Top 20 NRS Pubs 20 NRS Pubsen-usMon, 19 Mar 2018 02:39:27 +0000A numerical study of atmospheric perturbations induced by heat from a wildland fire sensitivity to vertical canopy structure and heat source strength improved understanding of atmospheric perturbations within and above a forest during a wildland fire has relevance to many aspects of wildland fires including fire spread smoke transport and dispersion and tree mortality. In this study the ARPSCANOPY model a version of the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model with a canopy parameterization is utilized in a series of idealized numerical experiments to investigate the influence of vertical canopy structure on the atmospheric response to a stationary sensible heat flux at the ground (fire heat flux) broadly consistent in magnitude with the sensible heat flux from a lowintensity surface fire. Five vertical canopy structures are combined with five fire heat flux magnitudes to yield a matrix of 25 simulations. Analyses of the fireheatfluxperturbed u component of the wind vertical velocity kinetic energy and temperature show that the spatial pattern and magnitude of the perturbations are sensitive to vertical canopy structure. Both vertical velocity and kinetic energy exhibit an increasing trend with increasing fire heat flux that is stronger for cases with some amount of overstory vegetation than cases with exclusively understory vegetation. A weaker trend in cases with exclusively understory vegetation indicates a damping of the atmospheric response to the sensible heat from a surface fire when vegetation is most concentrated near the surface. More generally the results presented in this study suggest that canopy morphology should be considered when applying the results of a fireatmosphere interaction study conducted in one type of forest to other forests with different canopy structures.Thu, 08 Mar 2018 13:59:19 +0000Citywide cluster randomized trial to restore blighted vacant land and its effects on violence crime and fear and blighted urban land is a widespread and potentially risky environmental condition encountered by millions of people on a daily basis. About 15 of the land in US cities is deemed vacant or abandoned an area roughly the size of Switzerland. In a citywide cluster randomized controlled trial we investigated the effects of standardized reproducible interventions that restore vacant land on the commission of violence crime and the perceptions of fear and safety. Quantitative and ethnographic analyses were included in a mixedmethods approach to more fully test and explicate our findings. A total of 541 randomly sampled vacant lots were randomly assigned into treatment and control study arms outcomes from police and 445 randomly sampled participants were analyzed over a 38month study period. Participants living near treated vacant lots reported significantly reduced perceptions of crime (36.8 P < 0.05) vandalism (39.3 P < 0.05) and safety concerns when going outside their homes (57.8 P < 0.05) as well as significantly increased use of outside spaces for relaxing and socializing (75.7 P < 0.01). Significant reductions in crime overall (13.3 P < 0.01) gun violence (29.1 P < 0.001) burglary (21.9 P < 0.001) and nuisances (30.3 P < 0.05) were also found after the treatment of vacant lots in neighborhoods below the poverty line. Blighted and vacant urban land affects peoples perceptions of safety and their actual physical safety. Restoration of this land can be an effective and scalable infrastructure intervention for gun violence crime and fear in urban neighborhoods.Wed, 14 Mar 2018 14:13:36 +0000Forests of Illinois 2017 update provides an overview of forest resources in Illinois following an inventory by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program Northern Research Station. Estimates are derived from field data collected using an annualized sample design. Current variable estimates such as area and volume are based on 5994 (1046 forested) plots measured in 20112017. Change variables such as net growth removals and mortality are based on 5914 (964 forested) plots measured in 20052011 and resampled in 20112017. See Bechtold and Patterson (2005) OConnell et al. (2014) Gormanson et al. (2017) for more details.Wed, 07 Mar 2018 14:51:39 +0000Forests of North Dakota 2017 resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available at For the 2017 inventory estimates for variables such as area volume and biomass are based on 7598 samples (204 forested) collected from 20122017. Change variables such as net growth removals and mortality are based on 7588 samples (196 forested) collected in 20072012 and 20122017.Wed, 14 Mar 2018 09:30:24 +0000Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical mental and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical sustainable and highimpact preventive measures. This review examines studies that use quasiexperimental or experimental designs to compare violence outcomes for treatment and control groups before and after a change is implemented in the built environment. The most consistent evidence exists in the realm of housing and blight remediation of buildings and land. Some evidence suggests that reducing alcohol availability improving street connectivity and providing green housing environments can reduce violent crimes. Finally studies suggest that neither transit changes nor school openings affect community violence.Wed, 14 Mar 2018 12:17:19 +0000Nitrogen (N) dynamics in the mineral soil of a Central Appalachian hardwood forest during a quarter century of wholewatershed N additions structure and function of terrestrial ecosystemsare maintained by processes that vary with temporal and spatial scale. This study examined temporal and spatial patterns of net nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification in mineral soil of three watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest WV 2 untreated watersheds and 1 watershed receiving aerial applications of N over a 25year period. Soil was sampled to 5 cm from each of seven plots per watershed and placed in two polyethylene bagsone bag brought to the laboratory for extractionanalysis and the other bag incubated in situ at a 5 cm depth monthly during growing seasons of 19931995 2002 2005 2007 2014. Spatial patterns of net N mineralization and nitrification changed in all watersheds but were especially evident in the treated watershed with spatial variability changing nonmonotonically increasing then decreasing markedly. These results support a prediction of the N homogeneity hypothesis that increasing N loads will increase spatial homogeneity in N processing. Temporal patterns for net N mineralization and nitrification were similar for all watersheds with rates increasing about 2530 from 1993 to 1995 decreasing by more than 50 by 2005 and then increasing significantly to 2014. The best predictor of these synchronous temporal patterns across all watersheds was number of degree days below 19C a value similar to published temperature maxima for net rates of N mineralization and nitrification for these soils. The lack of persistent detectable differences in net nitrification between watersheds is surprising because fertilization has maintained higher streamwater nitrate concentrations than in the reference watersheds. Lack of differences in net nitrification among watersheds suggests that Nenhanced streamwater nitrate following N fertilization may be the result of a reduced biotic demand for nitrate following fertilization with ammonium sulfate.Wed, 14 Mar 2018 10:42:27 +0000Progress and challenges of protecting North American ash trees from the emerald ash borer using biological control emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire was discovered in the United States a classical biological control program was initiated against this destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). This biocontrol program began in 2007 after federal regulatory agencies and the state of Michigan approved release of three EAB parasitoid species from China Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Eulophidae) Spathius agrili Yang (Braconidae) and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Encyrtidae). A fourth EAB parasitoid Spathius galinae Belokobylskij (Braconidae) from Russia was approved for release in 2015. We review the rationale and ecological premises of the EAB biocontrol program and then report on progress in North American ash recovery in southern Michigan where the parasitoids were first released. We also identify challenges to conserving native Fraxinus using biocontrol in the aftermath of the EAB invasion and provide suggestions for program improvements as EAB spreads throughout North America. We conclude that more work is needed to (1) evaluate the establishment and impact of biocontrol agents in different climate zones (2) determine the combined effect of EAB biocontrol and host plant resistance or tolerance on the regeneration of North American ash species and (3) expand foreign exploration for EAB natural enemies throughout Asia.Thu, 15 Mar 2018 10:29:33 +0000Quantifying and valuing the role of trees and forests on environmental quality and human health provides numerous services that affect the lives and wellbeing of people across the globe. Understanding impacts and benefits of nature will lead to better management decisions and designs in sustaining nature within society. One of the most dominant aspects of nature in many areas of the globe is vegetation and one of the most dominant elements of vegetation in many areas are trees and forests. In addition to environmental quality these trees and forests particularly when within urban areas have substantial impacts on human population health and wellbeing. Understanding the myriad of potential services and costs associated with trees and forests is critical to estimating net benefits of vegetation and for guiding appropriate vegetation management plans. However while many of the ecosystem services and costs of vegetation cannot be adequately quantified or valued at this time it is important to understand within decisionmaking processes that these services or costs do exist. Discounting nature or vegetation as having no value leads to uninformed decisions regarding nature (e.g. Costanza et al. 2014). Quantifying or understanding monetary and nonmonetary values of nature in a given context though difficult will lead to more informed environmental and economic decisions.Tue, 06 Mar 2018 13:03:07 +0000Rapid growth of the US wildlandurban interface raises wildfire risk wildlandurban interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle and where wildfire problems are most pronounced. Here we report that the WUI in the United States grew rapidly from 1990 to 2010 in terms of both number of new houses (from 30.8 to 43.4 million 41 growth) and land area (from 581000 to 770000 km2 33 growth) making it the fastestgrowing land use type in the conterminous United States. The vast majority of new WUI areas were the result of new housing (97) not related to an increase in wildland vegetation. Within the perimeter of recent wildfires (19902015) there were 286000 houses in 2010 compared with 177000 in 1990. Furthermore WUI growth often results in more wildfire ignitions putting more lives and houses at risk. Wildfire problems will not abate if recent housing growth trends continue.Mon, 12 Mar 2018 11:01:24 +0000Seed longevity and dormancy state suggest management strategies for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) in deciduous forest sites effective management plan for invasive herb populations must consider the potential for regeneration from the soil seedbank. To test chis potential we examined two species Japanese scilcgrass and garlic mustard at deciduous forest sites in southeastern Ohio. Seeds were buried in nylon mesh bags and recovered at regular intervals over 24 mo. Recovered seeds were tested for germination and viability. Burial was replicated on north and southfacing slopes to test for environmental control of dormancy state. Stilcgrass seeds experienced severe mortality in the soil rarely surviving the full 24 mo. Stiltgrass showed fractional germination in the lab ranging from 86 to 89 of viable seeds in lace spring (the season of natural seedling emergence) to complete nongermination in winter. Most garlic mustard seeds survived through the experimental period (82 and 88 survival across 24 mo) with consistently low mortality (0 to 13) unrelated to season. Slope aspect had no significant effect on survival or dormancy state in either species. Extrapolation of garlic mustard mortality implies chat reproduction would need to be suppressed for a substantial period (perhaps gt 10 yr) to ensure eradication of a population. In scilcgrass rapid seed mortality suggests chat control can be achieved in 2 to 4 yr.Wed, 07 Mar 2018 09:42:20 +0000Taxonomy and phylogeny of Lopharia s.s. Dendrodontia Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena (Basidiomycota Polyporales) taxa of Lopharia s.s. Dendrodontia Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena in Polyporales are included in the phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA ITS15.8SITS2 (ITS) D1D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S) and RNA polymerase II secondlargest subunit (rpb2) sequences. New species Lopharia resupinata and L. sinensis are described and illustrated. Lopharia resupinata from southeastern China is closely related to L. ayresii and L. sinensis from northern China is related to L. cinerascens and L. mirabilis. Lopharia mirabilis specimens from temperate to tropical areas with varied hymenophore configurations all cluster together in a fully supported clade. Dendrodontia and Fuscocerrena are shown to be synonyms of Dentocorticium which is phylogenetically related to Lopharia. Four new combinations Dentocorticium bicolor D. hyphopaxillosum D. portoricense and D. taiwanianum are proposed. Revised generic descriptions of Lopharia and Dentocorticium are provided with keys to the six accepted species in each genus. A list of all names in Lopharia and Dentocorticium are presented with their current taxonomic status. Type specimens of Dentocorticium brasiliense and D. irregulare were examined and determined to be later synonyms of Punctularia subhepatica and Diplomitoporus daedaleiformis respectively.Fri, 16 Mar 2018 12:31:57 +0000The importance of disturbance versus physiography in defining vegetation composition and predicting possible successional trajectories (climatesoils) and local (aspect) physiography determine plant community composition. However changes in initial floristic composition after a disturbance may be severe enough to alter the successional trajectory predicted by physiography. We addressed the question of which is more important disturbance or physiography in determining vegetation composition and the consequent successional trajectory. We evaluated understory vegetation of forest communities exposed to four disturbance types (control single burn diameterlimit cut and firstremoval shelterwood) 25 yr postdisturbance. Study sites were located within each disturbance type on northeast and southwest aspects within the Appalachian Plateau and the Ridge and Valley provinces. Vegetation composition was analyzed with nonmetricmultidimensional scaling twoway nonparametric multivariate ANOVA and indicator species analysis. The relationship between disturbance and key environmental variables including canopy opening and soil fertility was analyzed with generalized linear mixed models. There were 363 species in our study area. Composition differed by province and aspect. Composition also differed by disturbance but with a significant province interaction. Although physiography was more important some species served as disturbance indicators that differed by disturbance type with two possible outcomes. First expected successional trajectories (as defined by the regional and local environmental filters) may deviate toward recovery of native species (e.g. Epigaea repens) that benefit from lowlevel disturbance (as defined by fire as a filter). Second successional trajectories after a relatively severe disturbance (as defined by shelterwood harvest as a filter) may deviate toward systems that are vulnerable to invasion by exotics or dominant native species.Wed, 07 Mar 2018 09:36:35 +0000To mow or to mow less Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity in suburban yards spaces embedded within the urban matrix particularly residential yards could mitigate negative aspects of urban development and provide pollinator habitat. Lawns represent a dominant green space and their management consists of frequent mowing to inhibit the growth of ostensibly weedy species (e.g. dandelions and clover). Since widespread population declines of bees and other pollinators from habitat loss are a growing concern these spontaneous flowers could provide pollen and nectar sources throughout the growing season. We experimentally tested whether different lawn mowing frequencies (1 2 or 3 weeks) influenced bee abundance and diversity in 16 suburban western Massachusetts yards by increasing lawn floral resources. Lawns mowed every three weeks had as much as 2.5 times more lawn flowers than the other frequencies. Interestingly lawns mowed every two weeks supported the highest bee abundance yet the lowest bee richness and evenness. We suggest these patterns were driven by a combination of more abundant floral resources (compared with 1week yards) easier access to lawn flowers due to shorter grass and a more drastic impact on grass biomass and floral resources (compared with 3week yards) and the dominance of a few generalist bees overwhelming our samples thus driving richness and evenness. Our results highlight a lazy lawnmower approach to providing bee habitat. Mowing less frequently is practical economical and a timesaving alternative to lawn replacement or even planting pollinator gardens. Given the pervasiveness of lawns coupled with habitat loss our findings provide immediate solutions for individual households to contribute to urban conservation.Mon, 12 Mar 2018 10:26:28 +0000Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health Over half of the worlds population now lives in urban areas and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health very few have focused on the urban context and most have examined almost exclusively crosssectional research. This review is a first step toward assessing the possibility of causal relationships between nature and health in urban settings. Methods Through systematic review of published literature we explored the association between urban green space and human health. Results We found consistent negative association between urban green space exposure and mortality heart rate and violence and positive association with attention mood and physical activity. Results were mixed or no association was found in studies of urban green space exposure and general health weight status depression and stress (via cortisol concentration). The number of studies was too low to generalize about birth outcomes blood pressure heart rate variability cancer diabetes or respiratory symptoms. Conclusions More studies using rigorous study design are needed to make generalizations and metaanalyses of these and other health outcomes possible. These findings may assist urban managers organizations and communities in their efforts to increase new or preserve existing green space.Wed, 14 Mar 2018 08:38:41 +0000US Urban Forest Statistics Values and Projections urban land increased from 2.6 (57.9 million acres) in 2000 to 3.0 (68.0 million acres) in 2010. States with the greatest amount of urban growth were in the SouthSoutheast (TX FL NC GA and SC). Between 2010 and 2060 urban land is projected to increase another 95.5 million acres to 163.1 million acres (8.6) with 18 states projected to have an increase of over 2 million acres. Overall there are an estimated 5.5 billion trees (39.4 tree cover) in urban areas nationally that contain 127 million acres of leaf area and 44 million tons of dryweight leaf biomass. Annually these trees produce a total of 18.3 billion in value related to air pollution removal (5.4 billion) reduced building energy use (5.4 billion) carbon sequestration (4.8 billion) and avoided pollutant emissions (2.7 billion). States with greatest annual urban forest values were Florida (1.9 billion) California (1.4 billion) Pennsylvania (1.1 billion) New York (1.0 billion) and Ohio (971 million).Mon, 12 Mar 2018 13:34:11 +0000Why count trees? Volunteer motivations and experiences with tree monitoring in New York City programs can benefit from a deeper understanding of the motivations and experiences of people engaged in citizen science. Research to date has studied motivations of citizen scientists and treeplanting volunteers. Less work has focused on treemonitoring volunteers a role that is rapidly increasing as more cities involve the public in monitoring the urban forest. Researchers conducted an assessment of volunteers (n 636 respondents) of the TreesCount! 2015 street tree census in New York City New York U.S. to understand volunteers demographics motivations experiences and levels of civic engagement. Semistructured interviews (n 40) were also conducted on a subset of the initial assessment respondents to deepen understanding of these factors. Like treeplanting volunteers in previous studies volunteers were more likely to be highly educated female white and with high income levels. Top selfidentified motivations for participation included personal values wanting to contribute and a desire for education or learning. Demographics correlated with different motivations suggesting opportunities for targeting recruitment efforts to better reach underrepresented populations. Researchers also found motivations shifted slightly in postcensus interviews also identifying a new theme of exploring the city. Streettree monitoring presents opportunities for contributing to ones community or city and for learning about trees and urban nature suggesting these acts of engagement can both strengthen connections to socialecological systems and provide personal benefits. At the same time considering volunteer motivations experiences and outcomes when designing programs can positively affect participation turnout effort and retention.Wed, 14 Mar 2018 10:34:54 +0000Urban forest sustainability in the United States forests in the United States provide numerous ecosystem services that vary in magnitude across the country and are valued in the billions of dollars per year. Urban tree cover has been on the decline in recent years. Numerous forces for change will continue to alter urban forests in the coming years (i.e. development climate change insects and diseases invasive plants wildfires). These forces can both decrease (e.g. via enhanced tree loss) and increase (e.g. via enhanced tree planting andor natural regeneration) tree cover. On average about one in three trees are planted in U.S. cities this proportion varies by land use ecoregion and population density. Monitoring the magnitude and characteristics of these natural and humancaused tree gains and losses is important for creating and managing sustainable and healthy urban forests. Such forests often require knowledge of the local forest resource and benefits and the development of longterm urban forest management goals plans and monitoring programs. Sustainable and healthy urban forests can help ensure improvements in urban environmental quality human health and wellbeing for current and future generations.Wed, 07 Mar 2018 09:27:07 +0000Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera Erebidae) the role of weather fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber Shimazu and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) populations throughout North America. To understand how weatherrelated variables influence gypsy mothE. maimaiga interactions in the field we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr concurrently measuring rainfall soil moisture humidity and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both fieldcollected larvae and laboratoryreared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisturerelated variables (rainfall soil moisture and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of fieldcollected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas or new weather conditions occur due to climate change.Mon, 12 Mar 2018 08:31:05 +0000Ecology and silviculture of the sprucefir forests of eastern North America the climax forest as a guide to growing the species best suited to the climate and the site the author offers a silvicultural system for managing the sprucefir forests of eastern North America. Based on ecological principles such silviculture is aimed to bring about forests that are inherently healthy and have a natural resistance to insects and disease.Mon, 12 Mar 2018 07:54:39 +0000Vegetation mapping as a guide to better silviculture and challenging problems confront the forester today. Disastrous floods critical water shortages and the uninterrupted trend of forest depletion have focused attention on the important role forests play in the strength economy and prosperity of the Nation. Forests are increasingly prized for recreation the protection they afford sources of water and beneficial effects on stream flow and erosion. These factors contribute much to the health and wellbeing of the public hence they should receive full consideration in the shaping of forest policy and management objectives.Mon, 12 Mar 2018 07:50:17 +0000