bristlecone pines inyo nf

Forestry Reports

"Forestry Reports" include scientific and technical reports from around the world, with an emphasis on North American literature in the field of forestry.

"Forestry Reports" are compiled by the employees of the US Forest Service, National Forest Service Library. "Forestry Reports" is published as a feature in the New Releases department by Journal of Forestry.


2018

New Releases—"Forestry Reports" are compiled by Sally Dunphy (sdunphy@fs.fed.us), US Forest Service, National Forest Service Library. "Forestry Reports" is a regularly published feature inJournal of Forestry.

In some cases, the links below will open a .pdf document.


Volume 116, Issue 4, July 2018
submitted 04/2018
 manuscript number JOF-2018-040

Economics

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Annotated bibliography on the impacts of size and scale of silvopasture in the Southeastern U.S.A. G.E. Frey; M.M. Comer. 2018. 35 p. US For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-230. “Silvopasture, the integration of trees and pasture for livestock, has numerous potential benefits for producers. However, size or scale of the operation may affect those benefits. A review of relevant research on the scale and size economies of silvopasture, general forestry, and livestock agriculture was undertaken to better understand potential silvopasture production in the U.S. Southeast. This information was synthesized into a discussion of the factors that might affect production differently at different scales, and adaptations smaller scale producers might use with silvopasture to mitigate problems and enhance benefits tied to scale.”

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Nontimber forest products in the United States: an analysis for the 2015 National Sustainable Forest Report. J. Chamberlain; A. Teets; S. Kruger. 2018. 36 p. US For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-229. “Worldwide, forest plants and fungi that are harvested for their nontimber products are critical for the health of the ecosystems and the well-being of people who benefit from the harvest. This document provides an analysis of the volumes and values of nontimber forest products in the United States. It presents estimates of the annual harvest for a number of product categories over five regions for the United States. Data for the analysis comes from records of harvest permits and contracts issued by the U.S. National Forests and Bureau of Land Management, other Federal agencies, as well as several industry sources. The data illustrate that nontimber forest products represent significant contributions to the country’s economy.” 

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Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2014. X. Zhou; J.M. Daniels. 2018. 162 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Resour. Bull. PNW-RB-267. "This report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, veneer, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.”

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Trees at work: economic accounting for forest ecosystem services in the U.S.South. E.O. Sills et al. (eds.). 2017. 103 p. US For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-226. “Southern forests provide a variety of critical ecosystem services, from purification of water and air to recreational opportunities for millions of people. Because many of these services are public goods with no observable market value, they are not fully accounted for in land use and policy decisions. There have been several efforts to remedy this … with each effort including different bundles of ecosystem services and using different valuation methodologies. In this guide, we propose a more consistent and theoretically sound approach to 1) quantifying annual flows of ecosystem services, 2) developing a spatial catalog of the marginal values of changes in those flows, and 3) accounting for the total value of ecosystem services lost or gained as a result of changes in forest ecosystems. Four chapters—on cultural services, watershed services, air quality and carbon, and provisioning of non-timber forest products—provide guidance on best practices for quantifying and estimating the values of these services as provided by forests.”

Entomology and Pathology


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Assessment of suitable Douglas-fir beetle habitat across the Northern Region : special emphasis on 2017 wildfire incidents. J.M. Egan et al. 2018. 25 p. US For. Serv, Northern Region, 26 Fort Missoula Rd, Missoula, MT 59804. FHP report 18-05. Fire-injured trees resulting from wildfires can provide suitable habitat for bark beetles, wood boring beetles, Ips spp., and other secondary beetles … to colonize and reproduce within. This habitat can facilitate insect population amplifications within fire perimeters that can influence post-fire tree mortality… Resource managers have been especially concerned about the Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, DFB). …Objectives for this analysis were to use best-available vegetation and burn severity data to 1) estimate the distribution of suitable DFB habitat across the Northern Region (i.e. potential habitat); 2) assess suitable habitat abundance within and adjacent to 2017 wildfire incidents; 3) identify where suitable DFB habitat intersects with fire damage (i.e. probable habitat); and 4) identify wildfire incidents where concern for post-fire DFB activity is greatest.” 

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Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. J.F. Negron; J.G. Klutsch. 2017. 13 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Res. Note RMRS-RN-77. “The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in 2006– 2007 on the Sulphur Ranger District of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests to develop simple probability of infestation and extent of mortality models using classification and regression trees, respectively. … These simple models use readily available data from forest inventories and can be used to identify stands, based on forest stand conditions, where mountain pine beetle is more likely to occur and the potential extent of lodgepole pine tree mortality should an outbreak occur.”

Fire


Fire patterns in piñon and juniper land cover types in the Semiarid Western United States from 1984 through 2013. D.I. Board et al. 2018. 57 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-372. “Increases in area burned and fire size have been reported across a wide range of forest and shrubland types in the Western United States in recent decades, but little is known about potential changes in fire regimes of piñon and juniper land cover types. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns of fire in piñon and juniper land cover types from the National Gap Analysis Program using Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS 2016) data (1984 through 2013) for Northern and Southern Intermountain and Central and Southern Rocky Mountain geographic regions. We examined differences in total area burned, fire rotation, fire size, fire number, and fire season among: (1) the four geographic regions; (2) the EPA level III ecoregions that occur within each geographic region; and (3) the piñon and juniper land cover types (woodlands, savannas, and shrublands) and other land cover types that occur within each geographic region and level III ecoregion.”

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The Rothermel surface fire spread model and associated developments: A comprehensive explanation. P.L. Andrews. 2018. 121 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-371. This paper is intended to serve as a reference for those interested in the foundation of wildland fire modeling. System developers will benefit from equations from various sources being in one document. Developers of custom fuel models will find information on the impact of fuel parameters on rate of spread calculations. … [The paper describes] not only the Rothermel model, but also the modifications and addendums that have evolved for supporting the many systems that use the model. This work shows all the equations, discusses their relevance, and illustrates graphically their response to changes in their inherent variables.”

Forestry Ecology

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An assessment of Japanese barberry in northern U.S. forests. C.M. Kurtz; M.H. Hanse n. 2018. 5 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. Res. Note NRS-249. “Japanese barberry has low wildlife value and deer may promote its spread by creating soil disturbance that favor its growth. It can grow in sun or shade. Due to its shade tolerance, this species is of particular concern within forested areas. Japanese barberry can rapidly cover the forest floor, shading out other vegetation. This publication is part of a series that provides an overview of invasive plant species monitored on an extensive systematic network of plots measured by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station (NRS).”

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Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the Northern Rocky Mountains - Part 1. J.E Halofsky et al. (eds.). 2018. p. 1-273. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-374. The Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnership (NRAP) identified climate change issues relevant to resource management in the Northern Rockies (USA) region, and developed solutions intended to minimize negative effects of climate change and facilitate transition of diverse ecosystems to a warmer climate. … U.S. Forest Service scientists, resource managers, and stakeholders worked together over 2 years to conduct a state-of-science climate change vulnerability assessment and develop adaptation options for national forests and national parks in the Northern Rockies region. The vulnerability assessment emphasized water, fisheries, wildlife, forest and rangeland vegetation and disturbance, recreation, cultural heritage, and ecosystem services which are regarded as key resource areas for local ecosystems and communities. Resource managers used the assessment to develop a detailed list of ways to address climate change vulnerabilities through management actions.”

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Enhancing resiliency in U.S. agricultural landscapes under changing conditions. M.M. Schoeneberger.; G. Bentrup; T. Patel-Weynand (eds.). 2017. 228 p. US For. Serv., Washington Office, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250. Gen. Tech. Report WO-96. Agroforestry, the intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal production systems, is being deployed to enhance productivity, profitability, and environmental stewardship of agricultural operations and lands across the United States. This assessment provides a science-based synthesis on the use of agroforestry for mitigation and adaptation services in the face of climatic variability and change.”

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Short-term response of ground-dwelling macroarthropods to shelterwood harvests in a productive Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest. J. Westby-Gibson, Jr. et al. 2017. 10 p. US For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. e-Res. Pap. RP-SRS-59. “Macroarthropods rarely are considered in forest management decisions, despite their ecological importance as decomposers, herbivores, pollinators, predators, and nutrient cyclers, and potential of some taxa as indicators of forest condition. We used a replicated design to experimentally determine if, and how, community composition, richness, and biomass of terrestrial macroarthropods differed between recent shelterwood harvests and unharvested controls in an intermediate quality upland hardwood forest.”

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Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems. M.E. Fenn; A. Bytnerowicz; S.L. Schilling. 2017. 129 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Southwest Res. Stn., 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-257. “Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3 ) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. ‘Passive’ monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially extensive measurements of atmospheric pollutant concentrations and deposition flux inputs of N and other nutrient ions… Data from monitoring networks using these techniques help identify areas at risk and provide the foundation for describing pollution impacts to sensitive resources. In this report, several alternative approaches for estimating N deposition are also considered as a guide for selecting appropriate techniques in ecosystem effects studies in California and elsewhere.”

Measurements

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OP-Yield Version 1.00 user's guide. M.W. Ritchie; J. Zhang. 2018. 26 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Southwest Res. Stn., 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-259. “OP-Yield is a Microsoft Excel™ spreadsheet with 14 specified user inputs to derive custom yield estimates using the original Oliver and Powers (1978) functions as the foundation. … In the original Oliver and Powers (1978) model, many controlling parameters were fixed, significantly limiting the ability to interpolate. These fixed parameters also have relegated the original model obsolete in some respects. However, in OP-Yield several fixed parameters in the original system are allowed to flex. The other major difference between OP-Yield and the original presentation is the derivation of cubic-foot volume by age and site.”

Social Sciences


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Going beyond the biophysical when mapping national forests. G. Koch; L. Cerveny. 2018. 5 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Science Findings 204. “Resource managers have long mapped biophysical forest data. Often lacking, however, is relevant social science data for understanding the variety of human needs a given landscape fulfills. … Combining a landscape’s biophysical data with points of human interaction and value can help forest planners develop sustainable strategies for managing road networks.” 

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Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project. K. Floress et al. 2018. 57 p. University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Center for Land Use Education, 800 Reserve Street, Stevens Point, WI 54481, and University of Wisconsin Extension, 780 Regent Street, Madison, WI 53715. Final Report. "This report is intended to support the ongoing pine barrens restoration on work in the Lakewood-Laona Ranger District on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF). The report provides the results from 2016 surveys and focus groups examining landowner and visitor attitudes toward forest management treatments, communication, and restoration project outcomes; their forest values; their levels of trust in the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and local agency personnel; and potential impacts of restoration on the recreational, aesthetic, and social dynamics of nearby communities.”

Utilization and Engineering

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Proceedings: 20th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium. XWang; C.A. Senalik; R.J. Ross (eds.). 2017. 539 p. US For. Serv., Forest Products Lab., One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53726. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-249. “This Symposium was a forum for those involved in nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) of wood and brought together many NDT/NDE users, suppliers, international researchers, representatives from various government agencies, and other groups to share research results, products, and technology for evaluating a wide range of wood products, including standing trees, logs, lumber, and wood structures.The technical content of the 20th Symposium is captured in these proceedings.” 

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Residential tornado safe room from commodity wood products – design and development. R.H. Falk; J.J. Bridwell. 2018. 8 p. US For. Serv., Forest Products Lab., One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53726. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-253. “In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms have helped decrease the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a nonproprietary residential tornado safe room constructed from commodity wood building products, buildable by a local contractor or do-it-yourselfer, and adaptable to existing homes, could lower the cost of these structures and result in more widespread use. This report is an overview of the design and development of such a residential tornado safe room.”

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Wood and coal cofiring in Alaska—operational considerations and combustion gas effects for a grate-fired power plant. D. Nicholls; Z. Wright; D. Huang. 2018. 32 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-964. “Coal is the primary fuel source for electrical power generation in interior Alaska, with more than 600,000 tons burned annually at five different power plants. Woody biomass could be used as part of this fuel mix, offering potential environmental and economic benefits. In this research, debarked chips were cofired with locally mined coal at the Aurora Power Plant facility in downtown Fairbanks, Alaska. During two days of testing, aspen chips were successfully cofired with coal at average rates of 2.4 percent and 4.8 percent of total energy value. Combustion gases were analyzed during combustion of 100- percent coal, as well as at two different blends with aspen chips, for levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and nitrogen compounds.”

New Releases—"Forestry Reports" are compiled by Sally Dunphy (sdunphy@fs.fed.us), US Forest Service, National Forest Service Library. "Forestry Reports" is a regularly published feature inJournal of Forestry.

In some cases, the links below will open a .pdf document.


submitted 02/2018 article number JOF-2018-013

Entomology and Pathology

 

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Major forest insect and disease conditions in the United States: 2015. T.H. Karel and G. Man (eds.) 2017. 45 p. US For. Serv., Washington Office, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250.  (Forest Service; 1093). “This report on the major insect and disease conditions of the Nation’s forests represents the 65th annual report prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. The report focuses on 19 major insects and diseases that annually cause defoliation and mortality in U.S. forests. The information in this report is provided by the Forest Health Protection program of the Forest Service and its State partners.”

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Proceedings of the American elm restoration workshop 2016. C.C. Pinchot et al. (eds.). 2017. 148 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. Proceedings from the 2016 American Elm Restoration Workshop in Lewis Center, OH. The workshop covered a variety of topics relating to American elm restoration, including the Dutch Elm Disease (DED) pathogen, DED tolerance, genetics and ecology of the elm hosts, other threats to American elm, other tools to combat DED, and practical aspects of restoration. The published proceedings include 16 papers pertaining to elm pathogens, American elm ecology, and American elm reintroduction.”

Fire

Physical and chemical characteristics of surface fuels in masticated mixed-conifer stands of the U.S. Rocky MountainsR.E. Keane; P.G. Sikkink; T.B. Jain. 2018. 56 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-370. “Mastication is a wildland fuel treatment technique that is rapidly becoming the preferred method for many fire hazard reduction projects, especially in areas where reducing fuels with prescribed fire is particularly challenging. …little is known about the properties of masticated fuelbeds as they age. In 2013, we began a comprehensive study called MASTIDON (MASTIcated fuelbed Decomposition Operational Network) to measure the diverse characteristics of masticated fuelbeds at treatment sites of different ages across the western U.S. Rocky Mountains. … This report concerns a small facet of the MASTIDON study, where summaries of the physical and chemical fuel properties of the sampled masticated fuelbeds are presented and the relationships of these properties to fuel age are explored. … These summaries can be used to understand how different types of masticated fuelbeds might burn if ignited and as inputs to fire behavior and effects models.”

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Research and Development wildland fire and fuels accomplishments and outcomesM. Rollins et al. 2017. 52 p. US For. Serv., Washington Office, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250. FS-1086. “The Research and Development (R&D) Wildland Fire and Fuels program at the Forest Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, continues to be an internationally renowned program for generating critical and essential data, knowledge, and applications for all phases of wildland fire management and response. This report provides a primer on the breadth and depth of Forest Service wildland fire and fuels R&D and synthesizes the robust and diverse body of recent Forest Service fire research in the context of outcomes that have improved the wildland fire management and response in the United States.”

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Smoke in a new era of fire.  R. White et al. 2017. 16 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Science Update 24. “Smoke from fire can sharply reduce air quality by releasing particulate matter, one of the most dangerous types of air pollution for human health. Minimizing the amount and impact of smoke is a high priority for land managers and regulators. One tool for achieving that goal is prescribed fire. Prescribed fire can be controlled and planned carefully to minimize smoke impacts and warn communities in advance. It can also help reduce decades worth of vegetation buildup from past fire exclusion and help restore dry, fire-adapted forests. Forest Service research is helping decisionmakers plan for, predict, and control smoke from fires and communicate smoke impacts to the public.”

Forest ecology

A guide to nonnative invasive plants inventoried in the North by Forest Inventory and AnalysisC. Olson and A.F. Cholewa. 2009. Revised October 2017. 191 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-52.“The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service is an ongoing endeavor mandated by Congress to determine the extent, condition, volume, growth, and depletions of timber on the Nation's forest land. … The intent of this guide is to aid FIA field staff in identifying 44 invasive plant species in the 24-state Northern Research Station region (Maine south to Delaware west to Kansas and north to North Dakota). However, this guide can be used by anyone interested in learning about these invasive plants. It contains distribution maps, short descriptions, space for notes, and numerous pictures of each plant.”

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New England and northern New York forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the New England Climate Change Response Framework projectM.K. Janowiak et al. 2018. 234 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. “Forest ecosystems will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems across the New England region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, northern New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont) under a range of future climates. We synthesized and summarized information on the contemporary landscape, provided information on past climate trends, and described a range of projected future climates. This information was used to parameterize and run multiple vegetation impact models, which provided a range of potential vegetative responses to climate. Finally, we brought these results before a multidisciplinary panel of scientists and natural resource professionals familiar with the forests of this region to assess ecosystem vulnerability through a formal consensus-based expert elicitation process.“

History

Sustainability and wildland fire: The origins of Forest Service Wildland Fire ResearchD.M. Smith. 2017. 120 p. US For. Serv., Washington Office, 1400 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250. FS-1085. This book … presents the history of Forest Service fire research up through the early 1970s. It is organized thematically around the three areas Forest Service researchers believed would improve the long-term sustainability of forested lands—(1) fire control, (2) fire behavior, and (3) fire effects—and follows each of those research areas over time. The ultimate goal of this book is to help researchers, managers, and the public better understand the origins of wildland fire research, as well as the management and firefighting decisions based on that research.”

Measurements

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Measuring wood quality in standing trees--a reviewM. Rudnicki et al. 2017. 13 p. US For. Serv., Forest Products Lab., One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53726. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-248.   “This report summarizes a state-of-the-art review conducted on the topic of field measurement of the quality of wood in trees. The foundation science of micro-resistance drilling and acoustic-based techniques for use with woody materials is presented, and use of these techniques for the detection of biodeterioration in wood is discussed. Quantification of the physical and mechanical properties of wood, in standing timber, is reviewed. Studies designed to examine the use of these techniques with trees are summarized, and a list of commercially available technologies that use these techniques is presented.”

Statistics and quality assurance for the Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program. D.D. Gormanson et al. 2018. 25 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073.Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-178. “The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects sample plot data on all forest ownerships across the United States. FIA’s primary objective is to determine the extent, condition, volume, growth, and use of trees on the Nation’s forest land through a comprehensive inventory and analysis of the Nation’s forest resources. … This document provides an overview of the National FIA program. The detailed information presented includes forest inventory methods, important resource statistics, quality of estimates, and key references currently used by the Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis (NRS-FIA) regional unit.”

Silviculture

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Longleaf pine site response to repeated fertilization and forest floor removal by raking and prescribed burningK. Ludovici; R. Eaton; S. Zarnoch. 2018. 9 p. U.S. For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. e-Res. Pap. RP-SRS-60. “Removal of forest floor litter by pine needle raking and prescribed burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on Coastal Plain sites in the Southeastern United States. Repeated removal of litter by raking and the loss of surface organic matter from controlled burns can affect the already low fertility of these sites. Although fertilization may compensate forsome nutrient losses, long-term changes in soil chemical properties may still negatively affect productivity. In this experiment, we continue work that examined the effect of burning, fertilization, and moderate and intensive litter raking on tree growth, litter production, and soil chemistry in longleaf pine stands over 6 years.”

Principles and practices for the restoration of ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer forests of the Colorado Front RangeR.N. Addington et al. 2018. 121 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-373.  “… In this report, we present a science-based framework for managers to develop place-based approaches to forest restoration of Front Range ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer forests. We first present ecological information... This information serves as a foundation for identifying priority areas for treatment and designing restoration projects across scales. Treatment guidelines generally reduce forest densities and surface and crown fuels, enhance spatial heterogeneity across scales, and retain drought- and fire-tolerant species, old trees, and structures important for wildlife. Implementation of these guidelines is expected to enhance forest resilience to disturbance and climate change, as well as sustain important ecosystem services.”

Responses of hybrid white spruce to site preparation in wet and very wet Sub-Boreal Spruce subzones over three decadesL. Bedford, et al.  2017.  35 p. Crown Publications, Queen's Printer, 563 Superior St., Victoria, BC V8W 9V7. B.C. Tech. Rep. 109. “In 1984 and 1987, two experiments were initiated in wet and very wet Sub-Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic units in north–central British Columbia to examine the effectiveness of different site preparation techniques in relieving constraints on hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii × glauca) establishment. … The complexity of limiting factors observed …demonstrates the importance of correctly identifying the primary limiting factor to seedling establishment, as well as the difficulty in relieving multiple constraints that interact with each other.”

Soils and Hydrology

Site productivity and diversity of the Middle Mountain long-term soil productivity study, West Virginia: Pre-experimental site characterizationM.B. Adams. 2018. 24 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-176. “To better understand the impacts of a changing environment and interactions with forest management options for forest resources, including soil, large long-term experiments are required. Such experiments require careful documentation of reference or pre-experimental conditions. This publication describes the Middle Mountain Long-term Soil Productivity (LTSP) Study, located within the Loop Road Research Area of the Monongahela National Forest, WV. This study was initiated in 1997 and pretreatment soil, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and climatic conditions were carefully documented. ... There is some variability in soil nutrients and plant diversity across the site prior to the initiation of treatments. ... Experimental treatments started in 1998, and we continue to monitor this site's response to these treatments.”

Urban and Community Forestry

Nearby nature—A cost-effective prescription for better community health? A. Watts and K. Wolf. 2018. 5 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Science Findings 203. “A research team led by Kathleen Wolf, a research social scientist with the U.S. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, found that the health benefits associated with metro nature have a calculable economic impact. The team surveyed peer-reviewed studies that documented the effects of metro nature on human health and identified six social and public health outcomes: increased birth weight; reduced symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); better school performance; and decreased crime, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Using publicly available economic data, the team estimated the potential health care cost savings.”

Utilization and Engineering

Volatile organic compound emissions from engineered wood productsS. Zylkowski and C. Frihart. 2017. 8 p. US For. Serv., Forest Products Lab., One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53726. Research Note FPL-RN-0350. “Thirteen bonded engineered wood products representing those commonly used in building construction were evaluated for volatile organic chemicals using methods developed for interior bonded wood products. Although formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were emitted from all samples, they were not the dominant volatiles, which greatly depended on wood species and bonding processes.”

New Releases—"Forestry Reports" are compiled by Sally Dunphy (sdunphy@fs.fed.us), US Forest Service, National Forest Service Library. "Forestry Reports" is a regularly published feature inJournal of Forestry.

In most cases, the links below will open a .pdf document.


submitted 01/2018 article number JOF-2018-007

Economics

Description of the General Equilibrium Model of Ecosystem Services (GEMES). T. Warziniack, D. Finnoff, J. Apriesnig. 2017. 14 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-359. “This paper serves as documentation for the General Equilibrium Model of Ecosystem Services (GEMES). GEMES is a regional computable general equilibrium model that is composed of values derived from natural capital and ecosystem services. It models households, producing sectors, and governments, linked to one another through commodity and factor markets.”

Life cycle assessment of wood energy for residential heating—opportunities for wood pellet production in southeast Alaska. A.M. Brackley, et al. 2017. 34 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-951. “Southeast Alaska is a remote area, located approximately 700 miles north of Seattle, Washington. Most of the region’s goods are imported by barge, creating logistical and economic challenges not faced by many other parts of the United States. In this context, we used life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the potential environmental impact on global warming potential (GWP) of converting home heating systems from heating oil to wood pellets in southeast Alaska.” 

Trees at work: economic accounting for forest ecosystem services in the U.S. South.
E.O. Sills, et al. (eds.). 
2017. 103 p.U.S. For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-226. 
“Southern forests provide a variety of critical ecosystem services, from purification of water and air to recreational opportunities for millions of people. Because many of these services are public goods with no observable market value, they are not fully accounted for in land use and policy decisions. ... In this guide, we propose a more consistent and theoretically sound approach to 1) quantifying annual flows of ecosystem services, 2) developing a spatial catalog of the marginal values of changes in those flows, and 3) accounting for the total value of ecosystem services lost or gained as a result of changes in forest ecosystems. Four chapters—on cultural services, watershed services, air quality and carbon, and provisioning of non-timber forest products—provide guidance on best practices for quantifying and estimating the values of these services as provided by forests.”

Education and communication

Ten principles for thinking about the future: a primer for environmental professionals. 
D.N. Bengston. 2017. 28 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-175.“Every decision we make is about the future, but most of us are never taught how to think critically about it. This guide addresses this issue by identifying and reviewing 10 principles for thinking about the future, along with related strategies for improving environmental foresight. The principles and strategies are drawn from the transdisciplinary field of futures studies. Taken together, these principles and strategies can help guide environmental planners, managers, and policy makers toward well-considered expectations for the future.”

Entomology and pathology

A role for ground-based Gypchek treatments for gypsy moth controlJ.D. Podgwaite, et al. 2017. 7 p. US For. Serv., Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, 2150 Centre Ave., Bldg. A, Suite 331, Ft. Collins, CO 80526. FHAAST-2017-01. “The gypsy moth-specific baculovirus (LdMNPV) product Gypchek was developed by the USDA Forest Service as an alter­native to the use of broad-spectrum insecticides for gypsy moth control. Registration of Gypchek as a general use insecti­cide has provided resource managers with a safe choice for the treatment of infestations where environmental issues, such as the presence of an endangered or threatened species, are of concern…  Aerial ap­plications are conducted under the auspices of gypsy moth management programs that are funded and facilitated through the Federal and State Gypsy Moth Cooperative Suppression and Eradication Program. … Here we briefly review and discuss the research that has been conducted on ground-based Gypchek applications and offer justification for their use.”

Environmental persistence of a pathogen used in microbial insect control.
 K.M. Polivka, G. Dwyer, and C.J. Mehmel. 2017. 15 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Res. Note. PNW-RN-573. “We conducted an experimental study of infection, transmission, and persistence of a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata) to better understand mechanisms determining the efficacy of the virus when it is used as a microbial control agent. In a field experiment, we quantified infection rates of larvae exposed to either Tussock Moth Biocontrol-1, the strain currently used for control by the U.S. Forest Service, or a wild-type strain isolated from a natural population.”

The role of biocontrol of emerald ash borer in protecting ash regeneration after invasion. J.J. Duan, et al.  2017. 8 p. US For. Serv., Forest Health Assessment and Applied Sciences Team, 2150 Centre Ave., Bldg. A, Suite 331, Ft. Collins, CO 80526. FHAAST-2017-02. “The goal of the EAB biocontrol program is to protect ash regeneration and restore canopy cover over time. Long-term monitoring in Michigan and several northeastern states has documented increasing parasitism and reduced EAB attack rates. Ash regeneration is currently benefiting from releases of introduced parasitoids, which now cause 20-80% parasitism of EAB larvae in ash saplings (1-2 inch dia.) and young trees (5-8 inch dia.).”

Forest Ecology

Suppressing over-abundant invasive plants and insects in natural areas by use of their specialized natural enemies.R.G. Van Driesche and R.C. Reardon (eds.) 2017. 98 p. US For. Serv., Forest Health Tech. Enterprise Team, 2150 Centre Ave., Bldg. A, Suite 331, Ft. Collins, CO 80526. FHTET-2017-02.“Biological control has long been used against invasive plants and, less often, invasive insects, in forests, aquatic systems, grasslands, coastal areas, riparian areas, islands, and other biomes or habitats of conservation concern. Historically, motivation for such efforts has shifted gradually away from economic interests toward ecological protection for its own sake. Future projects of this type will require better integration of biological control into conservation practice, a better understanding by societies of the reasons for such work and its possible risks and benefits, as well as continued, consistent public funding. Examples of successful projects in high-value conservations areas (Everglades, Galápagos, oceanic islands, wetlands, forests) are discussed, and future challenges and caveats mentioned.”

An assessment of Japanese stiltgrass in northern U.S. forests. C.M. Kurtz and M.H. Hansen. 2017. 5 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073.. Res. Note NRS-247. “This publication is part of a series of research notes that provides an overview of the presence of invasive plant species monitored on an extensive systematic network of plots measured by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station (NRS). Each research note features one of the invasive plants monitored on forested plots by NRS FIA in the 24 states of the Midwestern and Northeastern United States.”

Climate change vulnerability assessment for the Chugach National Forest and the Kenai Peninsula. G.H. Hayward et al. (eds.). 2017. 340 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-950. “This assessment evaluates the effects of future climate change on a select set of ecological systems and ecosystem services in Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula and Chugach National Forest regions. The focus of the assessment was established during a multi-agency/organization workshop that established the goal to conduct a rigorous evaluation of a limited range of topics rather than produce a broad overview. The report explores the potential consequences of climate change for: (a) snowpack, glaciers, and winter recreation; (b) coastal landscapes and associated environments, (c) vegetation, (d) salmon, and (e) a select set of wildlife species.”

Coast redwood science symposium—2016: Past successes and future direction. R.B. Standiford and Y. Valachovic (tech cords.). 2017. 446 p.US For. Serv., Pac. Southwest Res. Stn., 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-258. “There is no more iconic tree or more closely watched forest ecosystem than coast redwood. With its limited range and high value, the coast redwood forest is a microcosm of many of the emerging science and management issues facing today’s forested landscapes. As new information is collected and new management approaches and treatments tried, it is critical that policies and strategies guiding use and management within the redwood region be reviewed and updated based on objective scientific information. … This symposium is part of a continuing effort to promote the development and communication of scientific findings to inform management and policy decisions.”

Policy

State property tax incentives for promoting ecosystem goods and services from private forest land in the United States: a review and analysis. M.A. Kilgore et al. 2017. 174 p. U.S. For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–228. “Financial incentives provided by State property tax programs are a means of promoting ecosystem services from private forest land. Identified by this 50-State 2015 review, categories of ecosystem services frequently promoted by such programs are open space and scenic resources, conservation of soils and wetlands, protection and supply of fish and wildlife, protection and supply of water, production of timber and fiber products, recreational uses and resource preservation, and integrity and sustainability of forests. … In 2014, promotion of ecosystem services from private forest land involved 58 different State property tax programs enrolling nearly 210 million acres of forest land nationwide.”

Silviculture

Colorado's forest resources, 2004-2013
M.T. Thompson et al. 2017. 136 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526. Resour. Bull. RMRS-RB-23. “This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory of Colorado’s forests based on field data collected between 2004 and 2013. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, numbers of trees, biomass, carbon, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most sections and tables are organized by forest type or forest-type group, species group, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes the inventory’s design, inventory terminology, and data reliability.” 

Historical forest structure, composition, and spatial pattern in dry conifer forests of the western Blue Mountains, Oregon. D.J. Churchill et al. 2017. 93 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR- 956. “In frequent-fire forests of the interior Western United States, historical (prefire suppression) conditions are often used as a reference to set management objectives, guide prescriptions, and monitor treatment effectiveness. We quantified the historical size, density, composition, and spatial patterns of dry mixed-conifer forests in the Blue Mountains of Oregon to establish reference conditions that could be used for ongoing forest-restoration efforts.”

Urban and community forestry

Chicago Wilderness region urban forest vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Urban Forestry Climate Change Response Framework Chicago Wilderness pilot project.L.A. Brandt et al. 2017. 142 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-168. “The urban forest of the Chicago Wilderness region, a 7-million-acre area covering portions of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin, will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of urban trees and natural and developed landscapes within the Chicago Wilderness region to a range of future climates. We synthesized and summarized information on the contemporary landscape, provided information on past climate trends, and illustrated a range of projected future climates. We used this information to inform models of habitat suitability for trees native to the area.”

Utilization and Engineering

Community biomass handbook volume 4: enterprise development for integrated wood manufacturingE.C. Lowell et al. 2017. 46 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-953. “The Community Biomass Handbook Volume 4: Enterprise Development for Integrated Wood Manufacturing is a guide for creating sustainable business enterprises using small diameter logs and biomass. This fourth volume is a companion to three Community Biomass Handbook volumes: Volume 1: Thermal Wood Energy; Volume 2: Alaska, Where Woody Biomass Can Work; and Volume 3: How Wood Energy is Revitalizing Rural Alaska. This volume is designed to help business partnerships, forest managers, and community groups rapidly explore and evaluate integrated manufacturing opportunities. The handbook is particularly relevant to communities and business near public lands and identifies the types of information needed when considering biomass utilization, and walks users through the initial stages of project scoping and design.”

East Texas harvest and utilization study, 2014
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J.A. Cooper et al. 2017. U.S. For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. 2014. 23 p.e-Resour. Bull. SRS–214. “In 2014, a harvest and utilization study was completed on 68 logging operations throughout eastern Texas. There were 1,464 total trees measured: 1,149 or 78 percent were softwood, while 315 or 22 percent were hardwood. Results from this study showed that 81 percent of the total softwood volume measured was utilized for a product, and 19 percent was left as logging residue. Eighty-seven percent of the total hardwood volume measured was utilized for a product, while 13 percent was left as logging residue.”

Partial harvesting of hardwood sawtimber in Kentucky and TennesseeT.J. Brandeis. 2017. 10 p. U.S. For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–227.“Partial harvesting is the predominant but not exclusive cutting treatment applied to the hardwood forests of Kentucky and Tennessee. Hardwood harvest in Kentucky showed a slight downward trend from 2006 to 2014, with most of the volume harvested in partial logging operations. Tennessee did not show this same downward trend, and the amount of hardwood volume harvested from 2002 to 2014 remained relatively steady with the exception of slight decreases during the economic downturn of 2007 to 2009. … The hope is that this study will spur further investigation into hardwood sawlog quality trends in Kentucky and Tennessee and careful consideration of the drivers behind them.”

New Releases—"Forestry Reports" are compiled by Sally Dunphy (sdunphy@fs.fed.us), US Forest Service, National Forest Service Library. "Forestry Reports" is a regularly published feature inJournal of Forestry.

In most cases, the links below will open a .pdf document.


submitted 11/2017 article number JOF-2017-113

Economics

OpCost: an open-source system for estimating costs of stand-level forest operations. C.K. Bell, R.F. Keefe, and J.S. Fried. 2017. 23 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-960.This report describes and documents the OpCost forest operations cost model, a key component of the BioSum analysis framework. OpCost is available in two editions: as a callable module for use with BioSum, and in a stand-alone edition that can be run directly from R. OpCost model logic and assumptions for this open-source tool are explained, references to the literature used in all of the submodels included in OpCost are provided, and guidance is offered on how to change the default hourly machine rates associated with overall logging cost calculations. OpCost enhance­ments such as cost component breakout, and identifying the least-cost harvest system, are also described and explained.”

Fire

How to generate and interpret fire characteristics charts for the U.S. fire danger rating systemF.A. Heinsch, P.L. Andrews, and D. Tirmenstein. 2017. 62 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-363.  “The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components as well as primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. Computer software has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts for both fire danger and fire behavior in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. …This report describes the fire characteristics chart for fire danger, which displays the relationships among the Spread Component, Energy Release Component, and Burning Index by plotting the three values as a single point. ...Example applications of this software for comparing fire seasons, weather stations, and fire danger rating fuel models are presented.”

Forest Ecology

Assessment of aspen ecosystem vulnerability to climate change for the Uinta-Wasatch-Cache and Ashley National Forests, Utah. J. Rice, et al. 2017. 67 p. US For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80526. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-366. “Aspen ecosystems are valued because they add biodiversity and ecological value to the landscape. ...Climate change poses the risk of altering and disrupting these ecosystems, and it may worsen the effects of non-climate stressors. To provide scientific information for land managers facing the challenge of helping aspen ecosystems adapt to climate change, we developed an aspen vulnerability assessment on the Uinta-Wasatch-Cache and Ashley National Forests. Literature-based information and expert elicitation are used to define (a) components of sensitivity and exposure to climate change and (b) the capacity of these ecosystems to adapt to expected changes.”

Ecosystem processes related to wood decay. B.G. Marcot. 2017. 43 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Res. Note. PNW-RN-576. “Wood decay elements include snags, down wood, root wads, tree stumps, litter, duff, broomed or diseased branches, and partially dead trees, all of which contribute to ecological processes and biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. ...Snags and down wood provide nurse functions for tree and shrub species, and can aid in restoration of degraded forest environments. Various elements of wood decay provide habitat for many species of wildlife including invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. ...Managing wood decay elements for ecosystem processes entails better understanding decay dynamics, the role of coarse wood in soil, the role of wood decay in carbon cycling and sequestration, and other considerations.”

Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016. K.M. Potter, and B.L. Conkling (eds.). 2017. 195 p. US For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-222. “… In this 16th edition in a series of annual reports, survey data are used to identify geographic patterns of insect and disease activity. Satellite data are employed to detect geographic patterns of forest fire occurrence. Recent drought and moisture surplus conditions are compared across the conterminous United States. ... Change over time in the understory Vegetation Diversity and Structure Indicator is assessed on more than 500 FIA plots in the North Central and Northeastern States... A new Regeneration Indicator, which includes a suite of tree-seedling and browse impact measurements, is described. The general magnitude of tree mortality predicted by the National Insect and Disease Risk Map is compared to FIA estimates of mortality. Six recently completed Evaluation Monitoring projects are summarized, addressing forest health concerns at smaller scales.”

Lichen communities as climate indicators in the U.S. Pacific States. R.J. Smith, S. Jovan, and B. McCune. 2017. 44 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-952. “Epiphytic lichens are bioindicators of climate, air quality, and other forest conditions and may reveal how forests will respond to global changes in the U.S. Pacific States of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California. We explored climate indication with lichen communities surveyed by using both the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Alaska Region (R10) methods. Across the Pacific States, lichen indicator species and ordination “climate scores” reflected associations between lichen community composition and climate. Indicator species are appealing targets for monitoring, while climate scores at sites resurveyed in the future can indicate climate change effects. ...We provide an appendix of lichen species with climate indicator values. Lichen indicator species and community climate scores are promising tools for meeting regional forest management objectives.”

Natural range of variation for yellow pine and mixed-conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada, southern Cascades, and Modoc and Inyo National Forests, California, USAH.D. Safford, and J.T. Stevens. 2017. 229 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Southwest Res. Stn., 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710. “Yellow pine and mixed-conifer (YPMC) forests are the predominant montane forest type in the Sierra Nevada, southern Cascade Range, and neighboring forested areas on the Modoc and Inyo National Forests (the ‘assessment area’). ...We conducted an in depth assessment of the natural range of variation (NRV) of YPMC forests for the assessment area, focusing on ecosystem processes and forest structure from historical data sources from pre-Euro-American settlement times (16th through mid-19th centuries) and current reference forests (YPMC forests that have retained frequent fire and have suffered little human degradation), and comparing current conditions to the NRV.”

Northwest Forest Plan—the first 20 years (1994–2013): watershed condition status and trendsS.A. Miller et al. 2017. 74 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208.  PNW-GTR-932. “The Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Program focuses on assessing the degree to which federal land management under the aquatic conservation strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) has been effective in maintaining and improving watershed conditions. We used stream sampling data and upslope/riparian geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data to evaluate condition for sixth-field watersheds in each aquatic province within the NWFP area. Stream conditions were evaluated based on sampling data collected from 2002 to 2013 (214 watersheds) as part of an 8-year repeating (rotating) sample design.”

A review of the role of fungi in wood decay of forest ecosystemsB.G. Marcot. 2017. 31 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Res. Note. PNW-RN-575. “Fungi are key players in the health, diversity, and productivity of forest ecosystems in Pacific Northwest forests, as mycorrhizal associations, pathogens, decomposers, nontimber resources, and food resources for wildlife. A number of invertebrate species are associated with wood decay fungi, serve as vectors for fungal pathogens, or are fungivorous (consume fungi) and influence rates of wood decay and nutrient mineralization. In Washington and Oregon, 31 wildlife species among 8 families are fungivores, and at least 14 wildlife species disperse fungi. …Presence, density, distribution, and diversity of fungi are influenced by forest stand management practices, forest age class, and effects of fire. Old forests provide for a suite of rare fungi species. …Studies are needed in the Pacific Northwest to quantify the amount of down wood…necessary for maintaining or restoring fungal biodiversity and viable levels of individual fungi species, especially rare species.”

Terrestrial species viability assessments for national forests in northeastern WashingtonW.L. Gaines et al. 2017. 324 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-907. “We developed a process to address terrestrial wildlife species for which management for ecosystem diversity may be inadequate for providing ecological conditions capable of sustaining viable populations. The process includes (1) identifying species of conservation concern, (2) describing source habitats, and other important ecological factors, (3) organizing species into groups, (4) selecting surrogate species for each group, (5) developing surrogate species assessment models; (6) applying surrogate species assessment models to evaluate current and historical conditions, (7) developing conservation considerations, and (8) designing monitoring and adaptive management. Following the application of our species screening criteria, we identified 209 of 700 species as species of concern on National Forest System lands east of the Cascade Range in Washington state.”

Measurement

Oregon’s forest resources, 2001–2010: ten-year Forest Inventory and Analysis report. S. Bansal et al. 2017. 130 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. PNW-GTR-958. “This report highlights key findings from a comprehensive vegetation survey of all for­ested land across the state of Oregon. A total of 5,180 forested field plots in Oregon were visited by Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) crews over a 10-year period from 2001 to 2010. Oregon has 30 million acres of forest, covering nearly half the state. The structure and composition of Oregon’s forests differ considerably across the state, particularly east versus west of the Cascade Range. Western Oregon forests are dominated by higher productivity classes (85 to 224 cubic feet per acre annual growth) and are composed of Douglas-fir and western hemlock, while forests in the east typically exhibit lower productivity (0 to 84 cubic feet per acre annual growth) and are composed of ponderosa pine, western juniper, and lodgepole pine. …This report includes estimates of forest growth, removals, and mortality for ownership groups across the state.”

Recreation

Spending patterns of outdoor recreation visitors to national forestsE.M. White. 2017. 70 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-961. “The economic linkages between national forests and surrounding areas are one of the important ways public lands contribute to the well-being of private individuals and communities. One way national forests contribute to the economies of surrounding communities is by attracting recreation visitors who, as part of their trip, spend money in communities on the peripheries of national forests. We use survey data collected from visitors to all forest and grasslands in the National Forest System to estimate the average spending per trip of national forest recreation visitors engaged in various types of recreation trips and activities. …We report key parameters to complete economic contribution analysis for individual national forests and for the entire National Forest System.”

A temporal importance-performance analysis of recreation attributes on national forests: a technical document supporting the Forest Service update of the 2010 RPA AssessmentA.E. Askew et al. 2017. 34 p. US For. Serv., Southern Res. Stn., Asheville, NC 28802. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–223. “The outdoor recreation component of the 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment provided projections and modeling of participation and intensity by activity. …These projections can be considered in managing potential shifts in outdoor recreation. In anticipation of projected trends, resources can be allocated appropriately by each outdoor recreation activity, or by the settings in which these activities take place. Decades of marketing and consumer research have established that an industry depends on and benefits from satisfied customers. In this study, we apply a widely used tool with origins in marketing research known as importance-performance analysis (IPA) to better understand visitor satisfaction with recreation settings on national forests. The results from IPA can supplement planning for improving efficient provision of recreation opportunities through management of setting attributes, which in turn could reinforce activity popularity and intensity.”

Silviculture

Gene conservation of tree species—banking on the future. Proceedings of a workshopR.A. Sniezko et al. (tech. cords.) 2017. 206 p. US For. Serv., Pac. Northwest Res. Stn., PO Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-963. “The ‘Gene Conservation of Tree Species—Banking on the Future Workshop’ provided a forum for presenting and discussing issues and accomplishments in genetic conservation of trees, and notably those of North America. The meeting gathered scientists, specialists, administrators and conservation practitioners from federal, university, non-governmental and public garden institutions worldwide. The 81 submissions included in this Proceedings are from oral and poster presentations at the 2016 workshop held in Chicago, Illinois. They update the science and policy of genetic conservation of trees, showcase current successes, and provide guidance for future efforts.”

Soils and Hydrology

Site-specific critical acid load estimates for forest soils in the Osborn Creek watershed, MichiganT. Hobbs, J. Lynch, and R. Kolka. 2017. 49 p. US For. Serv., Northern Res. Stn., 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-171. “Anthropogenic acid deposition has the potential to accelerate leaching of soil cations, and in turn, deplete nutrients essential to forest vegetation. The critical load concept, employing a simple mass balance (SMB) approach, is often used to model this process. In an evaluation under the U.S. Forest Service Watershed Condition Framework program, soils in all 6th level watersheds on the Huron-Manistee National Forests (HMNF) in Michigan were assigned the lowest score of "3—Impaired Function" due to exceedance of the critical load of acidity as determined by national-scale estimates. The impetus for this research was to test the relevance of national-scale critical acid load estimates at the 6th level watershed scale by using site-specific field data in the SMB model where possible.”

A Stand-Level Drought Risk Assessment Tool for Considering Climate Change in Forest ManagementV. Foord, C. Delong, and B. Rogers. 2017. 5 p. Crown Publications, Queen’s Printer, 563 Superior Street, Victoria, BC. B.C. Exten. Note 119. “Increased drought, caused by recent regional warming, is believed to be one of the leading causes of tree mortality in forest ecosystems of western North America and worldwide. Changes in tree species distributions as a response to climate change have been examined at a broad level in British Columbia, but the varied response of individual tree species at the stand level to differing site properties, such as soil moisture regime, is needed to inform stand-level management. From 2009 to 2013, a Drought Risk Analysis and Decision Support Tool was developed by B.C. Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations researchers. This Extension Note highlights the Stand-Level Drought Risk Assessment Tool methods, field validation, some of the current applications, and how the tool could be used in the future.”

Utilization and Engineering

Improved understanding of moisture effects on outdoor wood–adhesive bondlinesJ.E. Jakes et al. 2017. 9 p. US For. Serv., Forest Products Lab., One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53726. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL–GTR–246. The development of improved moisture-durable wood adhesives for outdoor applications, such as repairing historic covered bridges, is hindered by an incomplete mechanistic understanding of what makes a wood–adhesive bond moisture-durable. …we recently developed tools to study bondlines at these [cellular and subcellular] size scales. …This report gives an overview of these recently developed techniques. The insights these tools provide toward understanding moisture durability in wood adhesive bondlines are also discussed in this report.”

U.S. forest products annual market review and prospects, 2013–2017J.L. Howard, D.B. McKeever, and S. Liang. 2017. 11 p. US For. Serv., Forest Products Lab., OneGifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53726. Res. Note, FPL–RN–0348. “This report describes the current state and near-term prospective of the U.S. economy supported by general and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, consumption and prices. Market developments are described for sawn softwood, sawn hardwood, softwood log trade, wood-based panels, paper and paperboard, fuelwood, forest product prices, and housing starts. Policy initiatives that can affect domestic markets and international trade in wood products are also discussed in some detail. Data are provided through the end of the year 2015 with estimates for 2016 and forecasts for 2017.”