Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Quercus muehlenbergii
SPECIES: Quercus muehlenbergii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Quercus muehlenbergii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
On 2 March 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS
from: chinkapin oak
to: chinquapin oak. Images were also added.
Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm. 
Quercus prinoides J.M. Coult, misapplied
Quercus prinoides Willd. var. acuminata (Michx.) Gleason
NRCS PLANT CODE:
yellow chestnut oak
rock chestnut oak
The currently accepted scientific name of chinquapin oak is Quercus
muehlenbergii Engelm. . Many authorities recognize this species
under an alternate spelling, Q. muhlenbergii Engelm. . Chinquapin
oak is a member of the white oak subgenus or section (Lepidobalanus) 
and is placed within the chestnut oak subsection (Prinoideae Trelease)
. Two forms have been delineated on the basis of leaf and nut
morphology . A form characterized by wide leaves has been
identified as Q. muehlenbergii f. alexanderi (Britton) Trel. .
Chinquapin oak hybridizes with many other oak species, including bur oak
(Q. macrocarpa), white oak (Q. alba), Gambel oak (Q. gambelii), dwarf
chinquapin oak, Q. x deamii, Q. x introgressa, and Q. bicolor x prinoides
[36,40]. Hybridization with gray oak (Q. grisea) and swamp white oak
(Q. bicolor) is suspected [68,69]. Q. x deamii (=Q. fallax) is probably
a hybrid of chinquapin oak and white oak or chinquapin oak and bur oak
[7,23]. Q. introgressa may be a natural hybrid of chinquapin oak and
dwarf chinquapin oak. Introgressants and hybrid swarms between chinquapin
oak and dwarf chinquapin oak are common .
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Quercus muehlenbergii
Chinquapin oak is widely distributed throughout much of eastern and
central North America . Its range extends from New England and
Pennsylvania southward mostly in the mountains through Virginia and the
Carolinas to northwestern Florida, westward to northern Mexico,
south-central Texas, and Oklahoma, and north to Minnesota, Wisconsin,
southern Ontario, and southern Michigan [23,26].
|Distribution of chinquapin oak. 1971 USDA, Forest Service map digitized by Thompson and others .
Local and disjunct populations occur in western Texas, New Mexico, and
northeastern Mexico [36,69]. In the eastern United States, chinquapin
oak is relatively rare throughout much of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal
plains . It is uncommon or rare in Pennsylvania  and in New
England . Chinquapin oak reaches greatest abundance in the
Mississippi and Ohio valleys [23,32].
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES28 Western hardwoods
AL AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA KS
KY LA MD MA MI MN MS MO NE NJ
NM NY NC OH OK PA RI SC TN TX
VT VA WV WI ON MEXICO
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS:
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K038 Cedar glades
K089 Black belt
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
SAF COVER TYPES:
14 Northern pin oak
27 Sugar maple
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
57 Yellow poplar
60 Beech - sugar maple
236 Bur oak
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES:
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Chinquapin oak grows as a codominant with bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa)
and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) in gallery forests of the Konza
Prairie in northeastern Kansas . In most other locations it occurs
as scattered individuals within a mixed overstory.
SPECIES: Quercus muehlenbergii
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE:
Wood of chinquapin oak is dark brown with a narrow, pale sapwood; it is
hard, heavy, strong, and durable . These characteristics make it a
valuable wood for many uses . It is commonly used as sawtimber and
is considered a member of the select white oak group .
When properly dried and treated, oak wood glues well, machines very
well, and accepts a variety of finishes . It is widely used for
cabinets, furniture, pallets, and containers [43,53]. Oak wood was
traditionally used for railroad ties  and is commonly cut for
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Browse and acorns of chinquapin oak are important to a wide variety of
birds and mammals . Oak browse is often eaten by deer and rabbits;
rabbits sometimes girdle small trees . Beaver feed on the bark and
twigs , and porcupines consume the bark .
The acorns of chinquapin oak are a high quality, dependable food source
[30,52]. Mice, squirrels, voles, other small mammals, and white-tailed
deer consume the acorns of chinquapin oak [13,52,65]. Acorns are an
especially important fall food item for the black bear ; the
relative abundance of fall mast crops can affect black bear reproductive
success during the following year .
The acorns of chinquapin oak are a particularly important food item for
the red-headed woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, northern bobwhite,
and blue jay . Other bird species that feed on acorns include the
ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkey,
common crow, northern flicker, grackle, blue jay, brown thrasher, tufted
titmouse, starling, lesser prairie chicken, chickadees, nuthatches, and
Browse: In general, the palatability of oak browse is relatively high
for livestock and many wildlife species. Eastern oaks are preferred
browse of white-tailed deer in some locations . New growth is
particularly palatable to deer and rabbits .
Acorns: The acorns of chinquapin oak are sweet and highly palatable to
many species of birds and mammals .
Browse: Nutrient content of oak leaves has been reported as follows
Dry Crude Ether N-free
matter Ash fiber extract extract Protein
---------------------percent dry matter------------------
100 56 27.4 2.5 54.3 10.2
Acorns: Most acorns are nutritious  and high in carbohydrates .
Acorns of the white oaks are generally low in lipids (5 to 10 percent)
and tannins (0.5 to 2.5 percent) .
Chinquapin oak provides good cover for a variety of bird and mammal
species. Young oaks with low branches serve as particularly good winter
cover . Oak leaves often persist longer than those of many other
plant associates, and in some areas, young oaks may represent the only
brushy winter cover in dense pole stands . In the pine-oak zone of
Texas, species such as chinquapin oak provide shade for pronghorns .
Oaks frequently serve as perching or nesting sites for various species
of songbirds . The well-developed crowns provide shelter and hiding
cover for tree squirrels and other small mammals. Many species of birds
and mammals use twigs and leaves as nesting material . Large oaks
provide denning sites for a variety of mammals .
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Chinquapin oak can be readily propagated through seed. Attempts to root
stem cuttings or propagate through budding have been largely
unsuccessful . Details on propagation techniques are available
OTHER USES AND VALUES:
Acorns were an important food source for Native American peoples .
The acorns of chinquapin oak are sweet and edible when roasted .
Chinquapin oak is an attractive shade tree ; it was first cultivated
in 1822 .
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Silviculture: Oaks often regenerate poorly after timber harvest.
Hannah  reported that the use of natural seedbeds and standard
hardwood silvicultural practices are often ineffectual in promoting oak
regeneration. Vigorous, advanced regeneration is essential for
producing good stands of oak after timber harvest [18,47,57]. For
adequate regeneration of oaks, advanced regeneration at least 4.5 feet
(1.4 m) in height should number at least 435 per acre (176/ha) prior to
harvest. A series of selection cuts can produce stands with several age
classes and can generate sufficient advanced regeneration for
well-stocked, postharvest stands. Initial cuts should reduce overstory
densities to no less than 60 percent stocking. Reduction of competing
understory species may be necessary in some instances .
Chemical control: Oaks often produce basal sprouts in response to
herbicide treatments . Herbicides such as tebuthiuron and triclopyr
can reduce crowns of chinquapin oaks by 88 to 98 percent and kill 74 to
94 percent of chinquapin oak trees .
Insects/disease: Chinquapin oak is relatively resistant to insects and
disease . It is, however, susceptible to attack by oak wilt, acorn
weevils, and the gypsy moth .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Quercus muehlenbergii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Chinquapin oak is a spreading, medium to large, deciduous tree which
generally reaches 16 to 52 feet (5-16 m) in height  but occasionally
grows to 80 or 90 feet (24-27 m) [46,66]. On exceptional sites in the
lower Wabash and Ohio valleys, individuals can reach 160 feet (48 m) in
height and up to 4 feet (1.2 m) in diameter . Chinquapin oak
typically has large, low branches and a rounded crown . In closed
forest stands it develops a straight, columnar trunk, a dense rounded
crown, and fairly small branches . In the open, plants usually
develop a short trunk and broad crown. Grayish-brown twigs are rigid
and glabrous . The thin bark is light gray to silvery, and rough or
scaly [50,66]. The alternate, simple leaves are coriaceous and variable
in shape .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM:
Chinquapin oak is monoecious. Staminate catkins form from the base of
new growth or from lateral buds on the previous year's growth.
Pistillate flowers grow from the axils of the current year's growth
. Flowers are wind pollinated . Acorns are borne singly or in
pairs, and are dark brown to nearly black . About half of the nut
is enclosed by the cup . Acorns mature in one season .
Most eastern oaks produce good seed crops at variable intervals .
Best seed crops are generally produced by large trees (> 20 inches [51
cm] d.b.h.) with vigorous crowns. Cold or wet weather during flowering
can result in poor seed production [28,47]. Acorns are disseminated by
gravity, and rodents and birds . Groups of seedlings commonly
originate from the caches of blue jays . Although effective
dispersal agents, birds and mammals also consume many seeds. In some
areas, 90 to 100 percent of the annual acorn crop may be lost to seed
Acorns of chinquapin oak germinate soon after falling to the ground .
Stratification is not required . Acorns of chinquapin oak remain
viable for only short periods, even when properly stored. Bonner and
Vozzo  reported that germination of fresh acorns was 91.3 percent, but
that germination declined to 39.0 percent after 1 year in storage and to
only 2.0 percent after 2 years.
Seedlings of chinquapin oak develop best on well-drained calcareous soil
. They can tolerate moderate shrub-tree cover  but require
sufficient light for good early growth. Seedlings are rare in gallery
forests of Kansas but are common at nearby prairie-forest borders .
Roots of developing seedlings must quickly reach mineral soil; in many
areas, establishment is limited by the presence of a thick organic layer
Vegetative regeneration: Chinquapin oak sprouts readily after
disturbance . Stump sprouting often occurs , but in many areas,
it is less common than root sprouting . Hannah  reported that
the best sprouts often develop at or below the ground level. Small
poles, saplings, and even seedlings can sprout when cut or burned .
Repeated sprouting is also common . Seedlings often develop an
"s"-shaped curve at ground level, which helps protect dormant buds from
fire. After repeated fires, these stems may develop "stools" or areas
comprised of callus tissue filled with dormant buds . Epicormic
buds located beneath the bark of older oaks commonly sprout when these
trees are damaged .
Bud dormancy in oaks is largely controlled by auxins rather than by
levels of carbohydrate reserves . Apical dominance can restrict the
development of belowground buds when buds survive on aboveground
portions of the plant. Sprouting is reduced by low light levels 
and decreases as the stand ages . McIntyre  reported that the
number of sprouts per group tends to decrease from poor to good sites.
Initial sprout growth is typically rapid .
Chinquapin oak grows on dry, rocky sites , such as calcareous bluffs,
rocky hillsides, and protected slopes and canyons . It also occurs
in glades and valleys, and along rocky streambanks [26,27,66]. In parts
of the Midwest, chinquapin oak grows in rich forests and on stabilized
dunes . Chinquapin oak is particularly common near forest margins
. It is fairly tolerant of shade and drought [5,19].
Plant communities: Chinquapin oak is common in only one cover type, the
post oak (Quercus stellata)-black oak (Q. velutinus) type .
Elsewhere, it grows as scattered individuals or in relatively isolated
groves. It occurs in a variety of communities, including gallery
forests along stream channels and ravines in the southern and central
Great Plains at the edge of eastern deciduous forests . It is also
present in the Cross Timbers, Blackland prairies, post oak savannas, and
pine-oak forests of Texas [48,61].
In the eastern United States, chinquapin oak grows in a number of mixed
mesophytic or submesic woodlands, including beech (Fagus spp.)-maple
(Acer spp.), maple-basswood (Tilia spp.), oak-hickory (Carya spp.),
oak-chestnut (Castanea dentata), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), and
northern red oak (Q. rubra)-basswood [6,23,26,39,49,60]. In parts of
southern Indiana, it occasionally codominates the crown canopy with
northern red oak. In Ohio, chinquapin oak commonly grows in areas
transitional from swamp forest to mesophytic forests . Chinquapin
oak was a prominent species in several presettlement, open woodland
communities of the Midwest and middle South, including portions of Inner
Bluegrass region of Kentucky .
Plant associates: Common plant associates in different geographic
Midwest - Common associates in gallery forests of the prairies include
hackberry, American elm (Ulmus americana), bur oak, and sycamore
(Platanus occidentalis) [3,63]. Bur oak, white oak, black oak, northern
red oak, and shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) grow with chinquapin oak in
parts of the upper Midwest .
Texas - In pine-oak forests of Texas, chinquapin grows in association
with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
menziesii) [16,48]. Other common associates in Texas include American
elm, hackberry (Celtis spp.), blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica),
Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), western soapberry (Sapindus saponaria ssp.
drummundii), and black cherry (Prunus serotina) .
South - Chinquapin oak occurs with white oak, black oak (Quercus
velutinus), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), hickory, black cherry, ash
(Fraxinus spp.), Arizona walnut (Juglans major), yellow-poplar
(Lirodendron tulipifera), and cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata) in the
Southeast . In remnants of open woodlands common in portions of the
Inner Bluegrass region of Kentucky during presettlement times, chinquapin
oak occurs with bur oak, blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata), Shumard oak,
shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa), shagbark hickory, sugar maple,
black cherry, yellow-poplar, and red mulberry (Morus rubra) . In
the deep South, it grows with holly (Ilex spp.) and other oaks in stands
dominated by beech and magnolia (Magnolia spp.) . In Arkansas,
butternut (Juglans cinera), Arizona walnut, and other oaks are
particularly common associates .
Soils: Chinquapin oak commonly occurs on calcareous soils which are
derived from limestone . It also grows on deep, well-drained soils
of river and creekbottoms  and on limestone outcrops . Soils
are often of low fertility and deficient in nutrients such as phosphorus
. Chinquapin oak grows on medium acidic to highly alkaline soils
 but reaches greatest abundance on basic soils . In parts of
the Midwest, it is absent in relatively level areas where soil leaching
has resulted in an acidicification of a glacial till mantle .
Edaphic factors can greatly influence growth rate of chinquapin oak .
Climate: Chinquapin oak grows in moist subhumid to humid zones
throughout most of its range but grows in dry subhumid conditions at the
southwestern edge of its range . Growing-season precipitation
ranges from 10 inches (25 cm) in Texas to 80 inches (203 cm) in the
southern Appalachians. The length of the growing season ranges from 120
to 240 days .
Elevation: Chinquapin oak grows from 400 to 3,000 feet (122-914 m) .
It is absent or rare at higher elevations in the Appalachian Mountains
Chinquapin oak is a climax tree on dry soils, particularly those of
limestone origin. It is seral on more moist sites . Chinquapin oak
is moderately shade tolerant when young, but becomes increasingly
intolerant of shade with age.
Upper Midwest: Chinquapin oak and bur oak commonly dominate oak savannas
of the upper Midwest. Evidence suggests that tree density in these oak
savannas increased after settlement . Fire frequencies were
presumably much reduced at this time, enabling chinquapin oak to reach
extremely large sizes. With continued fire suppression, these oak
savannas are being replaced by more shade-tolerant species such as elm
(Ulmus spp.), sugar maple, and buckeye (Aesculus spp.) . In the
absence of disturbance, sugar maple assumes dominance in climax stands
Central Midwest: In oak-hickory forests of southern Indiana, chinquapin
oak stands are seral to climax beech-ash-maple forests. Chinquapin oak
grows in the final successional stages of Ozark floodplain communities
which are dominated by sugar maple and bitternut hickory (Carya
cordiformia) at climax. On south- and west-facing slopes near these
communities, it is considered a subclimax or seral species .
Southeast: Chinquapin oak and bur oak dominate certain early seral
forests in Mississippi Valley lowlands . These forests are replaced
first by black oak, then northern red oak-shagbark hickory, and finally
American basswood (Tilia americana)-eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya
virginiana) forests . Chinquapin oak also grows in certain climax
floodplain oak-hickory communities in the lower Mississippi Valley .
Hickories and the rapidly growing southern red oak (Quercus falcata)
develop first following disturbance on sites in this region. Seedlings
of chinquapin oak generally appear 75 to 100 years after the initial
disturbance . Martin and DeSelm  reported that in eastern
Tennessee, chinquapin oak occasionally occurs in old-growth forests in
Middle South: In presettlement times chinquapin oak grew as an overstory
codominant in certain unique open woodland communities of the Inner
Bluegrass region of Kentucky . Evidence suggests that these
communities were maintained by a combination of factors such as soil,
climate, grazing, and fire history. With changes in fire frequency and
increased grazing brought about by settlement, these communities
declined and were ultimately replaced by cultivated fields and pastures
dominated by cool-season grasses .
Eastern Great Plains: During settlement times, reductions in fire
frequency enabled woody species, such as chinquapin oak, to expand
westward into parts of the prairie [3,10]. However, with further
reductions in fire frequency, oak woodlands dominated by chinquapin oak
and bur oak are being replaced by maple-basswood forests .
Historically, these narrow oak forests burned periodically as fires from
grasslands spread into adjacent woodlands.
In the Kansas prairie, chinquapin oak is a component of early seral
forests . In many of these forests, this oak apparently grew and
reproduced beneath the overstory canopy until approximately 50 years ago
. At this point, development of a thick organic seedbed, attributed
to fire exclusion, may have limited oak establishment. Continued
overstory development within the past 10 to 30 years has led to the
proliferation of more shade-tolerant species . Species such as
hackberry ultimately replace the oaks on moist sites, whereas redbud
(Cercis spp.) assumes dominance on more xeric sites [3,52]. A return to
more frequent fires could permit the oaks to assume dominance on these
Chinquapin oak leafs out in mid-spring . Plants flower when leaves
are approximately 25 percent grown . Fruit ripens at the end of the
first growing season . Generalized flowering and fruiting dates by
geographic location are as follows:
Location Flowering Fruiting Authority
WI May ---- Curtis 1959
New England May 21-June 8 ---- Seymour 1985
n-c Great Plains early May September Stephens 1973
NC-SC April October Radford and
Great Plains April-May ---- Great Plains Flora
KS May ---- Reichman 1987
Blue Ridge Mtns. April-May ---- Wofford 1989
SPECIES: Quercus muehlenbergii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Chinquapin oak often sprouts from the stump or root crown after fire
. Reestablishment through seed may occur on favorable sites in good
years. Rouse  reported that seedling establishment of oaks is often
favored on mineral seedbeds produced by fire.
Mean fire intervals in gallery forests of northeastern Kansas have been
estimated at approximately 11 to 20 years . These fires most likely
originated in adjacent prairies which historically burned every 2 to 3
years. Since settlement times, gallery forests have expanded into
prairie because of increased fire suppression  [See Successional
Status]. Litter in gallery forests presumably decomposes more rapidly,
and the areal extent of fire may have been limited by the lower fuel
accumulations typical of these sites . Killingbeck  observed
that patches of chinquapin oak predominate on infertile,
phosphorus-deficient sites in gallery forests. Intense, damaging fires
are unlikely to occur on these sites because biomass and litter
accumulations are low. Increased cattle grazing may also have led to
reduced fuels and less destructive fires . Oak woodlands are
currently being replaced by maple-basswood forests because of reductions
in fire frequencies .
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find Fire Regimes".
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY:
survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex
survivor species; on-site surviving roots
off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2
SPECIES: Quercus muehlenbergii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
The fire resistance of chinquapin oak has not been well documented ;
the results of several studies have been somewhat contradictory. Abrams
 observed no fire-caused overstory mortality in gallery forests of
northeastern Kansas. Many large individuals were scarred from
recurrent fires  but still exhibited good growth and vigor.
Killingbeck , however, reported that chinquapin oak is very
susceptible to fire in gallery forests. These observed differences in
fire effects on chinquapin oak may be attributable to variation in fire
severity and intensity, site characteristics, plant age or size, form,
vigor, season of burn, and stocking levels .
Saplings and pole-sized chinquapin oaks are easily damaged by fire ;
trees become more fire resistant as the bark thickens with age .
Most acorns are characterized by a relatively high moisture content. As
the moisture within the acorns is heated, the seeds swell and often
rupture . Therefore, few acorns present on a site survive fire.
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
Oaks tend to be less susceptible to fire during the dormant season.
Weak individuals are less likely to heal than healthy, vigorous ones.
Oaks growing in overstocked stands typically exhibit lower vigor and are
more susceptible to fire-caused damage. Crooked or leaning trees are
particularly vulnerable to damage since the flames are more likely to be
directly below the stem, thereby increasing the amount of heat received
at the bark's surface. Basal injuries often permit the entry of insects
or decay that may ultimately kill the tree .
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Chinquapin oak commonly sprouts after aboveground portions of the plant
are damaged or destroyed . Specific response is presumably related
fire severity and intensity, season of burn, and plant age and vigor.
Most oaks sprout from the stump after moderate fires , and from
underground portions when completely top-killed . Hannah 
reported that the best sprouts often originate from buds located at or
below ground level. These sprouts may be more vigorous and less
susceptible to rot or other damage.
Seedlings, saplings, and small pole-sized trees commonly sprout if
girdled by fire. Damaged seedlings often sprout several times and may
ultimately grow beyond the fire-susceptible stage . Sprouting
ability appears to decrease as plants age. Large trees are much less
likely to sprout when severely damaged by fire.
Large oaks that survive fire frequently serve as seed sources .
Dying trees often produce a massive seed crop . Also, some seed is
transported from adjacent, unburned areas by birds and mammals. Fire
may favor seedling establishment because it exposes mineral soil,
creating an optimal seedbed .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
Vegetation in a gallery forest on the Konza Prairie in northeastern
Kansas was surveyed before and after 2 years of annual prescribed
burning in April. The number of chinquapin oak seedlings increased from
100 per hectare before burning to 250 per hectare after 1 year of
burning, but no chinquapin oak seedlings or saplings were present on the
plots after 2 years of burning .
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Prescribed fire: Prescribed fire can be an important tool for
regenerating oak stands because it tends to promote vigorous sprouting,
reduce competing vegetation , and expose mineral soil, which favors
seedling establishment. A series of low-intensity prescribed fires
prior to timber harvest can promote advanced regeneration in oaks .
[See Management Considerations]. The effects of fire on oaks may vary;
in some cases fire can kill or injure oaks, but in others fire has
little effect . In the southern Appalachians, biennial summer burns
are often effective in promoting advance regeneration, while single
preharvest or postharvest burns generally have little effect .
References for species: Quercus muehlenbergii
1. Abrams, Marc D. 1985. Age-diameter relationships of Quercus species in relation to edaphic factors in gallery forests of northeast Kansas. Forest Ecology and Management. 13: 181-193. 
2. Abrams, Marc D. 1985. Fire history of oak gallery forests in a northeast Kansas tallgrass prairie. The American Midland Naturalist. 114(1): 188-191. 
3. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. 
4. Abrams, Marc D. 1988. Effects of prescribed fire on woody vegetation in a gallery forest understory in northeastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 91(3-4): 63-70. 
5. Abrams, Marc D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1986. Seasonal water relations of three gallery forest hardwood species in northeast Kansas. Forest Science. 32(3): 687-696. 
6. Albertson, F. W.; Weaver, J. E. 1945. Injury and death or recovery of trees in prairie climate. Ecological Monographs. 15: 393-433. 
7. Bartlett, H. H. 1951. Regression of X Quercus deamii toward Quercus macrocarpa and Quercus muhlenbergii. Rhodora. 53(635): 249-264. 
8. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
9. Bonner, F. T.; Vozzo, J. A. 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-66. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p. 
10. Bragg, Thomas B.; Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range Management. 29(1): 19-24. 
11. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. 
12. Brewer, Richard; Kitler, Steven. 1989. Tree distribution in southwestern Michigan bur oak openings. Michigan Botanist. 28(2): 73-79. 
13. Briggs, John M.; Smith, Kimberly G. 1989. Influence of habitat on acorn selection by Peromyscus leucopus. Journal of Mammalogy. 70(1): 35-43. 
14. Britton, N. L. 1886. Notes on Quercus muhlenbergia Engelm. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 13: 40-41. 
15. Bryant, William S.; Wharton, Mary E.; Martin, William H.; Varner, Johnnie B. 1980. The blue ash-oak savanna--woodland, a remnant of presettlement vegetation in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky. Castanea. 45(3): 149-165. 
16. Buechner, Helmut K. 1950. Life history, ecology, and range use of the pronghorn antelope in Trans-Pecos Texas. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(2): 257-354. 
17. Carey, Andrew B.; Gill, John D. 1980. Firewood and wildlife. Res. Note 299. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. 
18. Clark, F. Bryan; Watt, Richard F. 1971. Silvicultural methods for regenerating oaks. In: Oak symposium: Proceedings; 1971 August 16-20; Morgantown, WV. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 37-43. 
19. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. 
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