) identify differences by ownership class, and (3) project future changes under different scenarios related to current policy issues in the Pacific Northwest. Timber harvests are the dominant class of disturbance on private timberland in western Oregon and Washington. Net changes in forest type areas depend on the relative mix of natural and human-related forces. Transitions among forest types after harvest may be planned, as in conversion of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) to the commercially preferred Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), or stochastic successional changes, such as reversion of disturbed areas to red alder in the absence of intervention. Projected areas of Douglas-fir and red alder were notably different under a scenario without harvests versus a scenario in which the rate of partial harvesting is increased. Areas of Douglas-fir were projected to increase under selected scenarios for both industrial and nonindustrial private ownerships. Conversely, areas of red alder are projected to decrease under selected scenarios and for both ownerships.

Keywords: Forest type transitions, forest land management, temporal analyses, periodic surveys.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-520 Growth of lodgepole pine thinned to various densities on two sites with differing productivities in central Oregon by P.H. Cochran and Walter G. Dahms

Concave curvilinear decreases in diameter growth occurred with increasing stand densities. A convex curvilinear increase in gross growth of basal area and total cubic volume took place with increasing stand density. Maximum cumulative net cubic (total and merchantable) and board-foot yields varied curvilinearly with stand density. These yields peaked at intermediate stand densities or varied little between the four highest stand density levels.

Keywords: Growth, mortality, growing stock, thinning, lodgepole pine, stand density index, bole area.


US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
Last Modified: Thursday,13October2016 at17:01:57CDT

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