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SPECIES:  Salix gooddingii
Goodding's willow. Image by Patrick J. Alexander, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.

Introductory

SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Reed, William R. 1993. Salix gooddingii In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/salgoo/all.html []. Revisions: Images were added on 21 June 2018. ABBREVIATION: SALGOO SYNONYMS: Salix gooddingii var. gooddingii Salix gooddingii var. variabilis Ball [16,19,30] Salix nigra Marsh. var. vallicola Dudley NRCS PLANT CODE: SAGO COMMON NAMES: Goodding's willow black willow Dudley willow valley willow western black willow TAXONOMY: The scientific name of Goodding's willow is Salix gooddingii Ball. (Salicaceae) [16,19,30]. Some authorities consider S. gooddingii a western variety of S. nigra. Dorn, however, considered them distinct species, citing differences in chemistry [30,34]. LIFE FORM: Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Goodding's willow is distributed from northern California to western Colorado and south to southern California and Texas. It is also found in river valleys of northern Mexico [16,18,19,29,31].
Distribution of Goodding's willow. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, June 21] [29].
ECOSYSTEMS: 
   FRES28  Western hardwoods
   FRES30  Desert shrub
   FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe
   FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub
   FRES35  Pinyon - juniper


STATES: 
     AZ  CA  CO NV  NM  TX  UT  MEXICO


ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS: 
     BIBE  CACA  CHCU  CHIR  DEVA  FOBO
     GRCA  GUMO  JOTR  LAME  MOCA  ORPI
     SAGU  WHSA  ZION


BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS: 
    3  Southern Pacific Border
    6  Upper Basin and Range
    7  Lower Basin and Range
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont


KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS: 
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K030  California oakwoods
   K035  Coastal sagebrush
   K041  Creosotebush
   K042  Creosotebush - bursage
   K044  Creosotebush - tarbush
   K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe
   K059  Trans-Pecos shrub savanna


SAF COVER TYPES: 
   235  Cottonwood - willow
   239  Pinyon - juniper
   240  Arizona cypress
   246  California black oak
   249  Canyon live oak
   250  Blue oak - Digger pine
   255  California coast live oak


SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES: 
NO-ENTRY


HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: 
Goodding's willow is dominant in many riparian communities of the West,
where it frequently codominates with Fremont cottonwood (Populus
fremontii) [24,27,28].  It is listed as a dominant plant species in the
following published classifications:

Classification of riparian habitat in the Southwest [21]
Southwestern riparian plant communities:  site characteristics,
   tree species distributions, and size-class structures [28]
Terrestrial natural communities of California [11]

Common plant associates of Goodding's willow are Arizona sycamore
(Platanus wrightii), mesquite (Prosopis spp.), desertwillow (Chilopsis
linearis), and southwestern condalia (Condalia lyciodes) [7,9].


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE: NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Willows (Salix spp.) provide excellent browse and cover for wildlife and domestic animals. They are a preferred food of beaver and are often used as building material for beaver dens. Mature willows provide valuable shade in rangelands of southern Arizona [1,16]. PALATABILITY: NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE: NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Goodding's willow is used for streambank stabilization and erosion control. It has both abundant small surface roots and deeper main root branches. Zimmerman [33] has noted root depths of up to 7 feet (2.1 m) in Arizona. Goodding's willow also provides shade for fish and other wildlife [5,15]. It tolerates flooding and long, hot growing seasons, making it ideal for rehabilitating riparian zones of the Southwest. Cutting or topping trees in order to encourage sprouting is commonly practiced in Arizona and New Mexico in order to reestablish Goodding willow stands [13,22]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: Willow shoots and bark were used by early Americans to make baskets and fish traps, and for fence posts, shelters, and firewood [15,20]. All willows produce salacin, a chemical related to aspirin. A decoction of Goodding's willow leaves is used in Mexico for treating fevers [30]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Willows are usually planted using stem cuttings. Establishment of Goodding's willow in riparian zones can be aided by deep tillage of the soil, preferably to the water table, before transplanting. This is especially effective where soils are compacted or salinized [2]. If Goodding's willow seeds are sown, they must be collected and dispersed as soon as fruits ripen. Seeds remain viable for only a few days. Commercial seed is not available. Seeds may be stored for up to 1 month if moistened and refrigerated in a sealed container [5].


BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Goodding's willow is a fast-growing, deciduous, dioecious, native shrub or tree. It attains a height of 20 to 60 feet (6-18 m) and has an average d.b.h. of 30 inches (76.2 cm). Leaves are 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) long; female catkins are 1.5 to 3.2 inches (4-8 cm) long. Fruits are capsular. The bark of Goodding's willow is thick, rough, and deeply furrowed [5,18,19,31]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Sexual reproduction: Goodding's willow begins producing seed at 2 to 10 years of age. Optimum seed-bearing age of willows is 25 to 75 years, and large seed crops are produced annually. The minute, hairy seed is dispersed by wind and water and does not exhibit dormancy. Seed remains viable for only a few days. Germination is epigeal and usually occurs within 12 to 24 hours. Seedling establishment is best on moist, bare soils. Both fire and flood create favorable seedbed conditions [5,6,20]. Vegetative reproduction: Goodding's willow sprouts from the root crown [6,22]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Goodding's willow occurs in riparian zones. Sites are typically seasonally inundated by water and have shallow water tables and fine-grained alluvial soils. Goodding's willow grows well in the pH range of 6 to 7 and tolerates alkaline desert soils [13,20,25]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Obligate Initial Community Species Goodding's willow is an initial to early seral species. It has very low shade tolerance but high flood tolerance [14,20]. It does not sprout beneath its own canopy. Gooding willow seedlings compete poorly with grasses [27]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Catkins of Goodding's willow appear in early March. Seeds ripen and are dispersed in early spring [5,18,27].


FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Information concerning effects of fire on Goodding's willow is lacking. It probably sprouts vigorously after a fire, as do most members of the willow genus. Fires are uncommon in the riparian zones in which Goodding's willow occurs. Wind-dispersed Gooding willow seed are probably important in the colonization of recently burned sites [5]. Severe fires expose mineral soil, creating ideal conditions for seedling establishment. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)


FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Low- to moderate-severity fires probably top-kill young Gooding willow stems. Mature trees probably survive such fires. Severe fires sometimes kill willows by completely removing soil organic layers and charring the roots [32]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Goodding's willow probably sprouts vigorously from the root crown following fire [3,10]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: NO-ENTRY


REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix gooddingii
REFERENCES: 1. Allen, Arthur W. 1983. Habitat suitability index models: beaver. FWS/OBS-82/10.30 (Revised). Washingtion, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 20 p. [11716] 2. Anderson, Bertin. 1988. Deep tillage aids tree establishment in riparian revegetation projects in arid Southwest. Restoration & Management Notes. 6(2): 84-87. [6138] 3. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottowa, ON: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences. 279 p. [6167] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 746-750. [5412] 6. Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., tech. coords. 1990. Silvics of North America. Vol 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 877 p. [13955] 7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 8. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 9. Gavin, Thomas A.; Sowls, Lyle K. 1975. Avian fauna of a San Pedro Valley mesquite forest. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science. 10: 33-41. [10861] 10. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D.; Mather, J. 1990. Autecology of common plants in British Columbia: A literature review. Economic and Regional Development Agreement FRDA Rep. 158. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 272 p. [18033] 11. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756] 12. Holland, Robert F.; Roye, Cynthia L. 1989. Great Valley riparian habitats and the National Registry of Natural Landmarks. In: Abell, Dana L., technical coordinator. Proceedings of the California riparian systems conference: Protection, management, and restoration for the 1990's; 1988 September 22-24; Davis, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-110. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 69-73. [13511] 13. Holstein, Glen. 1984. California riparian forests: deciduous islands in an evergreen sea. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 2-22. [5830] 14. Howe, William H.; Knoff, Fritz L. 1991. On the imminent decline of Rio Grande cottonwoods in central New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist. 36(2): 218-224. [15697] 15. Johnson, Carl M. 1970. Common native trees of Utah. Special Report 22. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources, Agricultural Experiment Station. 109 p. [9785] 16. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 17. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 18. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1950. Southwestern trees: A guide to the native species of New Mexico and Arizona. Agriculture Handbook No. 9. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 109 p. [20330] 19. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 20. Hewsholme, Christopher. 1992. Willows: The genus Salix. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Inc. 224 p. [20106] 21. Pase, Charles P.; Layser, Earle F. 1977. Classification of riparian habitat in the Southwest. In: Johnson, Roy; Jones, Dale A., technical coordinators. Importance, preservation and management of riparian habitat: A symposium; 1977 July 9; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 5-9. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA 22151; PB-274 582. [5333] 22. Pope, Dennis P.; Brock, John H.; Backhaus, Ralph A. 1990. Vegetative propagation of key southwestern woody riparian species. Desert Plants. 10(2): 91-95. [11834] 23. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 24. Richter, Holly E. 1992. Development of a conceptual model for floodplain restoration in a desert riparian system. Arid Lands Newsletter. 32: 13-17. [18614] 25. Siegel, Richard S.; Brock, John H. 1990. Germination requirements of key Southwestern woody riparian species. Desert Plants. 10(1): 3-8, 34. [10554] 26. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 27. Stolzenburg, William. 1993. A river floods through it. Nature Conservancy. 43(3): 22-27. [20585] 28. Szaro, Robert C. 1990. Southwestern riparian plant communities: site characteristics, tree species distributions, and size-class structures. Forest Ecology and Management. 33/34: 315-334. [10031] 29. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer). Available: https://plants.usda.gov/. [34262] 30. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 31. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 32. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; [and others], eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. [2291] 33. Zimmermann, Robert C. 1969. Plant ecology of an arid basin: Tres Alamos-Redington Area, southeastern Arizona. Geological Survey Professional Paper 485-D. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. 51 p. [4287] 34. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]