|FEIS Home Page|
1974—Wildfires in February and April:
Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E.; McKnight, J. Robert. 1976. A study of the effects of grassland fires at the research ranch in southeastern Arizona. Arizona Academy of Science. 11(3): 49-57 .
1975-1976—Wildfires in mid-May and mid-June,
and February 1976 :
Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300 .
1984—Prescribed fires conducted in July:
Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1987. Fire effects following prescribed burning in two desert ecosystems. Final Report: Cooperative Agreement No. 28-03-278. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. .
Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1992. Short-term reduction in plant densities following prescribed fire in an ungrazed semidesert shrub-grassland. The Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1): 49-53 .
1987—Wildfire in July:
Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1991. Response of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to wildfire in a southeastern Arizona grassland. The American Midland Naturalist. 125: 162-167 .
Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1992. Response of birds to wildfire in native versus exotic Arizona grassland. The Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1): 73-81 .
Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1997. Shrub densities in relation to fire, livestock grazing, and precipitation in an Arizona desert grassland. The Southwestern Naturalist. 42(2): 188-193 .
Bock, J. H.; Bock, C. E. 1992. Vegetation responses to wildfire in native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science. 3: 439-446 .SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE SUMMARY:
Based on the description provided by Bock and Bock [2,3,7,8], vegetation on the study sites could be classified in the plant communities and probably historically experienced the fire regimes described in Table 5.
|Table 5. Fire regime information on the vegetation communities studied in the research reported in this Summary. For each community, fire regime characteristics are taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models . These vegetation models were developed by local experts using available literature, local data, and expert opinion as documented in the pdf file linked from the name of each Potential Natural Vegetation Group listed below. Cells are blank where information is not available in the Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model.|
|Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group)||Fire severity*||Fire regime characteristics|
|Percent of fires||Mean interval
|Desert grassland with shrubs and trees||Replacement||85%||12|
|Madrean oak-conifer woodland||Replacement||16%||65||25|
|Surface or low||76%||14||1||20|
Replacement=Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants.
Mixed=Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects.
Surface or low=Any fire that causes less than 25% upper layer replacement and/or removal in a vegetation-fuel class but burns 5% or more of the area [10,11].
Fire behavior: Fire behavior is not described for the 1974, 1975, or 1976 wildfires.
The 1984 prescribed fires occurred when weather was hot and dry (Table 6) .
|Table 6. Burning conditions for 2 prescribed fires conducted in southeastern Arizona in summer 1984 .|
|Plant community||Burn date & time||Air temperature (°C)||Relative humidity (%)||Wind speed||Dead fine fuel moisture (%)||Spread rate (m/min)||Flame length (m)||Fireline intensity (kW/m)|
|Oak woodland||25 May 1984, 1000-1200||32-33||16-18||gusting from 5-10 mph||5-6||0.5-1.5*||0.2-0.5*||8-58*|
|Semidesert grassland||12 June 1984, 1000-1130||29-31||13-16||gusting from 5-22 mph||5-6||1-4||0.8-1.4||160-540|
|*These data describe 4 of 5 burn plots in woodland. In the 5th burn plot, fire spread was much more rapid (30 m/min), and heat release was estimated at 260 kW/m; fires were of shorter duration and ignition of plant materials was less complete than in other plots on this site.|
The 1987 wildfire occurred during hot, dry, very windy weather. Maximum temperature on the 2 days of the fire was 29 °C, and minimum relative humidity was 21%. Winds averaged about 15 mph, gusting to 30 mph. Most aboveground vegetation was consumed, with the exception of the basal stems of some shrubs and the trunks and large branches of honey mesquite [2,3,6].FIRE EFFECTS ON PLANT AND ANIMAL COMMUNITIES:
1974 February and April wildfires: The February wildfire occurred in savanna, and the April fire occurred in grassland. In the first year after the fires, grass cover in both savanna and grassland habitat was significantly less on burned than unburned plots, and forb cover was significantly greater (P<0.01). A calculation of similarity between burned and unburned plots indicated that, in postfire year 1, burned plots were approximately 80% similar to control plots; by postfire year 2, the similarity had increased to approximately 90% .
Some species of small mammals decreased during the time of postfire observations (6-19 months after the February fire, 3-16 months after the April fire); no small mammal populations increased significantly in burned areas during the study. Western white-throated woodrats were significantly (P<0.005) less abundant on burned than control plots (burned in the April fire), likely because their ground nests were destroyed by fire. Hispid cotton rats were significantly (P<0.005) reduced on February-burned plots, probably because of reduced grass cover. Pocket mice were usually found in "relatively open areas", but they were sparse on the February burn (P<0.005), which may have been too open to be suitable habitat. Other mammals observed on both burned and unburned plots, with no significant differences, included spotted ground squirrels, western harvest mice, North American deermice and white-footed mice (combined in this report), northern pygmy mice, and southern grasshopper mice .
Birds were more abundant in burned than unburned habitat during the first 16 to 19 months after these wildfires. In the savanna (February burn), this was due mainly to increases in mourning doves and chipping sparrows. These 2 species were also abundant after fire in the grassland (April burn), as were some flycatchers and seed-eating species. Only the grasshopper sparrow, which relied upon shrubs for singing perches, was significantly reduced on both burned areas  (Table 7).
|Table 7. Comparisons of bird species abundance on burned and unburned areas in southeastern Arizona, averaged from more than 40 censuses taken in each habitat in the first 2 years after wildfire. "More" in a column indicates that the species was significantly more abundant on burned than unburned areas in that vegetation type. "Less" indicates the species was significantly less abundant. "No difference" indicates no significant difference (P<0.05) .|
|Savanna (burned Feb. 1974)||Grassland (burned April 1974)|
|American kestrel||no difference||no difference|
|ash-throated flycatcher||no difference||no difference|
|barn swallow||no difference||more|
|Bewick's wren||no difference||no difference|
|Cassin's kingbird||no difference||more|
|chestnut-collared longspur||more||no difference|
|eastern meadowlark||no difference||less|
|flicker||no difference||no difference|
|house finch||no difference||no difference|
|lark sparrow||no difference||no difference|
|Montezuma quail||no difference||no difference|
|rufous-crowned sparrow||no difference||less|
|savannah sparrow||no difference||more|
|Say's phoebe||no difference||more|
|scaled quail||no difference||no difference|
|vesper sparrow||no difference||more|
1975 mid-May and mid-June wildfires, 1976 February wildfires: In the first 2 years after these summer wildfires in big sacaton grassland, forbs were significantly more common on burned plots than on unburned plots. Big sacaton cover was significantly reduced in the 1st postfire growing season but recovered to prefire levels in the 2nd season. Other grasses, especially vine-mesquite, were significantly more abundant 1 year after the winter burn than in any other plots. Cover of dead vegetation and bare ground was significantly greater 1 year after the summer fires than after the winter fires or on control plots . (P≤0.005 for all of these significant results.)
The summer-burned plots had significantly (P<0.05) more total birds than the control plots. Eleven species were found only in burned plots, whereas 4 species were found only in control plots (Table 8). The first year after fire, summer-burned plots supported significantly (P<0.05) more raptors than other habitats, probably because visibility of prey had increased. Several species of seed-eating songbirds, doves, and quail had more birds in summer-burned plots (both postfire years) than in control plots, probably because the abundance of seeds and annual forbs was greater in summer-burned than other plots .
Fires reduced small mammal populations on big sacaton grasslands, more on summer-burned than winter-burned plots. Hispid cotton rats, which feed mainly on green vegetation, declined after fire, whereas hispid pocket mice and kangaroo rats, which are seed-eating species, increased. Numbers of North American deermice, white-footed mice, and western harvest mice were unaffected by the fires  (Table 9).
|Table 9. Abundance of rodents after early summer wildfires in Arizona grassland. All differences noted below are statistically significant (P<0.05) .|
|North American deermouse and white-footed mouse (not distinguished in sampling)||No significant differences between burned and unburned plots|
|Hispid cotton rat||Less abundant in summer- and winter-burned plots|
|Merriam's kangaroo rat and hispid pocket mouse (not distinguished in analysis)||More abundant in summer-burned plots|
|Southern grasshopper mouse||Generally more abundant in burned plots, but differences not significant|
|Western harvest mouse||Abundance very low, no significant differences|
|Western white-throated woodrat||Less abundant in summer- and winter-burned plots|
1984, 25 May and 12 June prescribed fires: These prescribed fires were conducted in semidesert grassland with some shrub cover, and in woodland with Emory oak and Arizona oak in the overstory and a grass-dominated understory with some shrubs. Bare ground was more prevalent in the 1st year after fire on both sites (Table 10). The difference was smaller, but still significant, in the 2nd postfire year .
|Table 10. Average cover of bare ground in 2 ecosystems in southeastern Arizona before and after summer prescribed fires . Where averages from burned plots are followed by *, they are significantly (P<0.05) different from averages in control plots within the same vegetation type in the same year [7,8].|
|Year||% bare ground in grassland type||% bare ground in woodland type|
|#Pre=August 1983, growing season prior to burning. Post1=August 1984, 1 year after fire. Post2=August 1985, two years after fire.|
The 1984 prescribed burns reduced total aboveground herbaceous biomass on both grassland and woodland sites. On the grassland site, biomass on burned plots was reduced by more than 60% in postfire year 1 and recovered to about 50% of the original herbage in postfire year 2. Not all of this change was attributable to fire, since biomass on control plots declined about 30% in postfire year 1 and was only 90% of the prefire level in postfire year 2. On the woodland site, biomass on burned plots declined by about 50% in postfire year 1 but exceeded that on controls in postfire year 2 [7,8] (Table 11).
|Table 11. Average aboveground herbaceous biomass before and after summer prescribed fires in southeastern Arizona. Where averages from burned plots are followed by *, they are significantly (P<0.05) different from averages in control plots within the same vegetation type in the same year [7,8].|
|Year||Biomass (g/0.25m2) in grassland type||Biomass (g/0.25m2) in woodland type|
|#Pre=August 1983, growing season prior to burning. Post1=August 1984, 1 year after fire. Post2=August 1985, two years after fire.|
Fire effects on grasses were mostly limited to the first year after fire. In both grassland and woodland, grass density was significantly reduced relative to density on unburned control plots in the 1st postfire year. In the 2nd postfire year, grass density on burned plots was significantly greater than in the previous year and similar to that on control plots (Table 1 and Table 3). By the 2nd postfire year, the only grasses with significantly lower density on burned than control plots were threeawn species on the grassland site; the only grasses with significantly higher density on burned plots were sprucetop grama on the grassland site and curly-mesquite on the woodland site [7,8].
Fire effects on forbs, like those on grasses, were mostly limited to the 1st postfire year. On the grassland site, forb density on burned plots was significantly reduced relative to that on control plots in postfire year 1 and similar to that on control plots in postfire year 2. On woodland plots the effect was opposite in the first year: Forb density on burned plots was significantly greater than that on control plots in postfire year 1 and similar to that on control plots in postfire year 2 (Table 1 and Table 3). By the 2nd postfire year, the only forb with significantly higher density on burned plots was toothleaf goldeneye on the woodland site; no forbs had significantly lower density on burned than control plots [7,8].
Fire effects on woody species were short lived. On grassland sites, density of catclaw mimosa and velvetpod mimosa was significantly less on burned than control plots in postfire year 1. Density increased in postfire year 2, though not to the level on control plots. Density of yerba de pasmo showed little response to fire (Table 2). On woodland sites, density of shrubs and trees showed no significant responses to fire (Table 4). On both grassland and woodland sites, heights of all 3 shrub species were significantly less on burned than control plots in postfire year 1; shrubs were taller in postfire year 2, although only yerba de pasmo recovered to prefire height .
1987 16-17 July wildfire: This summer wildfire caused extensive but largely ephemeral alterations in grassland vegetation on stands dominated by native grasses and on stands dominated by weeping lovegrass, a nonnative species. Litter on burned sites, both native and exotic, was significantly (P<0.001) less than on unburned sites from postfire season 1 through postfire season 4, the last year reported . Wildfire significantly (P<0.0001) reduced grass cover for the 1st postfire year on both native- and nonnative-dominated sites. By the 3rd postfire year, burned and unburned plots had similar grass cover . Fire did not alter the proportion of nonnative grass cover on the nonnative-dominated site, which averaged about 90% . Forb cover increased significantly (P≤0.002) on burned plots in the 1st postfire year, after which it was similar on burned and unburned plots. Table 12 describes the responses of individual herb species to fire .
|Table 12. Responses of herbaceous plants to summer fire in semidesert grassland in southeastern Arizona. "X" in the "Native" or "Nonnative" column indicates the grassland type(s) to which the response applies. Blank cells indicate the authors did not describe results for that particular species in that type .|
|Species||Response to fire||Native
|grama species||Reduced* 1 month after fire, then increased to near levels in unburned plots||X|
|Hall's panicgrass||Increased* 1 month after fire, then decreased to near levels in unburned plots||X|
|plains lovegrass||Reduced* 1 month after fire, then increased and exceeded levels on prefire plots||X|
|threeawn species||Reduced* by fire; effect lasted through the 3 years of the study||X|
|weeping lovegrass||Reduced* 1 month after fire, then increased & exceeded levels in unburned plots||X|
|camphorweed||Reduced* by fire; effect lasted through the 3 years of the study||X||X|
|leatherweed||No significant response to fire||X||X|
|ragged nettlespurge||Increased* 1 month to 1 year after fire, then decreased||X||X|
|redstar||Increased* 1 month to 1 year after fire, then decreased||X||X|
|Rocky mountain zinnia||No significant response to fire||X||X|
|spreading fanpetals||Increased* 1 month to 1 year after fire, then decreased||X||X|
|wild dwarf morningglory||No significant response to fire||X||X|
|wingpod purslane||Increased* 1 month to 1 year after fire, then decreased||X|
|*Statistically significant (P<0.01) as indicated by treatment, year, or interaction term in an analysis of variance.|
Shrub cover was reduced significantly (P<0.001) on burned sites dominated by native grasses in the 1st postfire growing season . Burroweed density declined from approximately 60 stems/200 m² to near zero in postfire year 1; it had recovered to some extent by postfire year 8, but not to prefire levels. to prefire density within 1 year .
Honey mesquite trees were top-killed by fire in both native and nonnative grassland. By postfire year 3, 94% had sprouted from the trunk and/or root crown .
Avian responses to this summer wildfire  reflected alterations in cover and resources. Many birds that winter in the grasslands of southeastern Arizona depend upon seed crops. Burning probably increased seed production by both native and nonnative grasses, as occurred after the 1974 wildfires described above . Fire-caused reductions of litter and grass cover made the abundant seed easily available on a bare soil surface for 2 postfire years, and bird populations increased "dramatically" in both native and nonnative sites during these years . Correlations suggested that species responding positively to the burn did not require grass and litter cover, whereas species responding negatively to the burn may have required shrub cover (Table 13). Seed crops depend upon adequate precipitation, and bird populations in fall of 1989, the only year of this study with rainfall substantially below average, were lower than in fall of any other year.
|Table 13. Response of birds to fire and presence of nonnative lovegrasses in southeastern Arizona grassland. All differences reported in this table are statistically significant (P<0.01) .|
|Sampling period||Correlation with cover*|
|September through November||May through August|
|Botteri's sparrow||No data||Not present on burned plots in postfire years 1 and 2 but more abundant on burned than unburned exotic plots in years 3-4||grass (+)
|Cassin's sparrow||No significant differences||Not present on burned plots in year 1 but more abundant on burned than unburned exotic plots in years 2-4||shrub (+)|
|Eastern meadowlark||Less abundant on burned than unburned sites in postfire year 1, more abundant on burned exotic grassland in year 2||Abundance low on burned plots in year 1, similar on burned & unburned plots in years 2-4||shrub (+)|
|Grasshopper sparrow||No significant differences||Abundance low on burned plots in years 1 and 2, similar on burned & unburned plots in years 3-4||shrub (+)|
|Horned lark||More abundant on burned than unburned sites in year 1 in both native and exotic grassland||More abundant on burned than unburned plots for 1-3 years after fire||grass (-)
|Lark sparrow||No data||Abundance similar on burned & unburned plots, except year 2: more abundant on burned than unburned native plots||herb (+)|
|Mourning dove||More abundant on burned than unburned sites in year 1 in native grassland||More common on burned than unburned plots for 1-3 years after fire||grass (-)
|Savannah sparrow||More abundant on burned than unburned sites in year 1 in both native and exotic grassland||No data||grass (-)|
|Vesper sparrow||More abundant on burned than unburned sites in years 1 and 2 in both native and exotic grassland||No data||grass (-)
|*Cover value with which bird abundance is significantly (P<0.01) correlated (and direction of correlation, positive or negative).|
Grasshopper densities were reduced more than 60% on burned plots (both native and exotic stands), but responses of particular species varied depending on mobility and diet requirements: In the first 2 weeks after fire, charred grasshopper remains were abundant and obvious on burned plots; particularly conspicuous were dead Dactylotum variegatum, a large flightless grasshopper. This species was absent from the burned plots during 1987 and occurred in low numbers in the following 2 years. Most grass feeders were sparse in the 1st postfire year, including the Gompocerinae and Phoetaliotes nebrascensis. Melanoplus gladstoni, a forb feeder, increased in the 1st postfire year and then declined. Trimerotropis pallidipennis and other band-winged species (Oediponidae), which are usually limited to areas with substantial bare ground, outnumbered other subfamilies in the 1st month after fire; density remained relatively high 1 year later (Table 14).
|Table 14. Densities of grasshoppers (number/10 m²) before and after summer wildfire in an Arizona grassland. Prefire data were collected in 1984-1985. Fire occurred in July 1987. Postfire sampling occurred within 1 month after fire and 1 and 2 years later .|
|Taxon||Treatment||Prefire||Density in postfire sampling period||P (difference between years)|
|1 month||1 year||2 years|
|Dactylotum bicolor variegatum||B||2.6||0*||0.5||0.7||<0.001|
|Oediponidae (band-winged grasshoppers)|
|*Density in burned
plots significantly (P<0.01)
different from density in unburned plots for that year.
**NS=not statistically significant.
Fire frequency: After observing that most species recovered to prefire or control levels the 2nd year after spring wildfires, the authors speculate that burning at approximately 5-year intervals may have few negative effects on native flora and fauna .
Nonnative grasses: Fire "offers little hope" as a tool for reducing South African lovegrasses, such as weeping lovegrass, from semidesert grasslands. These species are not reduced by burning. The studies reported here did not indicate that these grasses increased substantially after fire in native-dominated grasslands [3,6]. A 2008 review by Rice and others  reports increases in lovegrass cover and density in semidesert and desert grasslands after fire.
Season of burning: Summer burns are likely to be more severe than winter burns and thus may have more "dramatic" effects on vegetation and wildlife . This variation could be partly due to plant phenological stage. The first year after the 1984 prescribed burns, forbs decreased on in oak woodland and increased in grasslands. The woodland burn occurred 19 days prior to the grassland burn, so the grassland plots may have reached a more vulnerable phenological stage by the later burning date . The research summarized here was conducted in ungrazed grasslands. Bock and Bock  note that grazing after fire could result in reduction of plant cover and severe erosion.
Animals: Animal responses to fire are closely related to habitat change. Early-summer fire in grassland can increase native forbs and thus benefit many bird species, especially raptors, but a mosaic of different-aged stands is needed to support diverse wildlife .
Responses of insects to fire are likely to be specific to the taxa present and their requirements for food and shelter. Insect density and species composition after fire are also likely to be affected by insect populations in the surrounding area that are in a mobile life stage .
Fire behavior measurements: Burning conditions and fire behavior were quantified for the 1984 prescribed fire, meeting the 2nd objective of this body of research (see Fire Description).
|Common name||Scientific name|
|cactus apple||Opuntia engelmannii|
|leatherweed||Croton pottsii var. pottsii
|Rose's ticktrefoil||Desmodium rosei|
|spreading snakeherb||Dyschoriste schiedeana var. decumbens|
|spreading fleabane||Erigeron divergens|
|wild dwarf morning-glory||Evolvulus arizonicus
|dwarf morningglory||Evolvulus spp.|
|ragged nettlespurge||Jatropha macrorhiza|
|tansyleaf tansyaster||Machaeranthera tanacetifolia
|woolly plaintain||Plantago patagonica
|wingpod purslane||Portulaca umbraticola ssp. coronata
|spreading fanpetals||Sida abutifolia
|toothleaf goldeneye||Viguiera dentata|
|Rocky mountain zinnia||Zinnia grandiflora|
|threeawn species||Aristida spp.|
|cane bluestem||Bothriochloa barbinodis|
|sprucetop grama||Bouteloua chondrosioides|
|sideoats grama||Bouteloua curtipendula|
|blue grama||Bouteloua gracilis|
|hairy grama||Bouteloua hirsuta|
|weeping lovegrass||Eragrostis curvula var. conferta|
|plains lovegrass||Eragrostis intermedia|
|Lehmann lovegrass||Eragrostis lehmanniana|
|common wolfstail||Lycurus phleoides|
|Hall's panicgrass||Panicum hallii|
|Texas bluestem||Schizachyrium cirratum
|big sacaton||Sporobolus wrightii|
|Palmer's century plant||Agave palmeri
|yerba de pasmo||Baccharis pteronioides|
|Navajo fleabane||Erigeron concinnus|
|shrubby false mallow||Malvastrum bicuspidatum|
|catclaw mimosa||Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera|
|velvetpod mimosa||Mimosa dysocarpa|
|threadleaf ragwort||Senecio flaccidus var. flaccidus
|soaptree yucca||Yucca elata|
|alligator juniper||Juniperus deppeana|
Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa
|Arizona white oak||Quercus arizonica|
|Emory oak||Quercus emoryi|
|Cooper's hawk||Accipiter cooperii|
|Botteri's sparrow||Aimophila botterii|
|Cassin's sparrow||Aimophila cassinii|
|rufous-crowned sparrow||Aimophila ruficeps|
|grasshopper sparrow||Ammodramus savannarum|
|black-chinned hummingbird||Archilochus alexandri|
|red-tailed hawk||Buteo jamaicensis|
|Swainson's hawk||Buteo swainsoni|
|lark bunting||Calamospiza melanocorys|
|chestnut-collared longspur||Calcarius ornatus|
|scaled quail||Callipepla squamata|
|pine siskin||Carduelis pinus|
|American goldfinch||Carduelis tristis|
|house finch||Carpodacus mexicanus|
|turkey vulture||Cathartes aura|
|lark sparrow||Chondestes grammacus|
|common nighthawk||Chordeiles minor|
|northern harrier||Circus hudsonius|
|Chihuahuan raven||Corvus cryptoleucus|
|Montezuma quail||Cyrtonyx montezumae|
|horned lark||Eremophila alpestris|
|American kestrel||Falco sparverius|
|common yellowthroat||Geothlypis trichas|
|blue grosbeak||Guiraca caerulea|
|barn swallow||Hirundo rustica|
|loggerhead shrike||Lanius ludovicianus|
|ash-throated flycatcher||Myiarchus cinerascens|
|savannah sparrow||Passerculus sandwichensis|
|common poorwill||Phalaenoptilus nuttallii|
|green-tailed towhee||Pipilo chlorurus|
|canyon towhee||Pipilo fuscus|
|vesper sparrow||Pooecetes gramineus|
|black phoebe||Sayornis nigrican|
|Say's phoebe||Sayornis saya|
|Brewer's sparrow||Spizella breweri|
|chipping sparrow||Spizella passerina|
|eastern meadowlark||Sturnella magna|
|Bewick's wren||Thryomanes bewickii|
|western kingbird||Tyrannus verticalis|
|Cassin's kingbird||Tyrannus vociferans|
|white-winged dove||Zenaida asiatica|
|mourning dove||Zenaida macroura|
|white-throated sparrow||Zonotrichia albicollis|
|white-crowned sparrow||Zonotrichia leucophry|
|northern pygmy mouse||Baiomys taylori|
|hispid pocket mouse||Chaetodipus hispidus
|Merriam's kangaroo rat||Dipodomys merriami|
|western white-throated woodrat||Neotoma albigula|
|southern grasshopper mouse||Onychomys torridus|
|pocket mouse||Perognathus spp.|
|white-footed mouse||Peromyscus leucopus|
|North American deermouse||Peromyscus maniculatus|
|western harvest mouse||Reithrodontomys megalotis|
|hispid cotton rat||Sigmodon hispidus|
|spotted ground squirrel||Spermohilus spilosoma|
|Dactylotum bicolor variegatum (Dactylotum veriegatum)|
|*For species that have undergone scientific name changes, names in parentheses are those used in the research papers.|
1. Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300. 
2. Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1991. Response of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to wildfire in a southeastern Arizona grassland. The American Midland Naturalist. 125: 162-167. 
3. Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1992. Response of birds to wildfire in native versus exotic Arizona grassland. The Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1): 73-81. 
4. Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1997. Shrub densities in relation to fire, livestock grazing, and precipitation in an Arizona desert grassland. The Southwestern Naturalist. 42(2): 188-193. 
5. Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H.; Jepson, Karen L.; Ortega, Joseph C. 1986. Ecological effects of planting African lovegrasses in Arizona. National Geographic Research. 2(4): 456-463. 
6. Bock, J. H.; Bock, C. E. 1992. Vegetation responses to wildfire in native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science. 3: 439-446. 
7. Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1987. Fire effects following prescribed burning in two desert ecosystems. Final Report: Cooperative Agreement No. 28-03-278. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. 
8. Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1992. Short-term reduction in plant densities following prescribed fire in an ungrazed semidesert shrub-grassland. The Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1): 49-53. 
9. Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E.; McKnight, J. Robert. 1976. A study of the effects of grassland fires at the research ranch in southeastern Arizona. Arizona Academy of Science. 11(3): 49-57. 
10. Hann, Wendel; Havlina, Doug; Shlisky, Ayn; [and others]. 2005. Interagency fire regime condition class guidebook. Version 1.2, [Online]. In: Interagency fire regime condition class website. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior; The Nature Conservancy; Systems for Environmental Management (Producer). Variously paginated [+ appendices]. Available: http://www.frcc.gov/docs/184.108.40.206/Complete_Guidebook_V1.2.pdf [2007, May 23]. 
11. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2005. Reference condition modeling manual (Version 2.1), [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. Cooperative Agreement 04-CA-11132543-189. Boulder, CO: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior (Producers). 72 p. Available: http://www.landfire.gov/downloadfile.php?file=RA_Modeling_Manual_v2_1.pdf [2007, May 24]. 
12. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2007. Rapid assessment reference condition models, [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab; U.S. Geological Survey; The Nature Conservancy (Producers). Available: http://www.landfire.gov/models_EW.php [2008, April 18] 
13. Rice, Peter M.; McPherson, Guy R.; Rew, Lisa J. 2008. Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Interior West bioregion. In: Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 141-173.