USDA Forest Service Economic Impact Analysis



The average annual number of full and part time, temporary and seasonal jobs.

Labor income:

The value of wages, salaries, and benefits for salaried and hourly workers (employee compensation) plus income to sole proprietors (proprietor’s income).

Direct Effects:

Those effects that are a direct result of an activity. For example, the direct effect of recreation spending is local sales of things like groceries, lodging and fuel.

Secondary Effects:

Secondary effects are those indirect and induced effects (sometimes-called ripple effects) that occur because of the direct effect. Secondary effects include two types: 1) Indirect effects are determined by the amount of the direct effect spent within the study region on supplies, services, labor and taxes; and, 2) Induced effects measure the disposable income spending in the study area by employees of the directly and indirectly effected firms. Importantly, each of these effects leaves out any leakage from the economic study region of money spent on imported goods and services or purchases outside of the defined area.

Contributions by Industry:

The industries in the reports are characterized as the 2-digit aggregation as defined in the North American Industrial Classification System, NAICS. Benefits or ecosystem services. Forests provide a full suite of goods and services that are vital to human health and livelihood, natural assets we call ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are also referred to as public benefits. Examples include jobs, recreation opportunities, timber, clean air and water, forage, and energy production.

Non-metro classified areas:

Counties do not contain metropolitan areas or cities with 50,000 residents or more.

Land use types:

Forest is the sum of timberland, reserved, and other forest as a percent of total acres. Forest land has at least 10 percent cover (or equivalent stocking) by live trees of any size, including land that formerly had such tree cover and that will be naturally or artificially regenerated. To qualify, the area must be at least 1.0 acre in size and 120.0 feet wide. Forest land includes transition zones, such as areas between forest and non-forest lands that have at least 10 percent cover (or equivalent stocking) with live trees and forest areas adjacent to urban and built-up lands. Roadside, streamside, and shelterbelt strips of trees must have a width of at least 120 feet and continuous length of at least 363 feet to qualify as forest land.

Rangeland is the range percent of total Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) acres. FIA defines rangeland as ‘‘Land primarily composed of grasses, forbs, or shrubs. This includes lands vegetated naturally or artificially to provide a plant cover managed like native vegetation and does not meet the definition of pasture. The area must be at least 1.0 acre in size and 120.0 feet wide.’’ Rangeland acres are based on FIA definition applied to data from Landfire vegetation grid (includes water, barren, but does not include inholdings). First removed >10% tree cover capable from Landfire veg grid, then applied FIA rangeland definition to remaining cover layer from Landfire.

Water is the sum of Census and non-Census water as percent of total acres.

Sense of place:

Sense of place is often tied to the physical and aesthetic characteristics of areas. Attachment to the land is influenced by viewsheds, subsistence uses, and recreation opportunities. These activities and areas provide connections to the past and a sense of identity for people.


Locatable minerals, which are in general, the hard rock minerals mined and processed for metals (for example: gold, silver, copper, uranium and some types of non-metallic minerals). They are called ‘locatable’, meaning subject to mining claim location under the United States mining laws. Locatable minerals are limited to lands with “reserved public domain” status.

Salable/Mineral Materials/Common Variety Minerals, are synonymous terms for the same class of minerals that can be sold under a mineral material contract, and are common. These minerals are relatively low value per volume, for example: sand, gravel, cinders, common building stone, and flagstone. Many of the materials are used for road surfacing, boulders, and engineering construction or may be specialty resources such as soil amendments or decorative stone, including flagstone. These minerals are typically sold unless used internally, by another government agency, or for ceremonial uses. In these cases they may be provided free of charge.

Leasable minerals include coal, oil, gas, oil shale, sodium, phosphate, potassium, geothermal and, in New Mexico, sulfur. Leasable minerals also include the hard rock minerals, if they are found on lands that have “acquired” status.

USDA Forest Service
Ecosystem Management Coordination (EMC)
1400 Independence Ave.
Mailstop: 1104
Washington, DC 20250-1104

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Last modified: Thursday, 20-Sep-2018 10:29:17 CDT