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National Management Frameworks

National Management Frameworks

The intent of the national management frameworks is to coordinate US Forest Service (USFS), Animal Plant health Inspection Service (APHIS), National Association of State Foresters (NASF), National Plant Board (NPB), and their missions, expertise and available resources to effectively respond to these invasive species threats.

Sudden Oak Death Photo by Joseph O'Brien, USDA Forest ServiceSudden Oak Death (SOD)

Sudden Oak Death (SOD) caused by the invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, threatens oak woodlands, urban forests, and horticultural industries.  Currently, the disease is established and regulated in forests and wildlands in California and Oregon.  Given eastern oak species, and their associated understory forest plants have shown susceptibility to this disease, there is a potential risk to oak forests beyond the regulated areas.  Sudden Oak Death is expected to have significant negative impacts beyond the known infestation should it become established, since the loss of oak would adversely affect ecosystem functions such as water quality, biodiversity, and forest structure. 

The National Framework for Managing Sudden Oak Death caused by Phytophthora ramorum in Forests and Wildlands has been developed to link various levels of government, non-governmental groups, and private stakeholders to address the potential impact of Sudden Oak Death in forested landscapes.  This framework has been assembled by a multi-disciplinary team of specialists, land managers, and researchers to provide an updated resource outlining detection, containment, and mitigation of P. ramorum should it be detected outside the current quarantine area.  This report provides current information for P. ramorum in forest settings and centers on the following elements: prevention, detection, response, management, restoration, outreach, and research.

National Framework for Managing Sudden Oak Death caused by Phytophthora ramorum in Forests and Wildlands (1.5 MB PDF)

Emerald Ash Borer Photo by Debbie Miller, USDA Forest ServiceEmerald Ash Borer (EAB)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle native to Asia, was first found in North America in 2002 in southeastern Michigan.  Surveys in 2003 detected EAB in 12 counties in Michigan and three counties in northern Ohio.  Although first found in 2002, EAB was likely introduced into the area in the early 1990’s.  By 2010, EAB was found in 15 states from Minnesota across the upper Midwest to New York and south to Missouri, Tennessee and Virginia, as well as across southern Ontario and Quebec in Canada.  Across the area, EAB has killed tens of millions of ash trees and poses a serious threat to the ash resource of North America.  The broad distribution of EAB is largely due to the inadvertent movement of infested ash commodities, especially before its original detection.

The USDA Forest Service and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service convened a group of subject matter experts from state and federal agencies to develop this framework. The document identifies and aligns key roles and responsibilities of the signatories: USDA's Forest Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Association of State Foresters, and the National Plant Board.  It is designed to link these agencies and serve as a reference for dealing with the ecologic and economic impacts of EAB. The Framework identifies four strategic goals of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery for areas with established EAB infestations and areas where EAB has not been detected.

National Framework for Emerald Ash Borer (994 KB PDF)

Thousand Cankers Disease photo by Ned Tisserat, Colorado State UniversityThousand Cankers Disease (TCD)

Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) has been identified as a potential threat to the nation’s walnut resource.  TCD results from the combined activity of the Walnut Twig Beetle (Pityophthoris juglandis Blackman), tunneling through the bark and delivering a canker causing fungus (Geosmithia morbida sp. nov).  Each feeding attempt by the twig beetles creates a new canker.  TCD is now known to occur in WA, OR, ID, NV, CA, UT, AZ, CO, and NM in the western US, and TN, VA, and PA in the east.  Loss of black walnut will negatively impact nut producers, walnut exports, recreation, nursery stock production, and wildlife habitat.

This document contains information to guide state foresters, agriculture officials, and legislative staff on Thousand Cankers Disease of walnut.  It is intended to serve as a reference for land managers and government agencies currently dealing with this complex and states (as yet) not affected by TCD.  It lays the foundation for prioritizing on-the-ground work, research, and resource needs. The implementation of specific activities outlined in the framework is flexible and based on the best available information at this time.  This report outlines the US Department of Agriculture’s and its key partner’s comprehensive framework to respond to TCD centering on five key elements: prevention, detection/monitoring, management, outreach/education, and research.

National Response Framework for Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) on Walnut (1.5 MB PDF)

Related Topics:

Early Detection and Rapid Response for Non-Native Bark and Ambrosia Beetles:
The introduction and establishment of non-native invasive species is considered one of the greatest threats to the integrity and vitality of the nation´s forests.