USDA Forest Service

Pacific Northwest Research Station

Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 SW First Ave.
Portland, OR 97204

(503) 808-2100

US Forest Service

Prior to 1997 Publication Abstracts

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-388 The marbled murrelet: a conservation assessment by Anthony R. DeGange.

This assessment summarizes available information on the marbled murrelet in southeast Alaska and evaluates its current status. Marbled murrelets are broadly distributed across marine waters throughout southeast Alaska. They are abundant, numbering at least in the low hundreds of thousands. Marbled murrelets are believed to be at increasing risk in biogeographic provinces of the Tongass National Forest subject to extensive harvest of old-growth forests, on which they are believed to be dependent for nesting. Over the short term, risk to their persistence in the Tongass National Forests seems low; however, gaps in their nesting distribution likely will occur in some biogeographic provinces of the Tongass if current forest harvest practices are continued over the long term. Forests on private lands in southeast Alaska are being rapidly clearcut, and murrelet nesting habitat is disappearing rapidly from these lands.

Keywords: Brachyramphus marmoratus, marbled murrelet, conservation, management, natural history, old-growth forests, status.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-387 Conservation assessment for the northern goshawk in southeast Alaska by George C. Iverson, Gregory D. Hayward, Kimberly Titus, Eugene DeGayner, Richard E. Lowell, D. Coleman Crocker-Bedford, Philip F. Schempf, and John Lindel.

The conservation status of northern goshawk ecology in relation to past, present, and potential future habitat conditions in the region under the current Tongass land management plan. Forest ecosystem dynamics are described, and a history of forest and goshawk management in the Tongass National Forest is reviewed. Nearly 900,000 acres of the most productive old-growth temperate rain forest in southeast Alaska (public and private lands) have been harvested during the past 90 years and changed to early seral conifer forests. Goshawk habitat relations are described through a review of the goshawk literature. Significant preliminary findings of a habitat relation study in southeast Alaska include the following: goshawks select productive old-growth forests with >60 percent of all adult goshawk telemetry relocations occurring in this cover type; nonforest, clearcut, and alpine cover types were least used and were avoided relative to their availability; and the median breeding season minimum convex polygon use areas of adult goshawks was about 10,000 acres. Goshawks predominantly use gentle slopes (70 percent of relocations) at elevations below 800 feet (54-74 percent of relocations); 24 percent of relocations occurred in riparian habitat zones, and nearly 20 percent of all relocations occurred within the beach fringe habitat extending 1,000 feet inland from the ocean shoreline. Goshawk nesting habitat is a nonrandom subset of the landscape with a significantly higher proportion of productive old-growth forest within a 600-acre analysis area surrounding known nests. The probability of persistence of goshawks has declined over the past 50 years owing to habitat loss and likely will continue to decline under current management plan regimes; however, the goshawk population likely is not in immediate approaches are compared. This analysis suggests that long rotation forestry (e.g., 300 years) and uneven-aged silvicultural management may maintain habitat characteristics important to sustaining goshawk populations well distributed across the region. Although habitat reserves are not considered an essential component of a forest-wide goshawk conservation strategy, reserves, in combination with extended rotations, may be important where the intensity of past management actions has precluded the opportunity to attain a desired combination of forest age classes achieveable under long rotations. Reserves are most likely critical if extensive clearcut logging continues.

Keywords: Northern goshawk, Aaccipiter gentillis laingi, habitat, conservation, assessment, management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-386 Scientific information and the Tongass land management plan: key findings derived from the scientific literature, species assessments, resource analyses, workshops, and risk assessment panels by Douglas N. Swanston, Charles G. Shaw, III, Winston P. Smith, Kent R. Julin, Guy A. Cellier, and Fred H. Everest.

This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking or when the consequences of any particular decision are evaluated.

Keywords: Risk assessment panels, Delphi, resource analyses, science policy, Tongass National Forest, Alaska.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-384 The Alexander Archipelago wolf: a conservation assessment by David K. Person, Matthew Kirchhoff, Victor Van Ballenberghe, George C. Iverson, and Edward Grossman

We summarized the scientific information available for the Alexander Archipelago wolf (Canis lupus ligoni) in the Tongass National Forest of southeast Alaska. Information concerning the morphology, distribution, taxonomy, genetics, and ecology of wolves are presented. Three issues for the conservation of wolves in southeast Alaska are discussed: loss of long-term carrying capacity for deer due primarily to extensive timber harvesting, increased mortality of wolves associated with improved human access from roads, and continued high levels of harvest of wolves by humans. Continued timber harvesting at current levels and by current methods will likely have adverse consequences for some segments of the wolf population. Although some short-term regulatory changes and the management of road access may need to be consideration is to maintain long-term carrying capacity for deer, the principal prey for most of the wolf population. A series of old-growth forest reserves may provide an effective strategy to increase the likelihood that wolves will persist where extensive timber harvesting has occurred, or is planned.

Keywords: Alexander Archipelago wolf, Canis lupus ligoni, effects of logging on wildlife, population dynamics of wolves, predator-prey dynamics, roads and wolf mortality, Tongass National Forest, southeast Alaska.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-379 User assessment of smoke-dispersion models for wildland biomass burning by Steve Breyfogle, and Sue A. Ferguson (1.04 Mb)

Several smoke-dispersion models, which currently are available for modeling smoke from biomass burns, were evaluated for ease of use, availability of input data, and output data format. The input and output components of all models are listed, and differences in model physics are discussed. Each model was installed and run on a personal computer with a simple-case example. The steps required to obtain meaningful output for each model are described. Because validation data for wildland biomass burns were unavailable at the time of this assessment, recommending the use of one model over another was not possible. Limiting features of the source-strength component available for each model, however, suggest that dispersion models will not validate properly until models of source strength in biomass burns improve. Without validation data, preliminary recommendations are based on the style of user, user interfaces, output format, and available model components. Suggestions are made for which model that a local project, regional project, regional systems manager, or research scientist might select for research, regulatory, planning, and screening purposes.

Keywords: Smoke, dispersion, models, fire, prescribed fire, emissions.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-378 Stump sprouting of Pacific yew by Don Minore and Howard G. Weatherly.

Large numbers of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt) trees have been cut to supply bark for taxol production, and replacement of those trees may depend on their ability to sprout from the stump. Stump characteristics were related to the initiation and survival of epicormic branches (sprouts) on 100 yew stumps in each of 11 recently harvested stands during 1992. Half of the stumps were artificially shaded, and all were remeasured in 1993. The number of living stumps in each stand was positively correlated with average stump height and average percentage of bark retained. Postharvest sprouting was most abundant on stumps with established sprouts or live branches. For individual stumps, the number and length of preharvest sprouts were the only variables consistently related to number of postharvest sprouts were the only variables consistently related to number of postharvest sprouts. Artificial shading did not promote sprouting.

Keywords: Regeneration, growth, survival, height, bark, Taxus brevifolia.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-376 Lumber recovery and deterioration of beetle-killed Douglas-fir and grand fir in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. 1996 by Dean L. Parry, Gregory M. Filip, Susan A. Willits, and Catherine G. Parks.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time since death over a 4-year period on the amount of usable product volume and value, and to determine the species of fungi associated with wood deterioration in the stems of Douglas-fir and grand fir trees killed by bark beetles in northeastern Oregon. Sap rot, caused principally by Cryptoporus volvatus, increased significantly with years dead for both Douglas-fir and grand fir, but there were no significant differences in sap rot among d.b.h. (diameter at breast height) classes. Few insects were associated with defective wood, probably because of the relatively dry condition of the wood. Log breakage during logging in the live samples was less than 0.5 percent of the gross volume, and the amount of wood too defective to remove from the woods was about 2.5 percent in the dead Douglas-fir and 3.8 percent in the dead grand fir. Two-year-dead Douglas-fir recovered about 8 percent less lumber volume than live and 1-year dead Douglas-fir and all classes of dead grand fir. Three- and four-year dead Douglas-fir combined lost another 7 percent in lumber volume. Average lumber value (dollars per thousand lumber tally) and average log value (dollars per hundred cubic feet) analysis showed no difference among the live and 1-year-dead Douglas-fir samples. Average log value decreased about $60 from the live class to the grand fir dead class and another $60 for the Douglas-fir dead. Contrary to popular belief, the grand fir did not deteriorate as fast as the Douglas-fir or lose as much value as expected.

Keywords: Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, grand fir, Abies grandis, lumber recovery, utilization, dead timber, western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis, Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, fir engraver, Cryptoporus volvatus, Trichaptum (Polyporus) abieinum, Fomitopsis pinicola.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-375 Conservation and development of nontimber forest products in the Pacific Northwest: an annotated bibliography by Bettina Von Hagen, James F. Weigand, Rebecca McLain, Roger Fight, Harriet H. Christensen

This bibliography encompasses literature on the historic and current scope of nontimber forest product industries in the Pacific Northwest and includes references on international markets and trade that bear on these industries. Key themes in the bibliography are biological and socioeconomic aspects of resource management for sustainable production; procedures for identifying, monitoring, and inventorying important resources; means for technical innovation and resource development; and public education about nontimber forest resources. Social policy issues address the role of nontimber forest products in rural development and the spectrum of ethical considerations required for socially acceptable policy formulation. Economics literature covers estimating the contribution of nontimber forest products to a whole ecosystem economy, analyzing and planning for joint production of agroforestry systems, and enhancing the performance of nontimber forest product sectors.

Keyswords: Bibliography, conservation, sustainable development, economic analysis, wild edible mushrooms, floral greens, medicinal plants, conifer greens, forest policy, nontimber forest products, trade.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-374 A framework for ecosystem management in the Interior Columbia Basin including portions of the Klamath and Great Basins, by R.W. Haynes, R.T. Graham, T.M. Quigley, tech. eds.

A framework for ecosystem management is proposed. This framework assumes the purpose of ecosystem management is to maintain the integrity of ecosystems over time and space. It is based on four ecosystem principles: ecosystems are dynamic, can be viewed as hierarchies with temporal and spatial dimensions, have limits, and are relatively unpredictable. This approach recognizes that people are part of ecosystems and that stewardship must be able to resolve tough challenges including how to meet multiple demands with finite resources. The framework describes a general planning model for ecosystem management that has four iterative steps: monitoring, assessment, decision-making, and implementation. Since ecosystems cross jurisdictional lines, the implementation of the framework depends on partnerships among land managers, the scientific community, and stakeholders. It proposes that decisionmaking be based on information provided by the best available science and the most appropriate technologies for land management.

Keywords: Ecosystem assessment, ecosystem principles, ecosystem management, planning models, management goals, risk analysis.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-372 Estimating live fuels for shrubs and herbs with BIOPAK by Joseph E. Means, Olga N. Krankina, Hao Jiang, and Hongyan Li

This paper describes use of BIOPAK to calculate size classes of live fuels for shrubs and herbs. A libary of equations to estimate such fuels in the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains is presented and used in an example. These methods can be used in other regions if the user first enters fuel size-class equations for a given region into a new library by using the library editor supplied with BIOPAK. Fuel size classes can be estimated in three ways: (1) When appropriate plant measurements are available, fuel classes can be estimates directly for species that have equations in the library or species with similar growth forms. (2) When appropriate plant measurements are not available, fuel classes can be estimated in two steps, first by estimating total aboveground biomass for individual plants and then by estimating biomass in fuel classes from total aboveground biomass. (3) The equations provided can be used to develop new equations that estimate fuels from plot-level estimates of species cover (and possible other measures).

Keywords: live fuels, fuel size classes, software, plant biomass, Pacific Northwest. northern Rocky Mountains.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-371 (1996) Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests, by D. Pilz, D., R. Molina, eds.

Ecosystem management is the dominant paradigm for managing the forests of the Pacific Northwest. It integrates biological, ecological, geophysical, and silvicultural information to develop adaptive management practices that conserve biological diversity and maintain ecosystem functioning while meeting human needs for the sustainable production of forest products. Fungi are important components of forest ecosystem management because they perform essential ecological functions, many species are associated with late-successional forests, and commercial harvest of wild edible mushrooms contributes significantly to the regional economy. Inventory and monitoring provide essential information for improving management decisions, but fungi present a unique set of sampling challenges. To address these unique challenges, a conference entitled "Ecosystem Management of Forest Fungi" was convened May 3-4, 1994, in Corvallis, Oregon. This publication describes the forest management context of fungus inventory and monitoring issues, summarizes the mycological studies presented at the conference, and provides a synopsis of audience discussion. A common understanding of the challenges encountered when studying forest fungi will facilitate the planning and accomplishment of inventory and monitoring activities by improving communication among concerned individuals, interest groups, and land managers.

Keywords: Fungi, mushrooms, ecosystem management, forest management, inventory, monitoring, biodiversity, special forest products, mycorrhizae.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-369 (1996) Defining social acceptability in ecosystem management: a workshop proceedings; 1992 June 23-25; Kelso, WA, by M.W. Brunson, L.E. Kruger, C.B. Tyler, and S.A. Schroeder, tech. eds. (1.02 MB)

This compendium of papers was developed in response to the assumption that implementing an ecological approach to forest management requires an understanding of socially acceptable forestry --what it is and the implications of doing it. The papers in this collection bring to bear perspectives from a variety of social science disciplines and question whether the focus on social acceptability is an appropriate and useful one.

Keywords: Ecosystem management, social acceptability, environmental ethics, social values, landscape aesthetics, public participation.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-367 (1996) Effects of insecticide treatment on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm in Oregon and Washington: 1982 - 92, by K.A. Sheehan (2.53 MB)

Effects of insecticide treatments conducted in Oregon and Washington from 1982 through 1992 on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were evaluated by using aerial sketchmaps and a geographic information system. For each treatment, the extent and severity of defoliation was calculated for the treated area and a set of four nested rings surrounding the treated area (0-0.5 mile, 0.5-1 mile, 1-2 miles, and 24 miles) for up to 8 years: 3 years prior to treatment, the year of treatment, and 4 years following treatment. lnsecticide treatments applied in 1982 and 1983 coincided with reduced percentages of defoliation by western spruce budworm during the year following treatment. However, the percentage of defoliation usually returned to pretreatment levels by the second year, and defoliation severity in treated and adjacent untreated areas was nearly identical following treatment. For the period from 1985 through 1992, defoliation patterns (including both extent and severity) following treatment were generally similar in treated and adjacent untreated areas.

Keywords: Western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis, defoliation, insecticides, effects, suppression projects.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-363 (1995) Definitions and codes for seral status and structure of vegetation, by F.C. Hall, L. Bryant, R. Clausnitzer, K. Geier-Hayes, R. Keane, J. Kertis, A. Shlisky, and R. Steel (2.72 MB)

Definitions and codes for identifying vegetation seral status and structure are desired for land management planning, appraising wildlife habitat, and prescribing vegetation treatment. Codes are only presented; they are not a system for determining seral status or stand structure. Terms defined are climax, potential natural community (PNC), succession, seral status, thresholds, altered PNSs, life-form layer, dominant species, successional indicator species, structure classes, cover, and strata. Plant communities may be divided into three life-form layers where appropriate: tree, shrub, and herb/cryptogam. Each layer may be appraised and coded separately for seral status, or a single code may be used. Coding is provided for plant community structure class according to size, cover, and strata in a life-form layer. Seral status and structure may be coded together.

Keywords: Seral status, succession, threshold, structure, life-form.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-362 (1995) Herbaceous stubble height as a warning of impending cattle grazing damage to riparian areas by Frederick C. Hall and Larry Bryant.

Prevention of damage to riparian areas from cattle grazing is essential for sound watershed management. Various stubble heights of the most palatable species are used to predict when unacceptable impacts--heavy use or trampling, or both--are about to occur. Managers can observe stubble height and usage and recommend moving the cattle if undesirable effects from continued livestock grazing are anticipated. Three guides for determining when to move cattle are presented: (1) stubble height approaches 3 inches; (2) stubble height changes from 3 inches to 3/4 of an inch; and (3) the most palatable vegetation starts drying regardless of stubble height.

Keywords: Stubble height, riparian, damage, cattle, drying.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-361 (1996) Role of nonmarket economic values in benefit-cost analysis of public forest management, by C.S. Swanson and J.B. Loomis (593 Kb)

Recreation in the Pacific Northwest is a valuable resource. A method is described that translates recreation on USDA Forest Service and U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management lands in northern California, western Oregon, and western Washington into economic value. By assigning recreation to land use type (using the Forest Service recreation opportunity spectrum classification), the economic value associated with various land use changes can be identified. Results indicated that those land use changes resulting in more nonroaded recreational opportunities provide the greatest economic benefits. This is encouraging given the move toward ecosystem management that many agencies are making because, more nonroaded opportunities will become available. The paper also considers values associated with maintaining old-growth and wildlife and fisheries resources regardless of current or future recreation use existence values.

Keywords: Recreation, nonmarket economic values, benefit-cost.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-359 (1995) Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest, by T.R. Lillybridge, B.L. Kovalchik, C.K. Williams, B.G. Smith. (3.4 Mb)

A classification of forest vegetation is presented for the Wenatchee National Forest (NF). It is based on potential vegetation, with the plant association as the basic unit. The sample includes about 570 intensive plots and 840 reconnaissance plots distributed across the Wenatchee National Forest and the southwest portion of the Okanogan National Forest from 1975 through 1994. The hierarchical classification includes 10 forest series and 104 types (plant association or community type). Diagnostic keys and descriptions are presented for each tree series and type. Detailed descriptions are given for each type having at least five sample stands in the Wenatchee NF. Those descriptions include information about plant species occurrences, type distribution, environment and soils, potential timber productivity, management considerations, and relationships to other classifications. Brief descriptions are presented for miscellaneous types (those having fewer than five plots in the Wenatchee NF).

Keywords: Vegetation classification, plant community—climax, plant association, vegetation series, forest ecology, forest environment, Cascade Range, community type, Eastern Washington.

Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-355 (1995) Historical and current forest landscapes in eastern Oregon and Washington. Part II: Linking vegetation characteristics to potential fire behavior and related smoke production by by Mark H. Huff, Roger D. Ottmar, Ernesto Alvarado [and others].

We compared the potential fire behavior and smoke production of historical and current time periods based on vegetative conditions in forty-nine 5100- to 13 5OO-hectare watersheds in six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation composition, structure, and patterns were attributed and mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959 (historical) and from 1981 to 1992 (current). Vegetation with homogeneous composition and structure were delineated as patches. Each patch was assigned a potential rate of spread, flame length, fuel loading, and smoke production from published information that matched the closest characteristics of the vegetation and downed fuels and assigned a uniform fuel moisture, wind speed, and slope. Potential rate of spread of fire, flame length, and smoke production were highly variable among sample watersheds in any given river basin. In general, rate of spread and flame length were positively correlated with the proportion of area logged in the sample watersheds. There were large increases in potential smoke production from the historical to the current periods for many sample watersheds due to changes in fuel loadings associated with management activities and, presumably, fire suppression. Wildfires were shown to produce nearly twice the amount of smoke as prescribed fire for the current period for all river basins. Understanding these and other tradeoffs will assist managers and society in making informed decisions about how to implement prescribed fire and manage wildfire to address air quality and forest health problems. Because of the variability of fuel or vegetative conditions observed among the sample watersheds, we recommend an extensive characterization of these conditions before large-scale restoration and maintenance of fire-related processes are undertaken.

Keywords: Air quality, emissions (PM10), fire risk assessment, fire management, fuel loading, landscape-level assessment, smoke management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-353 (1995) Treatment of old-growth stands and its effects on birds, ants, and large woody debris: a case study, by E.L. Bull, T.R. Torgersen, A.K. Blumton, C.M. McKenzie, and D.S. Wyland (1.13 MB)

An old-strucutre stand with large amounts of tree mortality was treated to accelerate regeneration and reduce fuel loads but still maintain its function as old growth for selected bird species. The small-diameter (<15 inches in diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]), dead trees were removed as was some of the down wood <15 inches in diameter at the large end. All live trees of any size and all dead trees >15 inches d.b.h were retained. Vaux's swifts (Chaetura vauxi) and pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileated) continued to use the stand after harvest for nesting and roosting. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were more than twice as common in the treated stand as in an adjacent unlogged, control stand. In a comparison before and after harvest in the treated stand, the number of logs increased, the number of logs with ants increased, but the percentage of logs with ants decreased.

Keywords: Ants, down woody debris, old-structure stand, restoration, pileated woodpecker, Vaux's swift, Dryocopus, Chaetura, Molothrus, Camponotus, Formica.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-352 The contribution of Federal and non-Federal habitat to persistence of the northern spotted owl on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington: report of the Reanalysis Team.

We analyzed likely patterns of distribution and persistence of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Olympic Peninsula. Analysis focused on the effects of Federal habitat under provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan; additional benefits to the owl population of different levels of habitat retention on non-Federal lands; effects of establishing a habitat connection between the Olympic Peninsula and othe parts of the owl's range; the likely rate of habitat regrowth in the National Forest and its effect on the owl population; and the likely effect of a worst-case fire. We used a spatially explicit population model for northern spotted owls for the analysis and also reviewed current information on demographics and likely owl population numbers on the Olympic Peninsula. We concluded that it is likely, but not assured, that a stable population of northern spotted owls would be maintained in portions of the Olympic National Forest and the Olympic National Park in the absence of any non-Federal contribution of habitat, and that the retention of non-Federal habitat would make a biologically significant contribution to the maintenance of the population. Finally, we concluded that a habitat connection across southwestern Washington, based on the design proposed by the Northern Spotted Owl Recovery Team, would have little effect on the status of the owl population on the peninsula if that population was stable or nearly stable.

Keywords: Northern spotted owl, simulation model, spatially explicit population model, population dynamics, land management, Olympic Peninsula.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-351 FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure by Kevin McGarigal and Barbara J. Marks.

This report describes a program, FRAGSTATS, developed to quantify landscape structure. FRAGSTATS offers a comprehensive choice of landscape metrics and was designed to be as versatile as possible. The program is almost completely automated and thus requires little technical training. Two separate versions of FRAGSTATS exist: one for vector images and one for raster images. The vector version is an Arc/Info AML that accepts Arc/Info polygon coverages. The raster version is a C program that accepts ASCII image files, 8- or 16-bit binary image files, Arc/Info SVF files, Erdas image files, and IDRISI image files. Both versions of FRAGSTATS generate the same array of metrics, including a variety of area metrics, patch density, size and variability metrics, edge metrics, shape metrics, core area metrics, diversity metrics, and contagion and interspersion metrics. The raster version also computes several nearest neighbor metrics. In this report, each metric calculated by FRAGSTATS is described in terms of its ecological application and limitations. Example landscapes are included, and a dis-cussionis provided of each metric as it relates to the sample landscapes. Several important concepts and definitions critical to the assessment of landscape structure are discussed. The appendices include a complete list of algorithms, the units and ranges of each metric, examples of the FRAGSTATS output files, and a users guide describing how to install and run FRAGSTATS.

Keywords: Landscape ecology, landscape structure, landscape pattern, landscape analysis, landscape metrics, spatial statistics.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-349 (1995) Laminated root rot in western North America by Walter G. Thies and Rona N. Sturrock

Laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb., is a serious root disease affecting Douglas-fir and other commercially important species of conifers in northwestern North America. This report gives an overview of the dis-ease as it occurs in the Pacific Northwest in Canada and the United States. Information on recognizing crown symp-toms and signs of the disease is presented. The disease cycle of laminated root rot, from initiation to intensification and distribution within infected stands, is described. Finally, disease management strategies during stand development and at stand regeneration are discussed. Features on the nomenclature of the fungus and on its management by silvicultural and mechanical approaches also are included. The report is intended as a general reference for a wide audience.

Keywords: lnonotus sulphurascens, laminated root rot, Phellinus sulphurascens, Phellinus weiri, Poria weirii, root diseases.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-346 (1995) Phytosociology and succession on earthquake-uplifted coastal wetlands, Copper River Delta, Alaska,  by T.F. Thilenius (2.47 MB)

The delta formed by the Copper River stretches more than 75 kilometers along the south-central coastline of Alaska. It is the terminus of the outwash deposits from a large part of the most heavily glaciated region of North American, and all major rivers that flow into the delta carry extremely high levels of suspended sediments. Coastal wetlands extend inland for as much as 20 kilometers. In 1964, an earthquake of Richter Scale 8.4 to 8.6 raised the entire delta from 1.8 to 3.4 meters above the previous mean sea level. Subtidal areas became intertidal, and intertidal areas supertidal. Marshland advanced seaward as much as 1.5 kilometers in the intertidal zone. Vegetation on many, but not all, newly supertidal levees began to change from herb to shrub. A change in frequency and duration of tidal inundation and water salinity has been thought to be the most obvious cause of this succession, but explanation is lacking. Fresh water dominates the estuarine circulation as a result of a bar-built estuary and the extremely high input of fresh water from glacier runoff and precipitation. Tides merely raise fresh water onto the wetlands. Halophytes are rare even at the seaward edge of vegetation. The characteristic species of the present intertidal marshes, Carex lyngbyei, also is characteristic of inland freshwater marshes. lnitial postearthquake invasion of woody plants was confined to natural levees. More recently, shrubs have begun to move seaward into new intertidal marshland and into supertidal interlevee basins. Current plant communities on new marshland (tidal) are Carex C-T (low marsh); Carex C-T (high marsh); Carex/Potentilla C-T (low levee); and Myrica/Carex-PotentiIla C-T (high levee). On old marshland (nontidal) the current plant communities are Alnus/Myrica-Salix/Carex C-T (foreshore levee); Myrica/Carex- Calamagrostis (foreshore levee); Carex/Equisetum-Lathyrus C-T (interior levee); Carex/Lathyrus C-T (moderately hydric interlevee basin); and Carex-Cicuta/C-T (hydric interlevee basin). Vegetation analogous to that developing on supertidal levees and basins is present on older wetland habitats further inland. Likely, the same plant successions would have occurred without an uplift. The uplift appears to have altered locations and rates, but not the nature, of wetland plant succession on the Copper River Delta.

Keywords: Copper River Delta, plant ecology, plant succession, tidal marshlands, tectonic uplift, Alaska.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-344 (1995) Estimated economic impacts on the timber range and recreation programs on NFS and BLM public lands from adopting the proposed interim PACFISH, by N.A. Bolon, C.S. Hansen-Murray, and R.W. Haynes (1.95 MB)

lmplications of the interim comprehensive strategy for improved Pacific salmon and steelhead habitat management (PACFISH) were estimated for those Bureau of Land Management (BLM) districts and National Forest System (NFS) lands west of the Rocky Mountains that have anadromous fish. The physical impacts and associated mitigation costs from implementing the PACFlSH strategy over the the next decade in Pacific Northwest, Intermountain, Northern, Pacific Southwest, and Alaska Region National Forest and BLM district recreation, range, and timber programs were analyzed with the actual current output as the base. Economic considerations were added to evaluate any change in the perceived ranking of severity among the impacts. Two cases were considered in the analysis: a derived worst case, where a total reduction of the actual current output of the programs in anadromous fishbearing drainages occurs (giving a minimum value for the programs in those drainages), and a mitigated case where all or part of the loss is mitigated and the cost of doing so is evaluated with two phases, one without economics and the other with it. For the mitigated case without economics, the undiscounted mitigation costs per year for 10 years and the annual physical impacts of implementing the interim direction over the current actual output for the three resource programs (recreation, range, and timber) were estimated. This mitigated case, without economic consideration, showed that on both BLM and NFS land the greatest physical losses occur in the timber programs, whereas the greatest cost overall occurs in the recreation program. Individually, the range program on the BLM lands showed the greater cost. Under an economic analysis, however, the present value of the lost output over time was included as a cost, along with the present value of the mitigation costs. The total of both these costs from the mitigated case would have to be less than the total value of the current program, calculated in the worst case, to maintain an order of efficiency. For both BLM and NFS lands, the recreation and timber programs across drainages containing
anadromous fish showed greater value than both types of economics costs. The range program was fairly close in value and cost on NFS lands, but the costs associated with implementing the PACFlSH strategy on BLM lands were definitely greater than the value of their range program, which calls into question the efficiency of the latter and possibly the former. The ranking of severity among the programs for the
estimated physical impacts and those impacts when economics considerations are added change as well. When lost resources are valued, the BLM lands show the greatest loss in their recreation program rather than in timber. The current recreation programs on both BLM and NFS lands seem significantly more valuable than the other two programs, and the magnitude of difference between the value of the current
program and the costs of applying the PACFlSH strategy is also significantly greater for recreation.

Keywords: Bureau of Land Management, National Forests, anadromous fish, economic impacts, habitat management, PACFISH, policy analysis, salmon.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-343 (1995) Owls of old forests of the world, by B.G. Marcot

A review of literature on habitat associations of owls of the world revealed that about 83 species of owls among 18 genera are known or suspected to be closely associated with old forests. Old forest is defined as old-growth or undisturbed forests, typically with dense canopies. The 83 owl species include 70 tropical and 13 temperate forms. Specific habitat associations have been studied for only 12 species (7 tropical and 5 temperate), whereas about 71 species (63 tropical and 8 temperate) remain mostly unstudied. Some 26 species (31 percent of all owls known or suspected to be associated with old forests in the tropics) are entirely or mostly restricted to tropical islands. Threats to old-forest owls, particularly the island forms, include conversion of old upland forests, use of pesticides, loss of riparian gallery forests, and loss of trees with cavities for nests or roosts. Conservation of old-forest owls should include (1) studies and inventories of habitat associations, particularly for little-studied tropical and insular species; (2) protection of specific, existing temperate and tropical old-forest tracts; and (3) studies to determine if reforestation and vegetation manipulation can restore or maintain habitat conditions. An appendix describes vocalizations of all species of Strix and the related genus Ciccaba.

Keywords: Owls, old growth, old-growth forest, late-successional forests, spotted owl, owl calls, owl conservation, tropical forests, literature review.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-340 (1994) Software for computing plant biomass BIOPAK users guide by Joseph E. Means, Heather A. Hansen, Greg J. Koerper, Paul B. Alaback, and Mark W. Klopsch

BIOPAK is a menu-driven package of computer programs for IBM-compatible personal computers that calculates the biomass, area, height, length, or volume of plant components (leaves, branches, stem, crown, and roots). The routines were written in FoxPro, Fortran, and C.

BIOPAK was created to facilitate linking of a diverse array of vegetation datasets with the appropriate subset of available equations for estimating plant components, such as biomass and leaf area. BIOPAK produces reports that are formatted for people and files that are compatible with other software. Other reports document the design of a computation run and the equations used. BIOPAK includes a library of about 1,000 prediction equations and an editor for updating it. Most of the equations in the library were developed in the Pacific-Northwest, including southeast Alaska.

Keywords: Dimension analysis, software, plant biomass, plant leaf area, plant volume, crown mass, crown volume, manual, microcomputer, users guide.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-339 (1994) Forest health in the Blue Mountains: an ecologist's perspective on ecosystem processes and biological diversity by Charles G. Johnson Jr. (1.3 Mb)

Natural disturbances are important to ecosystem processes. Disturbances historically have occurred in the vegetation of the Blue Mountain area of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The primary modifying events that historically have cycled through most of its plant communities are fire, grazing and browsing, insect and disease epidemics, windthrow, flooding, and erosion. Knowledge of plant successional pathways enables managers to predict the probable course of community development for a disturbance regime. Recommendations for restoring the Blue Mountains area are to reintroduce fire into the ecosystem, restore rangelands, and enhance biological diversity by practicing landscape ecological management and by emulating natural patterns on the landscape. Periodic and timely sampling after these activities is critical to assessing the results for adaptive management needs.

Keywords: Disturbance ecology, landscape ecology, fire, prescribed fire, grazing, browsing, ecosystems


Gen. Tech. Rep.PNW-GTR-336 (1994) Expanding horizons of forest ecosystems management: proceedings of the third habitat futures workshop, by M.H. Huff, S.E. McDonald, H. Gucinski, tech. eds.

New approaches and technologies to evaluate wildlife-habitat relations, implement integrated forest management, and improve public participation in the process are needed to implement ecosystem management. Presented here are five papers that examine ecosystem management concepts at international, national, regional, and local scales. Two general management problems were addressed: how to incorporate different components of ecosystem management into specific forestry and wildlife management practices, and how to resolve conflicts and involve citizens more effectively in the management process. These papers are examples of new concepts and procedures being tested for use in managing resources by using an integrated ecosystem basis.

Keywords: Biodiversity, conservation planning, forest plantations, forest structure, land management planning, landscape, Pacific Northwest, British Columbia, protected areas, public participation, regional planning, resource conflicts, silvicultural treatments, sustainable forest development.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-333 (1994) Monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western budworm on permanent plots, by R.R. Mason and H.G. Paul (3.30 MB)

Procedures for monitoring larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience in sampling these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a geographical monitoring unit. The most practical method is to estimate simultaneously densities on a plot of both insect species by the nondestructive sampling of foliage on lower crown branches of host trees. This can be done either by counting all larvae on sample branches or by estimating the frequency of occurrence of a selected threshold number of larvae in samples. Statistics are given on the expected within- and between-plot variances and the number of sample plots needed in different sized monitoring units. In large monitoring units, plot densities of tussock moth and budworm larvae usually are not normally distributed, but they can be normalized by logarithmic transformation to predict the probability of subpopulations of any given density occurring somewhere in the unit. It is urged that sampling methods be consistent and that monitoring be done annually to accumulate continuous databases that reflect the behavior of defoliator populations over a long period.

Keywords: Ecological monitoring, population monitoring, sampling insects, Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata, western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentafis.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-332 (1994) Animal damage management handbook by Black, Hugh C., tech. ed

This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and in the appendices.

Keywords: Animal damage management, integrated forest protection, wildlife problem species, damage identification.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-331 (1994) Volume V: a framework for sustainable ecosystem management, by B.T. Bormann, M.H. Brookes, E.D. Ford, A.R. Kiester, C.D. Oliver, and J.F. Weigand

Principles for sustainable-ecosystem management are derived by integrating fundamental, societal, and scientific premises. Ecosystem science is applied in the design of a system of management focused on building overlap between what people collectively want and what is ecologically possible. We conclude that management must incorporate more science and societal processes in the systemto better inform decisions and to learn by “managing as an experiment.” A management model is proposed that laces together societal values and ecological capacity.

Keywords: Sustainability; ecosystem management; sustainable development; future generations; unexpected future options; management principles; managing as an experiment; adaptive management; information as a resource; communities of interest; diversification; iterative decisionmaking; management system; the lacing model.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-330 (1994) Volume IV: restoration of stressed sites and processes, by R.L. Everett, comp. (1.63 MB)

Portions of forest ecosystems in eastern Oregon and Washington are in poor health, are not meeting societies expectations, and have elevated hazard for fire, insects, and disease. Diversity in stream habitats and associated fisheries has declined over the last several decades in several drainage basins, requiring conservation and restoration efforts in key watersheds. Required first steps in restoring forest and aquatic ecosystems are the immediate reduction in hazard for catastrophic loss of biodiversity, site quality, resource commodities, and improved conditions for public health. To prevent loss of future options we need to simultaneously reestablish ecosystem processes and disturbance effects that create and maintain desired sustainable ecosystems, while conserving genetic, species, community, and landscape diversity and long-term site productivity. Restoration of stressed sites is site specific, but the context for the action should be defined by the desired condition(s) of the next higher landscape scale and achieve desired positive cumulative effects over time. Restoration actions should be consistent with the desired level of disturbance effects required to maintain sustainable ecosystems, and standards and guides should reflect the inherent variability associated with dynamic systems. Costs associated with restoration activities should be weighed against the foregone benefits if no action is taken. The restoration of the biological components of ecosystems should provide increased opportunities for the restoration of human cultural, social, and economic ecosystem components and increase options for resource-dependent communities.

Keywords: Restoration; forest health; ecosystem processes; disturbance effects; ecosystem management; insects, disease, and fire hazard.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-329 (1994) Managing for featured, threatened, endangered, and sensitive species and unique habitats for ecosystem sustainability, by B.G. Marcot, M.J. Wisdom, H.W. Li, and G.C. Castillo (848 Kb)

The traditional approach to wildlife management has focused on single species—historically game species and more recently threatened and endangered species. Several newer approaches to managing for multiple species and biological diversity include managing coarse filters, ecological indicator species, indicator guilds, and use of species-habitat matrices. These and other modeling approaches each have strong points as well as weak points, which include conflicts among objectives for species with disparate needs. We present three case examples of integrating management for single species with management for multiple species and ecosystems. These examples are: managing elk habitat in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon; managing for sustainable native fish faunas in eastern Oregon and Washington; and managing plant and animal species closely associated with old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Each case illustrates a unique set of considerations and ecological conditions. Successful integration of species and ecosystem management depends on clearly defining objectives at several scales of time and space, and not violating the three most basic principles of ecosystem management: maintaining or restoring biodiversity, maintaining long-term site productivity, and maintaining sustainable use of renewable resources.

Keywords: Wildlife habitat, fish habitat, biodiversity, eastside, threatened species, endangered species, sensitive species, management indicator species, species planning.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-328 (1994) Historical and current forest landscapes of eastern Oregon and Washington. Part I: Vegetation pattern and insect and disease hazards, by J.F. Lehmkuhl, P.F. Hessburg, R.L. Everett, M.H. Huff, and R.D. Ottmar

We analyzed historical and current vegetation composition and structure in 49 sample watersheds, primarily on National Forests, within six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation patterns were mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959, and from 1985 to 1992. We described vegetation attributes, landscape patterns, the range of historical variability, scales of change, and disturbance hazards. Forest cover increased eight percent in three river basins, but remained relatively unchanged in the other basins. Forests became more dense in vertical and horizontal canopy structure as understory cover increased with regeneration, of mostly shade-tolerant species. The distribution of forest age classes and structure has changed, with smaller area in early-seral and old forest stages and greater area in multiple-canopy young and mature stands. The percentage of visible dead trees increased in all river. basins. Landscape pattern has become more diverse and fragmented over time in five of the six river basins. Insect and disease hazards changed little, usually < 10 percent, at the river basin scale because there was considerable variation at the watershed scale, where large changes in hazards were common.

Keywords: Historical vegetation, landscape pattern, insect and disease hazard, range of variation, scale, forest health, disturbance, fire suppression, Oregon, Washington, Cascades, Blue Mountains.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-327 (1994) Historical and current roles of insects and pathogens in eastern Oregon and Washington forested landscapes, by P.F. Hessburg, R.G. Mitchell, and G.M. Filip

This paper examines by climax conifer series, historical and current roles of many important pathogens and insects of interior Northwest coniferous forests, and their unique responses to changing successional conditions resulting from management.

Insects and pathogens of the subalpine fir and mountain hemlock series historically reduced inter-tree competition for site resources, and generated most of the coarse woody debris between fires. Severity of growth and mortality effects was proportional to the abundance of susceptible seral species such as Douglas-fir, grand fir, and lodgepole pine within and adjacent to subalpine fir and mountain hemlock forests. Laminated root rot, a mortality factor, influenced successional status, fire intensity, and fire behavior. Insect and disease disturbances in present day western hemlock and western redcedar climax forests are much the same as those occurring historically, but increased scale of fire disturbance resulting from fire exclusion, has increased the scale of insect and pathogen disturbances associated with changing successional conditions.

Spectacular differences are apparent when comparing historical and current roles of pathogens and insects of the Douglas-fir and grand fir series. Before the advent of fire control on public lands, late successional and climax forest stands were relatively scarce in comparison with current distribution. A century of fire protection has produced a steady shift away from parklike ponderosa pine and western larch forests toward denser late-successional fir forests. Harvesting of high-value seral overstories accelerated conversion to insect- and pathogen-susceptible late-successional forests. Douglas-fir and grand (white) fir are highly susceptible to root pathogens, bark beetles, defoliators, and dwarf mistletoe. Excluding fire from grand fir and Douglas-fir forests has perhaps been the single greatest detriment to diversity of eastside forests, and a primary factor in current susceptibility to major pathogens and insects.

Low intensity fires, once common to historical ponderosa pine climax forests, maintained low fuel loads, minimized fuel ladders, and spaced trees struggling to survive under severe moisture-limited growing conditions. The western pine beetle and mountain beetle thinned densely stocked areas missed by fire, and killed trees injured by wind and weather, or weakened by root disease, dwarf mistletoe, Pandora moth, or advanced age. With fire control, overstocked conditions became widespread and bark beetles assumed the role of underburning to the elimination of trees in excess of site potential. Regeneration of historical lodgepole pine forests was predicated on mountain pine beetle outbreaks and subsequent stand replacing fire events. Today, with fire control, mountain pine beetle outbreaks affect larger areas, for longer periods, often with greater intensity than historical outbreaks.

Specific solution to elevated insect and disease disturbance in current forests is complicated by great variety in environmental and vegetal conditions where rehabilitation might be needed, and change in biological and physical potentials as a direct result of management. Still, much can be done. Stocking can be reduced where long-term carrying capacity is exceeded. The shift toward late-successional, fire intolerant, pathogenand insect susceptible forests can be reversed by developing a seral-dominated forest matrix. Management activities can promote landscape structure, composition, and pattern, consistent with historical disturbance regimes and land potentials.

Future research on forest pathogens and insects should address three primary subject areas: insect and pathogen population dynamics in managed and unmanaged forests; ecological roles and effects of native and introduced pathogens and insects; and, effects of natural disturbances and management practices on native insects, pathogens, and their natural enemies.

Keywords: Forest succession, forest health, insects and diseases, pathogens, landscape patterns, disturbance processes, ecosystem processes, fire regimes.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-326 (1994) Ecological health of river basins in forested regions of eastern Washington and Oregon, by R.C. Wissmar, J.E. Smith, B.A. McIntosh, H.W. Li, G.H. Reeves, and J.R. Sedell

A retrospective examination of the history of the cumulative influences of past land and water uses on the ecological health of select river basins in forest regions of eastern Washington and Oregon indicates the loss of fish and riparian habitat diversity and quality since the 19th century. A physiographic framework of the eastern Washington and Oregon in terms of spatial and temporal geologic, climatic and hydrologic conditions provides a regional perspective for reviewing influences of human patterns of settlement, resource development and management on the river basins. The study focuses on impacts of timber harvest, fire management, livestock grazing, mining and irrigation management practices on stream and riparian ecosystems. Extensive reviews of ecosystem damage and fish losses caused by hydroelectric and large irrigation projects, highway and railroad construction and other factors are beyond the scope of this analysis but are summarized. Case histories of the chronology of natural resource uses and health of select river basins, the Okanogan, Methow and Little Naches River basins (Cascade Mountains of Washington) and the Grande Ronde and John Day River basins (northeastern and central Oregon) show that during European settlement period livestock grazing, mining, and irrigation developments were the major land and water uses impacting streams and riparian ecosystems. After the 1940s, timber harvest, road construction and irrigation were the major management impacts. The examination of past environmental management approaches for assessing stream, riparian, and watershed conditions in forest regions shows numerous advantages and shortcomings. The select management approaches include: instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM) for the evaluation of the effect of water diversion on steam flows and salmonid habitats; the equivalent clear-cut method (ECA) for assessing the hydrologic effects of logging; a watershed cumulative effects model (KWCEA) for evaluating the effects of logging and roads on soil loss; and procedures for addressing soil compaction problems. The study concludes by providing recommendations for ecosystem management with emphasis on monitoring and restoration activities.

Keywords: History, land uses, rivers, streams, riparian, salmonid, timber, livestock, irrigation, water.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-325 (1994) Effects of long-term use by big game and livestock in the Blue Mountains forest ecosystems, by L.L. Irwin, J.G. Cook, R.A. Riggs, and J.M. Skovlin (2.67 MB)

The effects on eastside forest ecosystems from long-term grazing by large mammals are assessed, because long-term herbivory can reduce or increase ecosystem productivity. The assessment emphasizes elk and cattle in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington. Histories of populations of large mammals and their effects in the Blue Mountains are described. Maximum populations of domestic livestock in the Blue Mountains occurred about the turn of the 20th century, declined by 1940, and increased slightly to the present. Livestock grazing on Federal livestock allotments declined from 1915 through 1950, and remained relatively stable since. Elk herds, which existed in relatively low numbers prior to Euroamerican settlement, were decimated by the late 1800s. Hunting restrictions and translocations resulted in increased herds, and hunting was re-instituted in 1927 in Washington and in 1933 in Oregon. Elk herds grew to high density levels by 1980. Long-term heavy use by domestic livestock, primarily cattle, and elk has changed ecosystem processes. There is empirical evidence that persistent herbivory by large mammals caused moderate to severe reduction of shrubs and forage productivity in a variety of logged and unlogged forest communities, with subsequent effects on frequency of wildfire and conifer seedling establishment in some plant communities. Long-term herbivory was shown to have alternative effects by either improving or reducing wood-fiber production by reducing competition from understory plants or reducing soil fertility. The changes in plant communities caused by the herbivores may have had negative feedback effects to productivity of both elk and cattle. Cattle do not achieve desired weight gains on summer allotments. Empirical studies on forage quality and livestock nutritional status support a view that large domestic and wild mammals subsist on suboptimal forage conditions most of the year in the Blue Mountains. Survival of elk calves appears low, partly as a result of density-induced shortages of high-quality forage. The reduced calf production appears to be exacerbated by low adult bull:cow elk ratios, which reduces calf survival via delayed and lengthy birthing periods. The low bull:cow ratios are a result of reduced cover due to logging and increased access to hunters due to logging roads. Reduced big game productivity has led to restrictions on hunting opportunities, with concomitant losses in revenue to local economies. In addition, the dense elk herds, in concert with forest management activities on federal lands, have resulted in increased use by elk on private lands, where they damage crops. The paper identifies adaptive management experiments that could identify options for-clarifying the complex relationships between herbivores, vegetation, and ecosystem processes and identify management options for restoring forest health.

Keywords: Adaptive management, big game, Blue Mountains, cattle, density-dependence, ecosystem, elk, grazing, herbivory, livestock, nutrient cycling, ungulate.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-324 (1994) Eastside forest management practices: historical overview, extent of their application, and their effects on sustainability of ecosystems, by C.D. Oliver, L.L. Irwin, and W.H. Knapp

Forest management of eastern Oregon and Washington began in the late 1800s as extensive utilization of forests for grazing, timber, and irrigation water. With time, protection of these values developed into active management for these and other values such as recreation. Silvicultural and administrative practices, developed to solve problems at a particular time have lingered and created confusion and consternation when knowledge, values, and vegetation conditions have changed. The present condition of most eastern Oregon and Washington forests is the result of disturbance and regrowth processes coupled with historical management practices. Most areas contain high levels of insects, diseases, and fuels. Without many, diverse, creative, and active solutions, large ?res and insect outbreaks will occur with local loss of ecosystem and human values.

Keywords: Management practices, historical management practices, eastern Oregon, eastern Washington, ecosystem sustainability.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-323 (1994) Biotic and abiotic processes in eastside ecosystems: the effects of management on soil properties, processes, and productivity, by A.E. Harvey, J.M. Geest, G.I. McDonald, M.F. Jurgensen, P.H. Cochran, D. Zabowski, and R.T. Meurisse (2.07 MB)

Productivity of forest and range land soils is based on a combination of diverse physical, chemical and biological properties. In ecosystems characteristic of eastside regions of Oregon and Washington, the productive zone is usually in the upper 1 or 2 m. Not only are the biological processes that drive both soil productivity and root development concentrated in limited organic horizons, but also they have evolved historically in a natural system that includes mostly modest surface disturbance. Typical disturbances include erosional, seismic, or tip-over events, and modest surface heating by periodic wild?re. This combination of properties and processes produces soils with an extremely wide range of productivity potential, but productivity can be highly sensitive to disturbances from heavy machinery or ?re, when fuel accumulations are well beyond historical norms. Limited moisture-holding capacity and nitrogen storage often impose a need for carefully balancing developing vegetation with available soil resources.

Keywords: Soil management strategy, soil productivity, soil sustainability, soil damage, soil moisture, soil microbiology, soil-disease interaction, soil-climate interaction, soil wood, coarse woody debris, organic matter, water storage and use, nutrient cycling, nitrogen ?xation, ectomycorrhizal activity, carbon cycling, harvest effects, ?re effects, fertilizer effects, forest health, physical properties, chemical properties.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-322 (1994) Biotic and abiotic processes in eastside ecosystems: the effects of management on plant and community ecology and on stand and landscape vegetation dynamics, by C.G. Johnson, R.R. Clausnitzer, P.J. Mehringer, and C.D. Oliver (1.68 MB)

Paleo-vegetation studies have shown that vegetation has changed in composition and extent in the intermountain Pacifc Northwest over the past 20,000 years. Today, both natural and human-induced disturbances have long-term in?uence on the structure and composition of eastside vegetation. Disturbance may enhance landscape diversity, therefore, the scale of modifying events and activities needs to shift from species and stand to the landscape level. Knowledge of plant succession is the foundation of a sound vegetation management program where the primary goal is to retard, arrest, or accelerate the natural forces of vegetation change.

Keywords: Pleistocene vegetation, pollen analysis, disturbance, stand development, succession, steepe ecosystem, forest ecosystem, shrublands, scablands, landscape.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-320 Fire and weather disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Cascades, by J.K. Agee (979 Kb)

Fire has been an important ecological process in eastside Cascade ecosystems for millennia. Fire regimes ranged from low severity to high severity, and historic fire return intervals ranged from less than a decade to greater than 300 years. Fire history and effects are described for grassland and shrubland ecosystems, and the range of forested communities by plant series: Ponderosa Pine, Douglas-fir/White fir/Grand fir, Lodgepole pine, Western hemlock/Western redcedar, and subalpine fir/Mountain hemlock. The riparian zones within these communities may be more or less impacted by fire. The effects of extreme weather events, including unusual temperature, wind, or moisture have generally had less significant impact than fire. Management practices, including fire suppression, timber harvesting, and livestock grazing, have altered historical fire regimes, in some cases irreversibly. The management issues for the 1990s include both management and research issues, at a grand scale with which we have little experience. Ecosystem and adaptive management principles will have to be applied.

Keywords: Forest fire, fire history, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies grandis, Abies lasiocarpa, Pinus contorta.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW -GTR-319 Landscape and the intermontane Northwest: an environmental history, by W.G. Robbins and D.W. Wolfe (Everett, Richard L., assessment team leader; Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment; Hessburg, Paul F., science team leader and tech. ed., Volume III: assessment.) (610 Kb)

Traces the natural and cultural processes involved in shaping the environment in the intermontane northwest from the Indian period of domination to the present. Emphasizes the increasing influence of humans as modifiers of landscapes and ecosystems, especially with the coming of the market system to the region and the onset of the industrial era. Focuses on the unique aspects of ecological change in the intermontane region: the very recent extension of the market system to the area; and the very rapid expansion of human-induced environmental disturbance over very extensive areas in a very brief span of time.

Keywords: Environment, modification, market system, cultural stability, fire, horse, reconnaissance surveys, railroads, Euro-americans, Native Americans, timber, sawmills, grazing.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-318 (1994) Volume II: Ecosystem management: principles and applications, by M.E. Jensen, P.S. Bourgeron, tech. eds. (Everett, Richard L., assessment team leader; Eastside forest ecosystem health assessment).

This document provides land managers with practical suggestions for implementing ecosystem management. It contains 28 papers organized into five sections: historical perspectives, ecological principles, sampling design, case studies, and implementation strategies.

Keywords: Ecosystem management, landscape ecology, conservation biology, land use planning.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-313 Techniques to construct New Zealand elk-proof fence by Larry D. Bryant, Jack W. Thomas, and Mary M. Rowland (305 Kb)

An elk-proof fence was built in 1987 at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. The 25,000-acre research enclosure holds several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) year round. The fence, constructed with high-tensile Tightlock woven wire from New Zealand, is 8 feet high and requires minimal maintenance. Tension curves in the wire, unique to Tightlock deer fence, make it elastic. Injury to animals is minimized by this inherent "shock absorbing action." Techniques for constructing the fence and costs of materials and labor are discussed.

Keywords: Woven wire fencing, high-tensile fence, wildlife fence, deer and elk management, deer and elk research, New Zealand fence, Starkey Experimental Forest and Range.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-309 Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific Northwest: a preface to managing commercial harvest, by Randy Molina, Thomas O'Dell, Daniel Luoma, Michael Amaranthus, Michael Castellano, Kenelm Russell. (2.68 Mb)

The commercial harvest of edible forest fungi has mushroomed into a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The development of this special forest product industry has raised considerable controversy about how this resource should be managed, especially on public lands. Concerns center around destruction of forest habitat by repeated entry and harvest, gradual loss of the mushroom resource by potential overharvest, conflict between recreational users and commercial harvesters, and regulation and monitoring of future harvests. A key to wisely managing the edible mushroom resource is common understanding among resource managers, the mushroom industry, and the concerned public about the biology of these unique forest organisms, their ecological importance in forest eco-systems, and effects of forest disturbance on their survival. The primary objectives of this overview paper are to provide information on the biology of forest fungi, describe the major edible fungi harvested in the Pacific Northwest, integrate a perspective on the social aspects of the mushroom harvest issue, summarize the development of the commercial mushroom industry, and suggest research and monitoring protocols for developing management guidelines.

Keywords: Fungi, mushrooms, mycorrhizae, monitoring, forest ecology, forest management, special forest products, recreation.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-308 Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests, by Mark H. Huff, Richard M. Holthausen, Keith B. Aubry, tech. coords. (1.23 Mb)

Twelve species of bats occur in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, of which nine are known to roost in tree cavities, bark crevices, or foliage, and several are closely associated with old-growth forests. Thus bat populations may be detrimentally affected by forest management practices involving the removal of large, old trees and snags. We review the life history characteristics and habitat relations of bats in the Pacific Northwest and provide information useful in managing forests for the persistence of native bat populations.

Keywords: Bats, Pacific Northwest, natural history, old-growth forests.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-306 Inexpensive camera systems for detecting martens, fishers, and other animals: guidelines for use and standardization by Lawrence L.C. Jones and Martin G. Raphael (2.7MB)

Inexpensive camera systems have been successfully used to detect the occurrence of martens, fishers,and other wildlife species. The use of cameras is becoming widespread, and we give suggestions for standardizing techniques so that comparisons of data can occur across the geographic range of the target species. Details are given on equipment needs, setting up the stations, checking and recording, summarizing data, and research needs.

Keywords: Camera, monitoring, marten, Martes americana, detecting, standardization, fisher, Martes pennanti.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-303 Microcomputer software for calculating the western Oregon elk habitat effectiveness index by Alan Ager and Mark Hitchcock (621 Kb)

This paper describes the operation of the microcomputer program HEIWEST, which was developed to automate calculation of the western Oregon elk habitat effectiveness index (HEI). HEIWEST requires little or no training to operate and vastly simplifies the task of measuring HEI for either site-specific project analysis or long-term monitoring of elk habitat. It is especially useful as a project analysis tool where many silvicultural alternatives are evaluated for their effects on elk habitat. The program also can be used to calculate interior habitat and edge length for indices for forest fragmentation. Data to run HEIWEST program can be derived from a GIS or manually input from within the program. A floppy diskette with a copy of the program and sample data is distributed with the publication.

Keywords: Roosevelt elk, elk habitat, habitat effectiveness index, wildlife software, western Oregon.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-301 Microcomputer software for calculating an elk habitat effectiveness index on Blue Mountain winter ranges by Mark Hitchcock, and Alan Ager (369 Kb)

National Forests in the Pacific Northwest Region have incorporated elk habitat standards into Forest plans to ensure that elk habitat objectives are met on multiple use land allocations. Many Forests have employed versions of the habitat effectiveness index (HEI) as a standard method to evaluate habitat. Field application of the HEI model unfortunately is a formidable problem, owing largely to the detailed calculations of "spacing bands" that describe the spatial arrangement of forage and cover areas. This paper describes a DOS microcomputer program that automates the calculation of HEI. "HEICALC" is a simple, menu-driven program that will run on virtually any DOS microcomputer. HEICALC vastly simplifies the task of measuring elk habitat conditions over large areas. It is especially useful in projects where several management alternatives are evaluated for their effects on elk habitat. A floppy diskette containing a copy of the program is distributed with the publication.

Keywords: Elk habitat, HEI, wildlife software, Blue Mountains


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286 (1992) The Alaska vegetation classification, by L.A. Viereck, C.T. Dyrness, A.R. Batten, and K.J. Wenzlick

The Alaska vegetation classification presented here is a comprehensive, statewide system that has been under development since 1976. The classification is based, as much as possible, on the characteristics of the vegetation itself and is designed to categorize existing vegetation, not potential vegetation. A hierarchical system with five levels of resolution is used for classifying Alaska vegetation. The system, an agglomerative one, starts with 888 known Alaska plant communities, which are listed and referenced. At the broadest level of resolution, the system contains three formations-forest, scrub, and herbaceous vegetation. In addition to the classification, this report contains a key to levels I, II, and III; complete descriptions of all level IV units; and a glossary of terms used.

Keywords: Vegetation, classification, Alaska, tundra, boreal forest, coastal forest, plant communities.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-276 The biology of arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests by Andrew B. Carey

Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaucfus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas’ squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea), and Townsend’s chipmunk (Tamias townsendi). The arboreal rodents constitute an ecological communitya group of species that interact and influence one another’s pattern of abundance and use of resources. All but the Douglas’ squirrel and Townsend’s chipmunk are important prey of the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The arboreal squirrels are mycophagists and have important functions in ecosystem processes. Individual species exist in many habitats, but the arboreal rodent community reaches its highest diversity and abundance in old-growth forests. The rodents are not evenly distributed, however, across the Pacific Northwest; maximum diversity and abundance in the community occurs in mixed-conifer, old-growth forests that contain streams. Although the species differ in life histories and ecologies, all seem sensitive to timber harvesting because of both elimination of habitat and creation of barriers to dispersal.

Keywords: Bushy-tailed woodrat, Douglas’ squirrel, dusky-footed woodrat, northern flying squirrel, old growth, red tree vole, Townsend’s chipmunk, Oregon, Washington.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-275 Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest by R. Bruce Bury and Paul Stephen Corn.

Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples IO-meter stretches of selected streams, which was
adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of individual species among streams. Physical and biological parameters of streams are described as well as
ways to collect amphibians effectively. The system can be modified for use in a variety of waterways and for different study objectives. We provide recommendations for improvements on future studies.

Keywords: Amphibians, Pacific Northwest, streams, sampling techniques.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-273 Methods for measuring populations of arboreal rodents by Andrew B. Carey, Brian L. Biswell, and Joseph W. Witt

Three arboreal rodents are sensitive indicators of forest ecosystem function in the Pacific Northwest. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is mycophagous, cavity-nesting, and a major prey of the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). THe red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaudus) is restricted to trees and may prove sensitive to forest fragmentation. The Douglas' squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii) responds sharply to fluctuations in conifer seed abundance. Live-trapping and mark and recapture methods can be used to estimate densities of northern flying squirrels and some other rodents in contiguous areas of homogeneous vegetation (stands). We recommend 10- by 10-meter grids with 40-meter spacing and two traps per station--one in a tree and one on the ground. Trapping should be done in spring and fall. Techniques are lacking for red tree voles; searching felled trees for nests holds promise. Direct observation can be used to obtain indexes of abundance for Douglas' squirrels.

Keywords: Northern flying squirrel, red tree vole, Douglas' squirrel, bushy-tailed woodrat, dusky footed woodrat, live-trapping, small mammals, density estimation, Oregon, Washington.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-271 (1992) Alaska research natural areas 3: Serpentine Slide,  by G.P. Juday

The 1730-ha Serpentine Slide Research Natural Area (RNA) is located in central Alaska in the White Mountains National Recreation Area. It is managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Steese-White Mountains District. Serpentine Slide was selected as a Research Natural Area (RNA) because it contains an alpine exposure of serpentinite; a 9-ha natural earth flow that has destroyed most vegetation in its path; bottom-land white spruce and balsam poplar forests growing on coarse gravels and sands of a major clearwater river flood plain; and warm, dry hill prairies on steep south-facing slopes. The area also contains several beaver dams, lodges, and ponds. Beaver-created habitats support typical wetland species including ducks and the northern wood frog. Open gravel bars and the high-quality, clear water of Beaver Creek provide nesting and breeding habitat for shore birds, especially the semipalmated plover. The Beaver Creek bottom-land corridor is a locally important habitat for grizzly bear, which use the RNA intensively in particular seasons. The variety of natural features of geologic, hydrologic, botanic, aquatic, and wildlife interest and the opportunity to monitor natural change in a locally diverse environment make Serpentine Slide RNA an outstanding scientific and educational resource.

Concentric zones around serpentinite exposures in the RNA show increasingly toxic effects on plants. A widespread alpine plant in Alaska, Bupleurum triradiatum, is the vascular species most tolerant of serpentinite, but no special serpentine-adapted plant species have been discovered in the RNA. The center of serpentinite exposures in the RNA is naturally devoid of all plant life except an orange crustose lichen.

The earth flow has been periodically active since at least the early 1950s. Dolomite and limestone are exposed on the lower slopes in the northeast portion of the RNA. The banks and overflow channels of Beaver Creek are made up of large to mediumsized smooth, rounded gravels with little fine sediments. The flood plain and terraces along the Beaver Creek portion of the RNA are generally made up of gravels and coarse sand, in contrast to the fine silts, sands, and clays of terraces and flood plains along typical northern Alaska rivers that carry glacial sediments.

Belted kingfishers excavate nesting burrows in exposed river cutbanks along Beaver Creek. Goshawks use extensive stands of mature and old-growth white spruce forest and adjacent successional and wetland habitats.

Three plants collected in the RNA, Carex eburnea, Artemisia alaskana, and Agropyron spicatum, are growing beyond their previously reported distribution in Alaska. A 150-year-old flood-plain white spruce forest supports about 40 m2/ha live tree basal area and contains dominant trees from 30 to 45 cm in diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and up to 30 m tall. An upper elevation, south-slope white spruce forest supported 36 m2/ha, dominant trees 20 to 36 cm d.b.h. and a maximum of 19 rn tall.

Keywords: Alaska, beaver, Castor canadensis, earthslide, ecosystems, goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, hill prairie, Research Natural Area, Natural Areas (Research), northern wood frog, Rana sylvatica, old-growth forest, scientific reserves, serpentine, semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus, white spruce, Picea glauca.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-265 Ecology of the great gray owl by Evelyn L. Bull, and Mark G. Henjum

Information is needed on the great gray owl to understand its ecology and to consider this species in land management decisions. From 1982 to 1988, we studied 24 pairs and 107 juvenile great gray owls in northeastern Oregon. Forty-nine nests were located; 16 were used more than once, so we observed 71 nesting attempts. Seventy-eight percent of these nesting attempts were successful in raising 1 to 5 young (mean = 2.2). The nests were on stick platforms, on top of broken-off dead trees, and on artificial wooden platforms. Nest trees occurred in a variety of habitats, although most were in mature or older, unlogged stands of mixed conifer. Diet by biomass consisted mainly of northern pocket gophers (67 percent) and voles (27 percent). The size of the home range for 16 adult owls and 19 juvenile owls averaged 67 square kilometers and 157 square kilometers, respectively. Management practices enhancing habitat for great gray owls include providing artificial nest platforms, protecting existing nest platforms and large-diameter dead trees, providing dense tree cover around or adjacent to the nest, and providing perches for recently fledged young.

Keywords: Owl, great gray owl, management, conifer forest, Oregon.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-260 Training guide for bird identification in Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests by Andrew B. Carey, Valen E. Castellano, Christopher Chappell, Robert Kuntz [and others] tech. comps.

Bird calls and songs vary regionally, and some birds emit a variety of sounds. Existing guides are inadequate for training observers to do detailed surveys of bird communities, because more than 90 percent of birds detected are identified by the sounds they emit. This guide summarizes existing guides and adds the observations of the compilers and other technicians who participated in extensive surveys. Four-letter codes for species names, taken from the American Ornithologists’ Union, are included. A checklist by region (southern Washington, Oregon Cascade Range, Oregon Coast Ranges, and northwestern California) of birds found in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests west of the crest of the Cascade Range completes the guide.

Keywords: Bird calls, Pacific Northwest, Douglas-fir forests.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-256 Sampling methods for terrestrial amphibians and reptiles.

Methods described for sampling amphibians and reptiles in Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest include pitfall trapping, time-constrained collecting, and surveys of coarse woody debris. The herpetofauna of this region differ in breeding and nonbreeding habitats and vagility, so that no single technique is sufficient for a community study. A combination of pitfall trapping and hand collecting is the most effective approach.

Keywords: Amphibians, reptiles, sampling techniques, pitfall trapping, time constrained collecting, downed wood.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-255 (1990) SAMM: a prototype southeast Alaska multiresource model, by R.D. Fight, L.D. Garrett, D.L. Weyermann, tech. eds. (1.13 MB)

The adaptive environmental assessment method was used by an interdisciplinary team of forest specialists to gain an understanding of resource interactions and tradeoffs resulting from forest management activities in southeast Alaska. A forest multiresource projection model was developed in the process. The multiresource model, “SAMM,” is capable of characterizing and displaying interactions of four major resources over a 150-year rotation: timber, wildlife (Sitka black-tailed deer), hydrology (streams), and fisheries (anadromous). SAMM is in a prototype stage of development; final testing is required before it can be used by managers for quantitative analysis. Sufficient development and evaluation has been done by the team of specialists to permit its use in qualitative assessments for planning.

Keywords: Multiresource, forest management, systems, models, southeast Alaska, simulation.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-254 Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape.

Fire history from years 1150 to 1985 was reconstructed by analyzing forest stands in two 1940-hectare areas in the central-western Cascade Range of Oregon. Serving as records for major fire episodes, these stands revealed a highly variable fire regime. The steeper, more dissected, lower elevation Cook-Quentin study area experienced more frequent fires (natural fire rotation = 95 years) that were commonly low to moderate in severity. The Deer study area, with its cooler, moister conditions and gentler topography, had a regime of less frequent (natural fire rotation = 149 years), predominantly stand-replacement fires. Fires created a complex mosaic of stands with variable date and severity of last burn. Fire-created forest patches originating in 1800-1900 are mostly less than 10 hectares. Since 1900, very little of the study areas burned, possibly because of fire suppression. Old-growth forest conditions have persisted on some sites through numerous fires and over many centuries.

Keywords: History (fire), patch dynamics, old-growth forest, wildfire fire ecology.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-251 (1990) Airborne monitoring and smoke characterization of prescribed fires on forest lands in western Washington and Oregon, by L.F. Radke, J.H. Lyons, P.V. Hobbs, D.A. Hegg, D.V. Sandberg, D.E. Ward (2.42 MB)

Detailed airborne measurements of smoke plumes from seven prescribed burns of forest biomass residues leftover from timber harvests in Washington and Oregon are described. Measurements of particle size distributions in the plumes at 3.3 km downwind of the burns showed a prominent peak in the mass concentration for particles 0.25-0.30 µm in diameter. The total mass of particles in the plume was dominated, however, by supermicron-sized particles. The particle number distributions were dominated by large numbers of Aitken nuclei (median number diameter 0.15 µm).

Based on numerous airborne measurements from six burns, the following average emission factors were determined using the carbon balance method: for total suspended particulates 1.2 ± 0.4 percent, for particles < 43 µm in diameter 0.6± 0.3 percent, and for particles < 0.2 µm in diameter 0.4 ± 0.2 percent. Particle mass fluxes for total suspended particulates, particles < 43 µm diameter, and particles < 2 µm diameter ranged from 0.1 to 2.4 kg · s-1, 0.1 to 1.1 kg · s -1, and 0.1 to 0.8 kg · s-1, respectively, for the smaller Oregon burns and from 1.1 to 11.7 kg · s-1, 0.6 to 7.0 kg · s-1, and 0.4 to 14.1 kg · s-1, respectively, for the larger Washington burns.

Other samples collected in conjunction with the airborne work included those for trace gas analysis, particulate matter for trace element analysis, and gas concentration measurements for carbon-mass analysis (oxides of nitrogen, ozone, and hydrocarbons). Mass concentration-to-light scattering coefficient algorithms and ratios, which can be used to convert integrating nephelometer response to mass concentration units, are also reported.

Keywords: Emissions, prescribed burning, smoke management.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-229 From the forest to the sea: a story of fallen trees by Chris Maser, Robert F. Tarrant, James M. Trappe, and Jerry F. Franklin, tech. eds.

Large, fallen trees in various stages of decay contribute much-needed diversity of ecological processes to terrestrial, aquatic, estuarine, coastal beach, and open ocean habitats in the Pacific Northwest. Intensive utilization and management can deprive these habitats of large, fallen trees, This publication presents sound information for managers making resource management decisions on the impact of this loss on habitat diversity and on ecological processes that have an impact on long-term ecosystem productivity.

Keywords: Decomposition, fallen trees, habitat diversity, ecosystem function, land, water, sea.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-220 (1988) The RAPID technique: a new method for evaluating downstream effects of forest practices on riparian zones, by Gordon Grant (876 Kb)

The RAPID (riparian aerial photographic inventory of disturbance) technique is a method for using measurements made on aerial photographs of patterns of riparian canopy disturbance to evaluate changes in channel conditions through time and to link such changes with their possible upstream causes. The RAPID technique provides resource specialists and managers with a relatively quick way of identifying stream reaches that are chronically or recently disturbed by a variety of channel processes, including increased peak flows and sedimentation from point and nonpoint sources. With examples from western Oregon, this paper describes how to apply the RAPID technique and analyze the results to evaluate downstream or cumulative effects of forest practices.

Keywords: Riparian zones, cumulative effects, aerial photograph interpretation channel changes, monitoring, geomorphology, hydrology.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-218 (1988) Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges, by J.W. Thomas, D.A. Leckenby, M. Henjum, R.J. Pedersen, L.D. Bryant (257 Kb)

An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

Keywords: Winter range, wildlife habitat, elk, Oregon (Blue Mountains), Blue Mountains--Oregon, Washington (Blue Mountains), Blue Mountains--Washington.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-192 A method of site quality evaluation for red alder, by Constance A. Harrington (799 Kb)

A field guide to predict site index for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) was developed for use in western Washington and Oregon. The guide requires the user to evaluate 14 soil-site properties that are grouped into three general factors: (1) geographic and topographic position, (2) soil moisture and aeration during the growing season, and (3) soil fertility and physical condition. Construction of the guide was modeled after a method of site evaluation developed for several southern hardwood species. The red alder model is accurate when used properly. The correlation (r) between predicted and measured site index was 0.97 for the basic data set of 25 plots and 0.96 for the 15 plots used for verification. Estimated site index should be within ± 2 meters of measured site index 95 percent of the time. Use of a second independent data set for model verification resulted in a somewhat lower correlation (r = 0.89) between measured and predicted site index than was achieved with the original data set, but the model continued to meet the accuracy standard of ± 2 meters (p=0.05).

Keywords: Site class, site index, guidebooks, models, red alder, Alnus rubra.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-189 (1985) Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands--the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: management practices and options, by Frederick C. Hall (535 Kb)

Management practices and options to provide habitat for wildlife in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon deal with both vegetation treatment and protection, livestock management, maintenance or distribution of water developments, protection of wildlife areas through road closures or fencing, and direct manipulation of wildlife through hunting, trapping, or other means. This chapter deals primarily with livestock management in relationship to wildlife and wildlife habitat. Included are discussions of ecological status (range condition), livestock management, multiple-use options for each species featured in previous chapters (trout, sage grouse, pronghorn, mule deer, and bighorn sheep), and diversity.

Keywords: Wildlife habitat management, range management, livestock, Oregon (Great Basin), Great Basin–Oregon, series (Great Basin habitats).


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-185 Ecology and management of the spotted owl in the Pacific Norhtwest by R.J. Gutierrez and A.B. Carey, tech. eds.

The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has been listed as a sensitive species by the Pacific Southwest Region USDA Forest Service. Passt and present-studies-and surveys have led to the development of a region-wide network of owl territories to comly with the maintenance of viable populations as required by the National Forest Management Act. A brief explanation of the network is included.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-164 The seen and unseen world of the fallen tree, by C. Maser, J.M. Trappe, tech. eds.

In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Large, fallen trees in various stages of decay contribute much-needed diversity to terrestrial and aquatic habitats in western forests. When most biological activity in soil is limited by low moisture availability in summer, the fallen tree-soil interface offers a relatively cool, moist habitat for animals and a substrate for microbial and root activity. Intensified utilization and management can deprive future forests of large, fallen trees. The impact of this loss on habitat diversity and on long-term forest productivity must be determined because managers need sound information on which to base resource management decisions.

Keywords: Fallen trees, decay (wood), decomposition, old-growth stands, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, mycorrhizae, soil moisture.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-155 (1983) Procedures for establishing and maintaining permanent plots for silvicultural and yield research, Robert O. Curtis (819 Kb)

This paper reviews procedures for establishing and maintaining permanent plots for silvicultural and yield research; discusses purposes, sampling, and plot design; points out common errors; and makes recommendations for research plot designs and procedures for measuring and recording data.

Keywords: Plot analysis, permanent sample plots, tree measurement, sample plot design.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-152 Safety in bear country: protective measures and bullet performance at short range by William R. Meehan and John F. Thilenius

Bears are frequently encountered by people working in or enjoying the outdoors. Some government agencies have regulations concerning the firearms their personnel carry for protection against bears.

Guidelines to prevent hazardous encounters with bears are presented, and the performance of commonly used weapons and ammunition is discussed. The ballistic performance of bullet at the longer ranges generally encountered while hunting. Recommendations are made for weapons and ammunition used as protection from bears.

Keywords: Safety, safety equipment, bears, ballistics, Alaska.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-141 (1982) Workshop on sediment budgets and routing in forested drainage basins: proceedings, by F.J. Swanson, R.J. Janda, T. Dunne, D.N. Swanston, tech. eds.

Sediment budgets quantify the transport and storage of soil and sediment in drainage basins or smaller landscape units. Studies of sediment routing deal with the overall movement of soil and sediment through a series of landscape units. The 14 papers and 5 summaries from discussion groups in this volume report results of sediment budget and routing studies conducted principally in forested drainage basins. Papers also deal with sediment routing studies using computer models, physical models, and field observations in nonforest environments. This work emphasizes methods for judging the relative importance of sediment sources within a basin, the many roles of biological factors in sediment transport and storage, and the importance of recognizing changes of sediment storage within basins when interpreting sediment yield. Sediment budget and routing studies are important tools for both research scientists and land managers.

Keywords: Sedimentation, watershed management, sediment budget, drainage basins, geomorphology.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-139 Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands--the great basin of southeastern Oregon: mule deer by Donavin A. Leckenby, Dennis P. Sheehy, Carl H. Nellis [and others]. (1.0 Mb)

Relationships of mule deer behavior and physiology to management of shrub steppe plant communities in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are presented for application in land-use planning and habitat management. Communities are considered as they are used by mule deer for thermal cover, hiding cover, forage, fawning, and fawn rearing.

Keywords: Deer (mule), wildlife habitat, range management, Oregon (Great Basin)


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-98 The recreation opportunity spectrum: a framework for planning, management, and research.

The end product of recreation management is a diverse range of opportunities from which people can derive various experiences. This paper offers a framework for managing recreation opportunities based on six physical, biological, social, and managerial factors that, when combined, can be utilized by recreationists to obtain diverse experiences.

Keywords: Recreation, land use, multiple use -) recreation, management planning (forest).


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-95 (1979) Photo series for quantifying forest residues in the: sierra mixed conifer type, sierra true fir type, by W.G. Maxwell, F.R. Ward (2.2 MB)

Five series of photographs display different forest residue loading levels, by size classes, for areas of like timber type (Sierra mixed conifer and Sierra true fir) and cutting objective. Information with each photo includes measured weights, volumes and other residue data, information about the timber stand and harvest actions, and assessment of fire behavior and suppression difficulty. These photo series provide a fast and easy-to-use means for quantifying and describing existing and expected residues.

Keywords: Residues, residue management, fuel hazard rating, fire behavior (forest), slash (Sierra mixed conifer), slash (Sierra true fir), residue measurements, residue surveys.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-93 Huckleberry ecology and management research in the Pacific Northwest by Don Minore, Alan W. Smart, and Michael E. Dubrasich

Big huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum Doug. ex. Hook.) berry production is declining in many northwestern huckleberry fields as they are invaded by subalpine trees. Seeking ways to halt this invasion and increase berry production, the authors studied huckleberries in the Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington from 1972 through 1977. They developed methods of growing huckleberries in the laboratory, tested several methods of controlling competing vegetation in the field, and recorded the changes in plant species composition and huckleberry production that resulted from applying these methods. This illustrated report includes descriptions of the experiments performed, results, conclusions, and management recommendations. It is a summary of the huckleberry research accomplished by personnel of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station during the 6-year study period.

Keywords: Huckleberries, Vaccinium, succession, research.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-83 Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests, by Richard E. Miller, Roger D. Fight (911 Kb)

This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest fertilization. The appended tables, figures, and work sheet enable the user to prepare a break-even economic analysis for fertilization projects. This information should be useful in selecting stands for fertilization and in preparing Environmental Assessment Reports.


Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-30 Guidelines for precommercial thinning of Douglas-fir, By Donald L. Reukema (1.0 MB)

Production of merchantable wood in even-aged Douglas-fir stands can be increased substantially by precommercial thinning. Guidelines for, and gains from, precommercial thinning both strongly depend on the size of trees wanted at the first commercial cut; the larger this size, (1) the fewer trees should be left after precommercial thinning, (2) the greater is the maximum age or tree size at which precommercial thinning is practical, and (3) the greater is the gain is usable yield from precommercial thinning. Also, generally, the longer the time required for a stand to reach commercial size without thinning, the greater the gains from precommercial thinning. These and other considerations are discussed, and procedures are recommended.Keywords: Douglas-fir, precommercial thinning, stand improvement, stocking control, stocking density.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-214 (1996) Timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California by Karen L. Waddell, and Patricia M. Bassett (2.95 Mb)

This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of North Coast National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organiza- tions managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of volume and area on timberland are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

Keywords: Forest surveys, forest inventory, statistics (forest), timber resources, resources (forest), periodic change, trends, North Coast, Del Norte County, Humboldt County, Mendocino County, Sonoma County, California.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-180 (1991) Timberland resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, 1987 by Willem W.S. van Hees, and Frederic R. Larson (2.15 Mb)

The 1987 inventory of the forest resources of the Kenai Peninsula was designed to assess the impact of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) on the timberland component of the forest resource. Estimates of timberland area, volumes of timber, and growth and mortality of timber were developed. These estimates of timber resource quantities were also categorized by owner. Total timberland area was estimated at 482 thousand acres. Cubic volume on this timberland was estimated at 1,211,577 thousand cubic feet. Timber growth and mortality were estimated at 9,245 and 7,958 thousand cubic feet, respectively. Detailed tables provide additional breakdowns of inventory results.

Keywords: Forest surveys, timber resources (insect damage), statistics (forest), Alaska (Kenai Peninsula).


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-160 (1989) Shrubs of California's chaparral, timberland, and wood land: area, ownership, and stand characteristics by Charles L. Boisinger (1.56 Mb)

A statewide inventory of shrubs in chaparral and on timberland and woodland in California is pres ented, and the relevance of shrubs to resource management is discussed. Shrub types (excluding coastal sage and Great Basin and desert shrubs) cover about 10 million acres, 73 percent of which is chaparral. Chamise is the most widespread type in chaparral (51 percent of total area). Critically flammable chaparral stands cover an estimated 1 million acres, much of which is in heavily populated southern California. More than 2 million additional acres are on the threshold of the critically flammable stage. Shrubs are the dominant vegetation on 2.1 million acres of timberland and 0.5 million acres of woodland. Ceanothus, manzanita, and poison-oak are the most widespread shrubs on timberland and woodland. Timber growth on shrub-dominated timberland is about one-fourth of the potential of the land.

Keywords: Shrubs, chaparral, forest inventory, vegetation inventory, biomass (phyto- mass), California.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-156 (1988) The multi-resource forest inventory for Kauai, Hawaii by Michael G. Buck, Jeanine M. Branam, and William T. Stormont (1.5 Mb)

This report summarizes a 1986 multiresource forest inventory for Kauai, Hawaii. Tables and figures of forest acreage, timber volume, vegetation types, ownership, land classes, bird counts, and introduced plants are presented.

Keywords: Multiresource inventory, forest survey, statistics (forests), native forests, introduced plants, Kauai, Hawaii.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-97 Timber resources of western Oregon—Highlights and statistics, by D.R. Gedney

This report summarizes and interprets the results of a timber resource inventory of western Oregon made between 1973 and 1976. Detailed tables give land and forest area, timber volume, growth, and mortality for western Oregon and for southwest Oregon, west-central Oregon, and northwest Oregon.

Keywords: Forest survey, statistics (timber), timber resources, resources (timber), Oregon (western), western Oregon.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-96 (1982) Timber resource statistics for the Puget Sound area, Washington by Patricia M. Bassett, and Daniel D. Oswald (1.08 Mb)

This report summarizes a 1979 timber resource inventory of eight counties in the Puget Sound area of Washington: Island, King, Kitsap, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Snohomish, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

Keywords: Forest surveys, statistics (forest), timber resources, resources (forest), Washington (Puget Sound).


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-85 (1979) Western redcedar--a forest 1979 resource in transition by Charles L. Bolsinger (741 Kb)

Available information on inventory, growth, price, and consumption trends for western redcedar in Western United States is compiled. The future of western redcedar as a product resource and component of the forest is discussed.

Keywords: Western redcedar, Pacific Northwest forest resources, timber supply, shake and shingle industry, forest statistics.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-46 Changes in commercial forest area in Oregon and Washington 1945-70, by Charles L. Bolsinger (1.58 Mb)

Between 1945 and 1970, .nearly, 1 million acres of commercial forest land: in Oregon and Washington were converted to nonforest uses. Road construction was the leading cause; urban and industrial expansion the second most important cause. Other significant causes of forest loss were agricultural clearing, powerline clearing, and construction of reservoirs and other bodies of water. An additional 362,000 acres of commercial forest have been set aside in reserved areas. Several changes in the ownership pattern of forest land have occurred, including an increase in National Forest and forest industry land and a decrease in Indian and farmer-owned land.

Keywords: Forest ownership, forest conversion.


Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-20 (1967) Annual losses from disease in Pacific Northwest forests by T.W. Childs, and K.R. Shea (902 Kb)

This report presents current estimates of annual disease impact on forest productivity of Oregon and Washington. It is concerned exclusively with losses of timber volumes and of potential timber growth in today's forests.

Annual loss from disease in this region is estimated at 3,133 million board feet or 403 million cubic feet. This is about 13 percent of the total annual growth including the mean periodic growth ~ of seedlings and saplings.' Of this loss, 162 million cubic feet is potential growth prevented by disease, 129 million is mortality, and 112 million is cull. West of the Cascade Range, annual loss is 234 million cubic feet, of which 92 million is cull from heart rots. East of the Cascades, annual loss is 169 million cubic feet, of which 91 million is growth loss and only 20 million is cull. More than half of the growth loss east of the Cascades is caused by dwarfmistletoes.

Greatest losses occur in Douglas-fir (139 million cubic feet annually), western hemlock (88 million), true firs (62 million), and ponderosa pine (40 million). Principal causes of loss are dwarfmistletoes (148 million cubic feet ), root rots (115 million), and heart rots (110 million).

Cubic-volume losses are now about equally divided between young growth and old growth. As young stands replace old ones, cull from heart rots will decrease but growthreducing diseases will become more important. Effective controls for some diseases are now or will soon be available, but most diseases will continue to cause heavy losses indenfinitely unless research efforts are made proportionate to the values at stake.


Res. Note. PNW-RN-181 (1972) Maple sirup production from bigleaf maple, by Robert H. Ruth, Clyde J. Underwood, Clark E. Smith, Hoya Y. Yang (433 Kb)

Bigleaf maple sap flow during the 1970-71 season ranged from none to 16.9 gallons per taphole and sugar content of the sap from 1.0 to 2.6 percent. Sugar content also varied seasonally, with the sweetest sap flowing in late January. The sirup was very flavorful, although not as strong in typical maple flavor as that made from eastern sugar maple. Sirup production appears quite feasible as a hobby. The possibility
of commercial production should not be ruled out as additional local experience is gained.

Keywords: Maple sugar, bigleaf maple, Acer macrophytllum, sap.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-496 (1996) Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits and juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams by William R. Meehan

The community composition of macroinvertebrates and the feeding habits of juvenile salmonids were studied in eight Oregon streams. Benthic, drift, sticky trap, and water trap samples were taken over a 3-year period, along with stomach samples of the fish. Samples were taken in stream reaches with and without riparian canopy. Both main effects--fish diet versus macroinvertebrate composition in the environment, and canopies versus noncanopied stream condition---were highly significant, but probably not of practical importance in terms of the amount of preferred food available to the fish. In all aquatic sample types, including fish stomachs, Diptera and Ephemeroptera were the predominant invertebrates collected. In sticky trap and water trap samples, Diptera and Collembola were the predominant orders, reflecting the input of terrestrial invertebrates.

Keywords: Macroinvertebrates, community composition, salmonids, feeding habits, riparian canopy, Oregon.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-495 (1996) The forest and agricultural sector optimization model (FASOM): model structure and policy applications by Darius M. Adams, Ralph J. Alig, J.M. Callaway, Bruce A. McCarl, and Steven M. Winnett

The Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM) is a dynamic, nonlinear programming model of the forest and agricultural sectors in the United States. The FASOM model initially was developed to evaluate welfare and market impacts of alternative policies for sequestering carbon in trees but also has been applied to a wider range of forest and agricultural sector policy scenarios. We describe the model structure and give selected examples of policy applications. A summary of the data sources, input data file format, and the methods used to develop the input data files also are provided.

Keywords: Economics, forest sector, reforestation, afforestation, policy scenarios, models.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-493 (1996) The Pacific Northwest Region vegetation and monitoring system by Timothy A. Max, Hans T. Schreuder, John W. Hazard, Daniel D. Oswald, John Teply, and Jim Alegria

A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific North-west Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. A less technical description of the selected design will be given elsewhere. The grid consists of a regular, square spacing with 5.47 kilometers (3.4 mi) between grid points. The primary sampling unit (PSU), established at each grid sampling point, consists of a circular, 1-hectare (2.47-acre) plot. The PSU is subsampled with a set of different-sized fixed-area subplots, as well as line transects, to assess all components of vegetation. The design is flexible and can be used with many types of maps. The theory of point and change estimation is described, as well as estimates of variation that assess the statistical precision of estimates.

Keywords: Sampling, plot design, fixed-area plots, line intersect sampling, monitoring, National Forest System, Pacific Northwest.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-485 (1995) Extended rotations and culmination age of coast Douglas-fir: old studies speak to current issues, by R.O. Curtis (1.28 MB)

Trends of mean annual increment and periodic annual increment were examined in 17 long-term thinning studies in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western Washington, western Oregon, and British Columbia. Maximum ages included ranged from about 90 years on high sites to 117 years on a low site. None of the stands had clearly reached culmination of mean annual increment, although some appeared close; periodic annual increments declined only slowly. Extended rotations combined with increased thinning harvests are promising components of any strategy to reduce conflicts between timber production and other forest values. These comparisons indicate that rotations can be considerably extended without reducing long-term timber production. A major problem in such a strategy is design of thinning regimes that can maintain some reasonable level of timber flow during any transition period.

Keywords: Growth and yield, mean annual increment, rotation, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, alternative silviculture, ecosystem management.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-440 Wildlife habitats of the north coast of California: new techniques for extensive forest inventory by Janet L. Ohmann (1.06 Mb)

A study was undertaken to develop methods for extensive inventory and analysis of wildlife habitats. The objective was to provide information about amounts and conditions of wildlife habitats from extensive, sample based inventories so that wildlife can be better considered in forest planning and policy decisions at the regional scale. The new analytical approach involves identifying habitats present on field plots, estimating area present in each habitat condition, and linking the habitat classifications with wildlife-habitat relationship models to describe habitat suitability for wildlife species. The habitat classification system and wildlife-habitat relationship models of the California Wildlife Habitat Relationship Program are used in a case study of the north coast region of California. Tree vegetation types occupy 93 percent of all forest land, and shrub habitats occupy 5 percent. Redwood and Douglas-fir are the most abundant tree habitats; chamise-redshank chaparral is the predominant shrub habitat. Outside parks and National Forests, midsuccessional stages dominate the forest landscape in occupying two-thirds of the timberland area. Two-thirds of forest stands have moderate or dense canopy closure. The suitability of available habitats for repro- duction and feeding for eight wildlife species are presented. The estimates of habitat area indicate the availability and patterns of occurrence of these vegetation conditions at a broad scale and should be useful in evaluating potential impacts of proposed actions affecting broad-scale alterations of habitat. The estimates of habitat suitability are used appropriately in regional-level predictions of species occurrence and habitat suitability. Extensive inventory data on special habitat elements such as snags, nontree vegetation, and spatial features of habitat also can be used in resource assessments and ecological research; for example, only 9 percent of the habitat area rated as being of high or medium suitability for reproduction for pileated woodpeckers supports snag habitat required by the species. Large snags are most abundant in dense, pole-sized and larger stands in the redwood type and in large-treed stands of all densities in the Douglas-fir type. Data from continuing forest inventories also are useful for regional-level monitoring of wildlife habitats and in habitat simulations.

Keywords: Wildlife-habitat relationships, multiresource inventory, forest inventory, wildlife habitat assessment, snags, California (north coast).


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-405 Logging residue in southeast Alaska, by James O. Howard, Theodore S. Setzer (2.11 Mb)

Detailed information on logging residues in southeast Alaska is provided as input to economic and technical assessments of its use for products or site amenities. Two types of information are presented. Ratios are presented that can be used to generate an estimate, based on volume or acres harvested, of the cubic-foot volume of residue for any particular area of southeast Alaska. Separate ratios are given for live and dead or cull material, and for net and gross volume. Tables display per-acre residue volume by various characteristics that might affect either use or disposition. These tables show net or gross volume, or both, by diameter and length classes, by origin, by percentage of soundness, by degree of slopes and distance to roads, and by number of pieces of residue per acre.

Keywords: Southeast Alaska, logging residue, slash, residue estimation, fuel wood, residue management.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-401 Twig and foliar biomass estimation equations for major plant species in the Tanana River Basin of interior Alaska by John Yarie, and Bert R. Mead (2.29 Mb)

Equations are presented for estimating the twig, foliage, and combined biomass for 58 plant species in interior Alaska. The equations can be used for estimating biomass from percentage of foliar cover of 10-centimeter layers in a vertical profile from 0 to 6 meters. Few differences were found in regressions of the same species between layers except when the ratio of foliar-to-twig biomass changed drastically between layers; for example, Rosa acicularis Lind[. Eighteen species were tested for regression differences between years. Thirteen showed no significant differences; five were different. Of these five, three were feather mosses for which live and dead biomass are easily confused when measured.

Keywords: Biomass equations, Alaska (interior), Alaska (Tanana Valley), inventory (wildlife habitat).


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-358 (1985) Height growth and site index curves for red alder, by Constance A. Harrington, Robert O. Curtis (213 Kb)

New height growth and site index curves for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) were developed from stem analysis data. The analyses use a reference (site index) age of 20 years and are applicable to natural stands between 5 and 50 years of age in western Washington and northwestern Oregon. The new curves are polymorphic and provide a better fit to observed patterns of height growth than the previously available curves. Although differences from previously available curves are not large, the new curves should be an improvement, particularly for use in short-rotation management. Recommendations associated with the new curves for converting breast height age to total age vary with site quality. Relationships between red alder height growth or site index and selected site characteristics are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Increment (height), site index, site class, red alder, Alnus rubra.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-298 Above ground tree biomass on productive forest land in Alaska by John, Yarie, Delbert Mead (960 Kb)

Total aboveground woody biomass of trees on forest land that can produce 1.4 cubic m eters per hectare per year of industrial wood in Alaska is 1.33 billion metric tons green weight. The estimated energy value of the standing woody biomass is 11.9 x 10'5 Btu's. Statewide tables of biomass and energy values for softwoods, hardwoods, and species groups are presented.

Keywords: Biomass, energy, wood utilization, Alaska.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-253 (1979) Fifty-year development of Douglas-fir stands planted at various spacings, Donald L. Reukema (1.59 MB)

A 51-yr record of observations in stands planted at six spacings, ranging from 4 to 12 ft, illustrates clearly the beneficial effects of wide initial spacing and the detrimental effects of carrying too many trees relative to the size to which they will be grown. Not only are trees larger, but yields per acre are greater at wide spacings.

Keywords: Plantation spacing (-growth, stand density, stand development, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii.


Res. Pap. PNW-RP-150 Photo stratification improves northwest timber volume estimates by Colin D. MacLean (671 Kb)

Data from extensive timber inventories of 12 counties in western and central Washington were analyzed to test the relative efficiency of double sampling for stratification as a means of estimating total volume. Photo and field plots, when combined in a stratified sampling design, proved about twice as efficient as simple field sampling. Although some gains were made by stratifying into only two classes--forest and nonforest substantially greater gains accrued when the forest plots were further stratified into timber volume classes. Optimum allocation of field plots was only slightly more efficient than proportional allocation.

Keywords: Double sampling, photo sampling, timber volume estimates.

US Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Research Station
Last Modified: Thursday,13October2016 at17:01:56CDT

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