Top 20 NRS Pubshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/Top 20 NRS Pubsen-usMon, 18 Feb 2019 21:34:34 +0000A socialecological analysis of urban tree vulnerability for publiclyowned trees in a residential neighborhoodhttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57585The urban forest is a valuable ecosystem service provider yet cities are frequently degraded environments with a myriad of stressors and disturbances affecting trees. Vulnerability science is increasingly used to explore issues of sustainability in complex socialecological systems and can be a useful approach for assessing urban forests. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore drivers of urban forest vulnerability in a residential neighborhood. Based on a recently published framework of urban forest vulnerability a series of indicators of exposure sensitivity and adaptive capacity that describe the built environment urban forest structure and human population respectively were assessed for 806 trees in Toronto Ontario Canada. Tree mortality condition and diameter growth rates were then assessed using an existing 20072008 inventory. A bivariate analysis was first conducted to test for significant relationships of vulnerability indicators with mortality condition and growth. A multivariate analysis was then conducted using multiple linear regression for the continuous condition and growth variables and a multilayer perceptron neural network for the binary mortality variable. Commercial land uses and commercial buildings adjacent to trees consistently explained higher mortality rates and poor tree conditions. However at finer spatial scales it is important to differentiate between different causes and correlates of urban forest decline within commercial land uses. Tree species size and condition were also important indicators of vulnerability. Understanding the causes of urban forest change and decline are essential for developing planning strategies to reduce longterm system vulnerability.Wed, 13 Feb 2019 08:33:46 +0000Forests houses or both? Relationships between land cover housing characteristics and resident socioeconomic status across ecoregionshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57568Residential development is one of the most intensive and widespread land uses in the United States with substantial environmental impacts including changes in forest cover. However the relationships between forest cover and residential development are complex. Contemporary forest cover reflects multiple factors including housing density time since development historical land cover and land management since development. We investigated how forest cover varies with housing density housing age and household income over a range of development intensities in six ecoregions within New York State Wisconsin and Colorado. We find areas with residential development do retain important forest resources across landscapes they are typically more forested than areas that remain undeveloped. However forest cover consistently had a negative inverse relationship with housing density across study areas. Relationships between forest cover and housing age and household income were less common and often restricted to only portions of a given region according to geographically weighted regression analyses. A better understanding of how forest cover varies with residential development outside of the typically studied urban areas will be essential to maintaining ecosystem function and services in residential landscapes.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 13:26:06 +0000Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides Serve as Phosphate Traps in Tundra and Boreal Peat Soilshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57584Arctic and boreal ecosystems are experiencing pronounced warming that is accelerating decomposition of soil organic matter and releasing greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Future carbon storage in these ecosystems depends on the balance between microbial decomposition and primary production both of which can be regulated by nutrients such as phosphorus. Phosphorus cycling in tundra and boreal regions is often assumed to occur through biological pathways with little interaction with soil minerals that is phosphate released from organic molecules is rapidly assimilated by plants or microorganisms. In contrast to this prevailing conceptual model we use sequential extractions and spectroscopic techniques to demonstrate that iron (oxyhydr)oxides sequester approximately half of soil phosphate in organic soils from four arctic and boreal sites. Iron (III) (oxyhydr)oxides accumulated in shallow soils of lowlying saturated areas where circumneutral pH and the presence of a redox interface promoted iron oxidation and hydrolysis. Soils enriched in shortrange ordered iron oxyhydroxides which are susceptible to dissolution under anoxic conditions had high phosphate sorption capacities and maintained low concentrations of soluble phosphate relative to soils containing mostly organicbound iron or crystalline iron oxides. Thus substantial quantities of phosphorus in these organic soils were associated with minerals that could reduce bioavailability but potentially also serve as phosphorus sources under anoxic conditions. The implication of this finding is that mineral surfaces effectively compete with biological processes for phosphate and must be considered as a nutrient regulator in these sensitive ecosystems.Wed, 13 Feb 2019 07:39:20 +0000Mounds facilitate regeneration of lightseeded and browsesensitive tree species after moderateseverity wind disturbancehttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57556Using natural disturbance as a guide to management is an approach to develop resilience maintain or restore natural processes and sustain ecosystem goods and service. Here we compare features of mounds resulting from tree uprooting tree structure and composition and browsing in recent 1012yearold moderateseverity wind disturbance events and reference stands in old hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) hardwood forests in Wisconsin USA. Compared to reference stands recent partial blowdown stands had reduced overstory tree density and canopy heights and more large gaps coarse woody debris exposed mineral soil and newlycreated mounds. Regeneration of lightseeded species was greater in blowdown stands relative to reference stands. We found an association between old mounds and overstory eastern hemlock and yellow birch indicating mounds provide a longterm competitive advantage for these lightseeded species relative to pits and undisturbed areas. Notably we found that the distance to the canopy was shortened by 30 for trees regenerating on young mounds in blowdown stands. In addition lightseeded species such as yellow birch grew above browse height (2 m) in 10 years on young mounds. In contrast on flat and pit microsites saplings were short (lt 2 m) and more likely browsed. Maintaining andor protecting naturally created mounds may facilitate regeneration of lightseeded browsesensitive species in mixedwood forests that evolved under infrequent moderateseverity wind storms. Therefore reserving a subset of uprooted trees from salvage operations could provide suitable substrate for germination and longterm development advantages especially for lightseeded and browsesensitive species and stands managed for high conservation values.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:03:37 +0000Sublethal effects of subzero temperatures on the light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana fitness costs in response to partial freezinghttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57569Population responses to environmental extremes often dictate the bounds to species distributions. However population dynamics at or near those range limits may also be affected by sublethal effects. We exposed late instars and pupae of an invasive leafroller Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to cold temperatures and measured the effects of exposure on subsequent survivorship development and reproduction. Cold temperature was applied as acute exposure to 10 C (a low but not immediately lethal temperature for this species) or the onset of freezing (the peak of the supercooling point exotherm). Survival was defined as the ability to successfully eclose as an adult. We measured immature development times pupal mass and adult longevity as proxies of fitness in survivors. Additionally surviving insects were mated with individuals that had not been exposed to cold to measure fertility. There was no difference between the proportion of larvae or pupae that survived acute exposure to 10 C and those exposed to the control temperature. Approximately 17 of larvae and 8 of pupae survived brief periods with internal ice formation and continued development to become reproductively viable adults. Importantly surviving the onset of freezing came with significant fitness costs but not to exposure to 10 C most insects that survived partial freezing had lower fertility and shorter adult lifespans than either the 10 C or control group. These results are discussed within the context of forecasting invasive insect distributions.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 13:32:43 +0000What do pervasive ungulate browse impacts mean for forestry in New England and New Yorkhttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57572Ungulates invasive plants climate variability and other stressors are acting together to compound the challenges facing forest managers tasked with regenerating forests following standinitiation disturbances e.g. harvest or catastrophic mortality. The range expansion of large ungulates primarily whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and their browse impacts across the Midwest and Northeast have affected many aspects of the forest ecosystem (McWilliams and others 2018). This makes it nearly impossible to regenerate species that require advance regeneration and interferes with forest development in early stages of succession.Fri, 08 Feb 2019 10:33:15 +0000Abstracts presented at the Visual resource stewardship conference proceedingshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57564Abstracts Visual resource stewardship conference proceedings landscape and seascape management in a time of change.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 08:07:02 +0000Comparison of Visual Impact Analysis Under the National Environmental Policy Act and Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Acthttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57547Section 106 of the National Historic Places Act requires Federal agencies to consider the impacts including visual impacts of their undertakings on the ability of certain historic properties to convey their historic significance. Visual impacts of Federal agency undertakings must also be considered under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) for their potential to affect historic properties scenic resources present in the landscape and the scenic experiences of people who view the landscape. This paper discusses important differences between visual impact analysis (VIA) under Section 106 and under NEPA. In essence VIA under Section 106 looks at impacts on places while a NEPA VIA includes impacts on the people at those places and on the larger landscape. Where there are potential visual impacts on both scenic values and historic properties both NEPA and Section 106 VIAs must be conducted.Wed, 06 Feb 2019 15:06:25 +0000Expanding the Use of Visualization Technology 3D Modelinghttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57563The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) uses threedimensional (3D) models viewable in Google Earth in addition to traditional visual resource analysis tools to plan visualize and mitigate new landscapealtering projects. A rough model can be made in minutes allowing for quick and inexpensive preplanning. Even when sites are inaccessible due to winter snow timing cost or other access issues modeling gives an approximation of the look of the final project and identifies scenery concerns. Alternatives can be worked through on the fly during meetings with stakeholders or in the field (with an internet connection) and mitigations can be made before major time or expense has been poured into an alternative. When project proponents submit a final project design sophisticated 3D models show the project more intuitively than any diagram or text could since people naturally think and react to their world in 3D. As a Google Earth file the model can be easily shared over email or Website to any stakeholders or members of the public who have this free program on their computer. Viewers can investigate how the project looks from whatever viewpoints interest them and not be limited to the handful of viewpoints chosen by the agency. Finally models help create photographic visual simulations when working with unusual facilities or dirt work (i.e. soil grading) that cannot be simply copied and Photoshopped in from other projects.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:56:21 +0000Mitigating Visual Impacts of UtilityScale Energy Projectshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57559Visual resources are often a focal point of controversy and uncertainty and are becoming a growing concern for agencies developers and the public alike for the variety of utilityscale energy projects including transmission substation power plant and renewable energy projects. Agencies are increasingly challenged to interpret and enforce regulations for visual resources and balance multiple and often conflicting purposes for public lands. Developers are challenged by uncertainties about visual impacts of their proposed projects strong public reactions and opposition and how impacts can best be mitigated cost effectively. The public is most often concerned about impacts to views changes to visual character and quality and the effects of these on their property values and quality of life. Developers and utilities are finding that facility sites and potential transmission routes are increasingly constrained and agency requirements for mitigating visual impacts are expansive and costly. This paper focuses on approaches processes and techniques for mitigating visual impacts of utilityscale energy projects and explores the effectiveness of some commonly employed mitigation techniques.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:31:55 +0000Modeling Coastal Sedimentation and Erosion for Design Applications within the Fields of Landscape Architecture and Architecturehttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57562Uncertainty of future coastline geophysical conditions is increasingly magnified by the growing severity of acute and chronic weather events induced by climate change. In the face of these threats 21st century coastalhuman relationships will be characterized by temporality response and recovery and restoration. Understanding these dynamics will require visual exploration and application of theoretical conditions to future scenario generation. This research examines the development of an interdisciplinary threedimensional visual modeling methodology to simulate erosion storm surges and sea level rise of a beach community in southern Rhode Island. Using historic data of coastal conditions for Misquamicut Rhode Island the researchers identified patterns of coastal change to model and simulate future shoreline conditions that incorporate local hydrological dynamics. The resulting sedimentation and erosion patterns were translated into an emergent modeling methodology that landscape architects and allied professionals could use to test a design concept through iterative accurate portrayals of environmental systems.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:51:33 +0000Organizing Trails Proven Methods for Organizing the Complexities of National Historic Trail Impact Analysishttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57561National Historic Trail management and planning is a complex undertaking and completing National Environmental Policy Actrelated impact analyses for these trails is particularly challenging. With the involvement of multiple agencies and planning initiatives developing an understanding of the regulatory and planning framework alone can be an arduous undertaking. Adding to the complexity the trails involve multiple overlapping resources with a wide variety of potential data sources that may or may not be available. However by first organizing information into several key categories and then establishing impact thresholds that directly relate to these categories National Historic Trail analysis can be successfully streamlined to focus on key factors. This paper introduces a proven approach to organizing and analyzing information to assess impacts to National Historic Trails providing a concise and direct correlation between available data analysis methods and determinations of consistency with planning documents.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:45:39 +0000Reclaiming Visual Stewardship in Tucson Arizona Is it Possible?https://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57557The Sonoran Desert landscape surrounding Tucson Arizona consists of sweeping skies punctuated by mountain ranges and saguaro silhouettes. As development occurred decades ago land use codes and design practices were developed to protect this scenery. More recently these codes have been ineffectual at integrating utilities into the urban landscape. Using overhead power lines in Tucson as an example this paper discusses the decline of visual stewardship and impediments to halting this trend. As utility poles have increased substantially in size due to new regulatory requirements and efficiency standards mitigation practices that visually integrated utility poles into the landscape have been discontinued. Additionally old poles remain after replacement cluttering urban streets. Visual decline related to overhead power lines is not inevitable however. This paper discusses examples of communities that are successfully improving power line design and presents evidence that visual stewardship as a value has begun to emerge in the energy industry.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:22:28 +0000Remocin de contaminantes atmosfricos por el bosque urbano en el valle de Aburr Air pollution removal by the urban forest in the Aburra Valleyhttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57589Urban forests provide different ecosystem services including air pollution removal carbon storage and sequestration microclimate and water regulation and habitat for wildlife. This results in the improvement of environmental quality and populations welfare. In this study we evaluated the urban forest structure in the Aburra Valley and quantified and valuated the pollutant removal by urban trees using the iTree Eco software. We established 398 plots for forest sampling and used secondary information about climatic conditions and air pollution. Results reveal that there is 23 of tree coverage in the study area and a pollutant removal of 228 tons per year (2.1 million USD value approximately). Finally we recommended strategies to optimize the pollutant removal by the urban forest and to create mechanisms for compensation of tree cover loss.Wed, 13 Feb 2019 08:30:07 +0000Surface Color Treatment of Transmission Line Structureshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57560With the increasing need for reliable energy infrastructure in the United States the once natural openness of the Wild West has evolved into a web of infrastructure scattered across the landscape. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands managed under a multipleuse mission are no exception. While projects built on BLM land go through indepth environmental analysis including making recommendations for proper design features and mitigation measures to reduce impacts to visual resources it is often difficult for BLM staff to ensure full implementation of these measures. This is sometimes a result of not having the expertise or tools to simulate design features and mitigation measures. This paper describes the process that the BLM followed to warrant the color treatment of built structures on a recent 500 kV transmission line through a highly scenic and publicly sensitive landscape. It highlights the process of using twodimension (2D) visual simulations to conduct a color analysis of the natural landscape. It also demonstrates how using these techniques provided invaluable information to help BLM decision makers select the most appropriate surface color treatment for the structures in this project.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:41:43 +0000Terrestrial wetlandshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57565The objective of this chapter is to characterize the distribution of carbon stocks and fluxes in terrestrial wetlands within North America. The approach was to synthesize available literature from field measurements with analyses of resource inventory data to estimate wetland area carbon stocks and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon and methane (CH4) fluxes of terrestrial wetlands (see Appendices 13A p. 547 and 13B p. 557 for details1). Then the findings employed from largescale simulation studies provided additional context with consideration given to the effects of disturbance regimes restoration and creation of terrestrial wetlands and the application of modeling tools to assess the carbon cycle of terrestrial wetlands.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 09:14:45 +0000Visually Integrated Linking Visual Impact Analyses Mitigation and Reclamation for LargeScale Linear Projectshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57558With the recent approval of numerous largescale transmission lines and pipelines that are now moving toward construction it is critically important to ensure that these projects are implemented based on findings and assumptions of their associated impact analyses. Although this seems obvious it has not always occurred successfully on past projects and can be challenging depending on how analysis findings and mitigation measures are applied and tracked. Specifically degrees of impact and application of mitigation measures are often described in text andor on forms that do not specifically spell out what portions of the project features they relate to. This paper focuses on effective and proven methods for analyzing visual impacts for linear projects including structuring the visual impact analyses in ways that will help successfully carry out mitigation measures during design planning construction and reclamation.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 07:27:06 +0000Simulation and empirical analysis of novel sibshipbased genetic determination of fish passagehttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57583We develop and test a new analytic approach termed sibsplit to detect fish passage through road crossings. This new approach is based on the genetic analysis of fullsiblings on opposite sides of potential barriers. We used simulations and data from two empirical case studies involving brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) movement with respect to barriers that varied in strength of effect on fish passage. Simulations revealed that both sibsplit and the population assignmentbased method (STRUCTURE) were highly accurate (mean accuracy gt 99) under easytodetect conditions (moderate to strong genetic differentiation and no movement). However under difficulttodetect simulated conditions (no genetic differentiation 10 movement each generation) sibsplit had higher accuracy (mean accuracy 98) than STRUCTURE (mean accuracy 84). Sibsplit also outperformed STRUCTURE (mean accuracy 98 versus 89) under a more difficulttodetect simulated management scenario (simulated construction of a new complete barrier to movement). Sibsplit provided more reliable and easily interpretable movement detection in both easy and difficulttodetect empirical case studies. With the empirical case studies sensitivity to the prior on migration rate precluded use of STRUCTURE by itself but a twostep approach where sibsplit results were used to provide an informed migration prior for STRUCTURE provided additional information for both case studies.Tue, 12 Feb 2019 10:29:49 +0000Wetland geomorphology soils and formative processeshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57567The soil is where many of the hydrologic and biogeochemical processes that influence wetland function and ecology occur. A complete understanding of wetland formation wetland ecology and wetland management requires a basic understanding of soils including soil properties soil processes and soil variability. In this chapter we will discuss how soils and landscapes influence the local hydrologic cycle to lead to the development of wetland hydrology. We then will examine some fundamental soil properties and how they lead to and respond to the development of wetland hydrology. Finally we will consider specific types of wetland ecosystems and discuss their general distribution origin hydrology soil and vegetation.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 10:35:45 +0000Defining perennial intermittent and ephemeral channels in Eastern Kentucky Application to forestry best management practiceshttps://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/57566Typically Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) that are applied to riparian areas are dependent upon stream flow duration. Definitions vary but most often perennial intermittent and ephemeral channels are classified and used to determine the specific BMP prescription for a site. The most common technique to determine stream class is to use USGS Quadrangle blue line maps where blue lines are considered perennial dashed blue lines are considered intermittent and ephemeral channels occur where there is convergent topography but no lines are present. This research and others indicate that the blue line method is highly inaccurate at the site scale especially for lower flow systems. In this study we use the channel geometry method and watershed characteristics to develop multiple regression models to predict flow duration across the range of channels in the Eastern Coalfield Region of Eastern Kentucky USA. Based on our set of predictive models we can explain 7891 of the observed variability in flow duration. Parameters that were most common in the models included the natural log of watershed area bankfull width widthdepth ratio stream slope and entrenchment ratio. By utilizing our most encompassing model (all sites for their longest time period) we were able to develop a table of general guidelines that classified gt95 of study channels correctly. Given the high predictive capability of our models and the geographic range of sites we believe that our table of guidelines is robust for the Eastern Coalfield Physiographic Region of Eastern Kentucky.Thu, 07 Feb 2019 10:29:29 +0000