Skip to main content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

FVS Validation

FVS Validation Subcommittee

In the spring of 2008, the FVS Steering Team created the Validation sub-committee to establish protocols for variant testing and validation, develop partnerships to perform validation, and suggest/facilitate possible funding sources. The validation subcommittee will post ongoing projects and staff reports as they become available.


Ongoing Projects

Staff Reports


This bibliography contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing model validation and past FVS validation efforts. The list is not an exhaustive list and will be updated as manuscripts become available. If you have a validation manuscript you wish to include in this list, submit the citation to us at

Canavan, S.J. 2000. Accuracy and Precision of 10 Year Predictions for Forest Vegetation Simulator - Lake States. North J Appl For 17(2):62-70.

Dodge, Y. 2003. The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms. The International Statistical Institute, Oxford University Press.

Fairweather, Stephen E.; Carl W. Ramm. 1996. A Guide to the Basic Evaluation of Forest Growth Models. Unpublished Report. Mason, Bruce & Girard, Inc. Portland, OR.

Froese, R., and A. Robinson. 2007. A validation and evaluation of the Prognosis individual-tree basal area increment model. Canadian Journal Of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 37(8):1438-1449.

Hummel, S., M. Kennedy, and E. A. Steel. 2013. Assessing forest vegetation and fire simulation model performance after the Cold Springs wildfire, Washington USA. Forest Ecology and Management 287 (2013) 40-52.

Kowalski, D., and G. Gertner. 1989. A validation of TWIGS for Illinois forests. North J Appl For 6(4):154-156.

Lacerte, V., G. Larocque, M. Woods, W. Parton, and M. Penner. 2004. Testing the Lake States variant of FVS (Forest Vegetation Simulator) for the main forest types of northern Ontario. Forestry Chronicle 80(4):495-506.

Lacerte, V., G. Larocque, M. Woods, W. Parton, and M. Penner. 2006. Calibration of the forest vegetation simulator (FVS) model for the main forest species of Ontario, Canada. Ecological Modelling 199(3):336-349.

Leary, R. 1997. Testing models of unthinned red pine plantation dynamics using a modified Bakuzis matrix of stand properties. Ecological Modelling 98(1):35-46.

Leites, L.P., A.P. Robinson, and N.L. Crookston. 2009. Accuracy and equivalence testing of crown ratio models and assessment of their impact on diameter growth and basal area increment predictions of two variants of the Forest Vegetation Simulator. Canadian Journal Of Forest Research 39:655-665.

Martis, M.S. 2006. Validation of Simulation Based Models: A Theoretical Outlook. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 4(1):39-46.

MAYER, D., and D. BUTLER. 1993. Statistical Validation. Ecological Modelling 68(1-2):21-32.

McClellan, M.H., and F.E. Biles. 2003. Performance of the SEAPROG prognosis variant of the forest vegetation simulator. P. 15. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station., Portland, OR.

Mitro, M. 2001. Ecological model testing: verification, validation, or neither? Bulletin Of The Ecological Society Of America 82:235-236.

Monleon, V., D. Azuma, and D. Gedney. 2004. Equations for predicting uncompacted crown ratio based on compacted crown ratio and tree attributes. West J Appl For 19(4):260-267.

Pokharel, B., and R. Froese. 2008. Evaluating alternative implementations of the Lake States FVS diameter increment model. Forest Ecology And Management 255(5-6):1759-1771.

Rauscher, H.R., M.J. Young, C.D. Webb, and D.J. Robison. 2000. Testing the Accuracy of Growth and Yield Models for Southern hardwood Forests. South J Appl For 24(3):176-185.

Robinson, A., R. Duursma, and J. Marshall. 2005. A regression-based equivalence test for model validation: shifting the burden of proof. Tree Physiology 25(7):903-913.

Robinson, A., and R. Froese. 2004. Model validation using equivalence tests. Ecological Modelling 176(3-4):349-358.

Rykiel, E. 1996. Testing ecological models: The meaning of validation. Ecological Modelling 90(3):229-244.

Saltelli, A., M. Ratto, T. Andres, F. Campolongo, J. Cariboni, D. Gatelli, M. Saisana, and S. and Tarantola. 2008. Global Sensitivity Analysis. The Primer. John Wiley & Sons.

Schlesinger, S. 1980. Terminology for Model Credibility. Simulation 34:101-105.

Walther, B., and J. Moore. 2005. The concepts of bias, precision and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance. Ecography 28(6):815-829.

Yaussy, D. 2000. Comparison of an empirical forest growth and yield simulator and a forest gap simulator using actual 30-year growth from two even-aged forests in Kentucky. Forest Ecology And Management 126(3):385-398.