USDA Forest Service

Pacific Northwest Research Station

Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 SW First Ave.
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 808-2100

US Forest Service

1997 Publication Abstracts

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-416 Forest sustainability: an approach to definition and assessment by Michael P. Amaranthus

Forest sustainability is a concept for the desired condition of forest ecosystems all over the world. The essential aspects of sustainable forests differ tremendously, however, among peoples of the world. Parks and wilderness areas, wildlife preserves, watershed protection areas, multiple-use forestry, and short-rotation tree farming all are sustainable, from some viewpoints, when inflows and outflows balance over time. Sustainability needs to be defined to minimize conflict, confusion, and mistrust. For what, where, whom, and how long are forest values being sustained? One recommended approach is to assess sustainability at the landscape level and define the processes, structures, and resources needed to meet many of society’s objectives. A landscape-level example in the 200 000-hectare Applegate watershed in southwest Oregon uses four criteria as a measure of sustainability. With these criteria, management objectives, activities, and monitoring measures can be implemented across the watershed. Managers and policymakers must recognize that modern forest practices have a short history and there is little documentation of long-term effects. Increased efforts are needed for well-designed, long-term, and integrated approaches for monitoring forest sustainability.

Keywords: Applegate watershed, landscape level, forest management, social values, spatial and temporal scales, sustainability.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-415 Evaluation of the use of scientific information in developing the 1997 Forest plan for the Tongass National Forest by Fred H. Everest, Douglas N. Swanston, Charles G. Shaw, III, Winston P. Smith, Kent R. Julin, and Stewart D. Allen.

The Tongass National Forest is the largest remaining relatively unaltered coastal temperate rain forest in the world. The Forest consists of 16.9 million acres of land distributed across more than 22,000 islands and a narrow strip of mainland in southeast Alaska. The Forest contains abundant timber, wildlife, fisheries, mineral, and scenic resources.

The authors participated as scientists on the Tongass Land Management Planning Team from 1995 to 1997. We joined the planning team as full members but maintained separate and distinct roles from National Forest System members. We were asked to assure that credible, value-neutral, scientific information was developed in dependently without reference to management decisions. We also displayed the likely levels of risk to resources and society associated with various management options.

We examined how scientific information was used in making management decisions and evaluated whether the decisions were consistent with the available information. We developed and used a set of criteria to evaluate the way in which managers used scientific information in formulating decisions. This evaluating began while the final alternative was in the formative stages so that managers could alter their management approach, if they so desired, before the Forest plan was finalized. Many management decisions were altered during this "adaptive decisionmaking process" in which changes were made concurrent with iterations of this paper. Our conclusion was that the final management decisions made in developing the 1997 Forest plan achieved a high degree of consistency with the available scientific information. This paper does not consider any information gathered after the signing of the record of decision on May 23, 1997, or deal with subsequent implementation of the 1997 Tongass Forest plan.

Keywords: Tongass National Forest, forest management, land management planning science evaluation, science policy.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-414 (1997) Cognitive styles of forest service scientists and managers in the Pacific Northwest, by A.B. Carey (507 Kb)

Preferences of executives, foresters, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Research Station and executives, District Rangers, foresters, engineers, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Region, National Forest System (USDA Forest Service), were compared for various thinking styles. Herrmann brain dominance profiles from 230 scientists and managers were drawn from Forest Service archives. Results showed that employees used diverse thinking styles; 24 different profiles were found and employees used 21 of 24 available adjectives to describe their own styles. All occupa- tional groups preferred a combination of analytical and integrative thinking. Engineers had the highest score for analytical thinking; District Rangers had the lowest. District Rangers had the highest preference for feeling-based, interpersonal thinking; engineers had the lowest. Research biologists and executives had low preference for detailed, sequential thinking. Research executives had less preference for interpersonal thinking than management executives. Implications for the agency are discussed.

Keywords: Cognition, thinking, personality, teams, management, Forest Service scientists, managers.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-409 Timber products output and timber harvest in Alaska: projections for 1997-2010 by David J. Brooks and Richard W. Haynes
Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. These projects are revisions of projections made in 1990 and again in 1994, and reflect the consequences of recent changes in the Alaska forest sector and long-term trends in markets for Alaska products. With the closure of the two southeast Alaska pulp mills, demand for Alaska National Forest timber now depends on markets for sawn wood and the ability to export manufacturing residues and lower grade logs. Three alternative projections are used to display a range of possible future demand. Areas of uncertainly include the prospect of continuing changes in markets and in conditions faced by competitors and the speed and magnitude in investment in manufacturing in Alaska. The sensitivity of model output to changes in key assumptions is displayed.

Keywords: National Forest (Alaska), forest sector models, lumber.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-408 Of spotted owls, old growth, and new policies: a history since the Interagency Scientific Committee report by Bruce G. Marcot and Jack Ward Thomas

This paper tracks the recent history of planning, management, and litigation regarding northern spotted owls and their habitat on Federal public lands since the 1989 Interagency Scientific Committee to Address the Conservation of the Northern Spotted Owl (ISC). The ISC report and subsequent plans sparked many economic analyses, appeals, lawsuits, forest management plans, and counterplans. Federal assessments and planning efforts eventually led to the current Northwest Forest Plan which considers owls in the context of ecological and human communities under the rubric of ecosystem management.

Keywords: Spotted owl, old growth, Interagency Scientific Committee, threatened species, Northwest Forest Plan, Forest policy, Endangered Species Act.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-404 Highlighted scientific findings of the Interior Columbia Basin ecosystem management project by Thomas M. Quigley and Heidi Bigler Cole

Decision regarding 72 million acres of Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management- administered lands will be based on scientific findings brought forth in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Some highlights of the scientific findings are presented here. Project scientists drew three general conclusions: (1) Conditions and trends differ widely across the landscape; as a result, one-size-fits-all strategies will neither effectively restore nor maintain ecosystems. (2) Ecosystem elements are linked to one another; effective ecosystem management requires an understanding of these linkages. (3) The scientific assessment highlighted a wide variety of risks important to ecological and socioeconomic systems. It also brought forth numerous opportunities to restore ecological systems and provide goods and services. To realize the opportunities, managers must recognize and manage the risks. Three management options were analyzed: current direction, active restoration, and reserve system establishment. Analysis revealed that active restoration was effective in addressing basinwide risks and opportunities.

Keywords: Ecosystem management, ecosystem assessment, ecological integrity, socioeconomic resiliency, risk management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-397 UTOOLS: microcomputer software for spatial analysis and landscape visualization by Alan A. Agar and Robert J. McGaughey

UTOOLS is a collection of programs designed to integrate various spatial data in a way that allows versatile spatial analysis and visualization. The programs were designed for watershed-scale assessments in which a wide array of resource data must be integrated, analyzed, and interpreted. UTOOLS software combines raster, attribute, and vector data into "spatial databases" in which each record represents a square pixel of fixed area, and each field in the database represents a map layer, theme, or attribute. UTOOLS includes several common GIS functions, such as procedures for calculating buffers, slope, aspect, patch size, convexity, and measures of topographic diversity. The UVIEW program provides rapid two- and three-dimensional images of digital elevation models, attribute data, and vegetation patterns at watershed scales. UTOOLS programs fulfill the routine analytical needs of resource professionals at low cost and without the expense and training required by many other spatial analysis and visualization systems.

Keywords: Geographic information system, wildlife habitat relations, landscape visualization, landscape ecology, ecosystem management, ecosystem planning, watershed analysis, habitat analysis, spatial analysis, spatial databases, visualization software.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-393 Wild edible mushrooms in the Blue Mountains: resource and issues by Catherine G. Parks, and Craig L. Schmitt (514 Kb)

This paper reviews the wild mushroom resource of the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington and summarizes issues and concerns for regulation, monitoring, and management. Existing biological information on the major available commercial mushrooms in the area, with emphasis on morels, is presented. Brief descriptions of the most commonly collected mushrooms are given, as well as the site conditions and plant communities influencing their occurrence or proliferation.

Keywords: Morels, special forest products, commercial mushroom harvest, Blue Mountains.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-392 Assessments of Wildlife viability, old-growth timber volume estimates, forested wetlands, and slope stability by Kent R. Julin

Resource assessments on wildlife viability, old-growth timber volume estimates, forested wetlands, and slope stability are presented. These assessments were used in the formulation of alternatives in the revision of the Tongass land management plan.

Keywords: Wildlife viability, timber volume, forested wetlands, slope stability, Tongass, Alaska.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-391 Trees and logs important to wildlife in the interior Columbia River basin by Evelyn L. Bull, Catherine G. Parks, Torolf R. Torgersen

This publication provides qualitative and quantitative information on five distinct structures: living trees with decayed parts, trees with hollow chambers, trees with brooms, dead trees, and logs. Information is provided on the value of these structures to wildlife, the decay or infection processes involved in the formation of these structures, and the principles to consider for selecting the best structures to retain.

Keywords: Broom rust, cavity nesters, decay fungi, dwarf mistletoe, Elytroderma, forest management, habitat monitoring, hollow trees, interior Columbia River basin, logs, old-growth forests, snags, wildlife, wood decay.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-390 Field guide for the identification of snags and logs in the interior Columbia River basin, by C.G. Parks, Evelyn L. Bull, Torolf R. Torgersen (2.3 Mb)

This field guide contains descriptions and color photographs of snags and logs of 10 coniferous and 3 deciduous tree species found in the interior Columbia River basin. Methods arc described to distinguish among the different species when various amounts of branches, cones, and bark arc missing. Wildlife use of the different species of snags and logs are listed. Snags and logs are each classified into three categories based on structural features. Six indicators of fungal decay are illustrated.

Keywords: Cavity nesters, decay fungi, habitat monitoring, hollow trees, interior Columbia River basin, logs, snags, wildlife, wood decay.


Res. Bull. PNW-RB-218 96-052 (1997) Washington's public and private forests, by C.L. Bolsinger, N. McKay, D.R. Gedney, and C. Alerich

This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data on change are presented by using comparable statistics from previous inventories, and historical records.

Keywords: Forest surveys, forest inventory, statistics (forest), timber resources, resources (forest), western Washington, eastern Washington, Washington.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-225 Urban expansion in the forests of the Puget Sound region by Colin D. MacLean, and Charles L. Bolsinger (487 Kb)

As part of a 1979 forest resource inventory, over 9,000 points on aerial photographs were sorted into three development zones-primary forest, suburban, and urban. These same points were reexamined in 1989, and zone changes were noted. This report summarizes urban expansion into the primary forest lands of the Puget Sound region (Island, King, Kitsap, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Snohomish, Thurston, and Whatcom Counties). In addition, forest statistics for non-industrial private timberlands within the suburban and urban zones are presented.

Keywords: Puget Sound, urban forests, land use planning, forest losses.


Res. Note PNW-RN-524 Lithosequence of soils and associated vegetation on subalpine range of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah by James O. klemmedson and Arthur R. Tiedemann

Phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) in soil and parent material are important in the accumulation of nitrogen (N) and organic carbon (Corg) in soils. In an observational study, the role of P and S in soil development was explored on a small knoll in the Wasatch subalpine summer range of central Utah that had been severely eroded during uncontrolled grazing in the late 1800s. Vegetation, litter, soil, and parent material were sampled along a transect across six strata forming highly visible narrow, concentric rings around the knoll. Even-numbered strata were characterized by large amounts of surface rock and sparse vegetative cover. Odd-numbered strata had less surface rock and visibly greater vegetative cover. Data for vegetation, litter, and soil surface properties displayed highly consistent peak and valley patterns for odd- and even-numbered strata with significant differences for 9 of 10 of these properties between the two strata groups. Organic C, potassium (K), and S of the parent material, and available N (Nav), P (Pav), and S (Sav) and exchangeable K (Kex) of the 0- to 15-cm soil layer also displayed peak and valley patterns. Multiple regression of herbage yield on Corg and S of soil parent material, and Pav and (Kex) of the solum gave high R2s of 0.94 and 0.93. Multiple regression of grass yield on Corg and Kex of the 0- to 15-cm soil layer had R2 = 0.95. Based on results, the hypothesis that P of the parent material has influenced soil and plant development of these strata was rejected. The data subtly suggest that sulfur may play a key role in the development of these soil-plant systems. Stipa lettermanii Vasey and Cymopterus lemmonii Welch were strongly, but oppositely, correlated with most attributes studied, thereby suggesting these species may play important indicator roles of soil-vegetation development.

Keywords: Parent material, soil nutrients, pattern, phosphorus, sulfur, Stipa lettermanii, Cymopterus lemmonii, overgrazing, erosion, productivity.


Res. Note PNW-RN-523 Understory plant diversity in riparian alder-conifer stands after logging in southeast Alaska by Robert L. Deal

Stand structure, tree height growth, and understory plant diversity were assessed in five mixed alder-conifer stands after logging in southeast Alaska. Tree species composition ranged from 7- to 91-percent alder, and basal area ranged from 30 to 55 m2/ha. The alder exhibited rapid early height growth, but recent growth has slowed considerably. Some conifers have been suppressed, but some spruce are now nearly as tall as the overstory alders. The four stands with the most alder had high species richness of shrubs, herbs, ferns, and mosses, but the predominantly spruce stand had slightly fewer species of shrubs and ferns, and considerably fewer herbs. Mixed alder-conifer stands have maintained species-rich understories for 45 years after logging, and stands with conifers and alders of relatively equal stocking contained the largest diameter conifers. Riparian alder-conifer stands maintain plant diversity and also will provide some large-diameter conifers for large woody debris for streams.

Keywords: Riparian stands, understory plant diversity, southeast Alaska, red alder, Sitka spruce, large woody debris, stand structure.


Res. Note PNW-RN-522 Research information needs on terrestrial vertebrate species of the Interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins: a research, development, and application database by Bruce G. Marcot.

Research information needs on selected invertebrates and all vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas in the United States were collected into a research, development, and application database as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. The database includes 482 potential research study topics on 232 individual species and 18 species groups of animals, representing significant gaps in scientific knowledge. Research study topics in the database can be retrieved by use of keyword searches. Keyword subjects include basic ecology, distribution, inventory and monitoring, environmental disturbance, effects of land use management activities, and other topics. Research study topics can be prioritized once a land management on species and their environments. The database is included on computer files available on the World Wide Web at URL

Keywords: Research needs, information needs, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, wildlife, interior Columbia river basin, Klamath Basin, Great Basin, inventory, monitoring.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-498 (1997) Variation in salmonid life histories: patterns and perspectives. 1997 by Mary F. Willson

Salmonid fishes differ in degree of anadromy, age of maturation, frequency of repro-duction, body size and fecundity, sexual dimorphism, breeding season, morphology, and, to a lesser degree, parental care. Patterns of variation and their possible signif-icance for ecology and evolution and for resource management are the focus of this review.

Keywords: Salmon, char, Oncorhynchus, Salmo, Salvelinus, life history, sexual dimor-phism, age of maturation, semelparity, anadromy, phenology, phenotypic variation, parental care, speciation.




US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
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