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SPECIES:  Platanus occidentalis
American sycamore. Creative Commons image by Rob Routledge, Sault College,



SPECIES: Platanus occidentalis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Platanus occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: []. Updates: On 20 March 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS from: sycamore to: American sycamore. Images were also added.
ABBREVIATION: PLAOCC SYNONYMS: Platanus occidentalis var. attenuata (Fern.) Sarg. [50] SCS PLANT CODE: PLOC COMMON NAMES: sycamore American sycamore plane tree buttonball tree TAXONOMY: The scientific name for American sycamore is Platanus occidentalis L. (Platanaceae) [13,35,48,50]. There are no accepted infrataxa. The London plane tree (P. xacerifolia [Ait.] Willd.) is a hybrid of Oriental plane (P. orientalis) and American sycamore and perhaps includes a number of backcrosses [50,78]. LIFE FORM: Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: American sycamore is listed by the State of Maine as a species of special concern-possibly extirpated [26].


SPECIES: Platanus occidentalis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: The range of American sycamore extends from southwestern Maine west to extreme southern Ontario, southern Wisconsin, Iowa, and extreme eastern Nebraska; south to south-central Texas; and east to northwestern Florida and southeastern Georgia. It also occurs in the mountains of northeastern Mexico [30,35,50]. American sycamore has become naturalized to some extent from plantations outside of its native range, chiefly in southern Maine, southern Michigan, southern Minnesota, and eastern and southern Iowa [35].
Distribution of American sycamore. 1971 USDA, Forest Service map digitized by Thompson and others [87].
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES16  Oak - gum - cypress
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES18  Maple - beech - birch

     AL  AR  CT  DE  FL  GA  HI  IA  IL  IN
     KS  KY  LA  MD  ME  MA  MI  MN  MO  MS
     NE  NC  NH  NJ  NY  OH  OK  PA  RI  SC

   14  Great Plains

   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K099  Maple - basswood forest
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K101  Elm - ash forest
   K103  Mixed mesophytic forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K112  Southern mixed forest
   K113  Southern floodplain forest

    23  Eastern hemlock
    24  Hemlock - yellow birch
    25  Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
    26  Sugar maple - basswood
    27  Sugar maple
    37  Northern white-cedar
    39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
    60  Beech - sugar maple
    61  River birch - sycamore
    62  Silver maple - American elm
    63  Cottonwood
    65  Pin oak - sweetgum
    87  Sweetgum - yellow-poplar
    91  Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
    92  Sweetgum - willow oak
    93  Sugarberry - American elm - green ash
    94  Sycamore - sweetgum - American elm
    95  Black willow
    96  Overcup oak - water hickory
    97  Atlantic white-cedar


American sycamore is found in quantity only in bottomland forests, particularly
of elm-ash-cottonwood (Ulmus spp.-Fraxinus spp.-Populus deltoides) types
as defined by Shifley and others [66], and cottonwood-willow (Salix
spp.) types.  It usually occurs singly or in small groups [78].
American sycamore is found occasionally along intermittent streams within upland
stands of oak-hickory (Quercus spp.-Carya spp.) communities.  It is a
major pioneer species in the floodplains of large rivers [74].  In the
Southeast pure stands of 40 to 100 acres (16-40 ha) are sometimes
formed; it rarely forms extensive pure stands in the northern parts of
its range [78].  In the northern states American sycamore is rarely the dominant
species; it increases (replacing silver maple [Acer saccharinum]) with
decreasing latitude [27].

American sycamore is listed as a dominant or indicator species in the following

1) The natural forests of Maryland: an explanation of the vegetation map
     of Maryland [14]
2) The natural communities of South Carolina [58]
3) Land Classification in the Blue Ridge province: state-of-the-science
     report [55]
4) Forest management of floodplain sites in the northeastern United
     States [56]
5) Management of bottomland hardwoods [61]
6) Ecological communities of New York State [63]
7) Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the northern Cumberland
     Plateau [68]
8) Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the Natchez Trace State
     Forest, State Resort Park, and Wildlife Management Area in west
     Tennessee [69]


SPECIES: Platanus occidentalis
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE: American sycamore is a valuable timber tree; its wood is hard, with a twisted and coarse grain, but not very strong [13,30,76]. It is used for furniture, interior trim, boxes, pulpwood, and particle and fiber board [13,30]. Carey and Gill [19] rated American sycamore as only fair (their lowest rating) for fuelwood. American sycamore is planted in short-rotation intensive culture systems for use as fuel or pulp [72,78]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: American sycamore does not provide much food for wildlife, although the seeds are eaten by some birds including the purple finch [82,84], goldfinch, chickadees, and dark-eyed junco [84], and by muskrat, beaver, and squirrels [13,76,82,84]. American sycamore is rated as medium in suitability for waterfowl habitat and low in suitability as deer or turkey food [3]. Carey and Gill [19] rated American sycamore as only fair (their lowest rating) for wildlife use. In Arkansas, American sycamore is of minor importance as deer browse [84]. As American sycamores age, they may develop hollow trunks which provide shelter for a number of wildlife species; some large, old individuals have formed cavities large enough to be used as dens by black bear [84]. Cavity nesting birds include the barred owl [2], eastern screech-owl, great crested flycatcher [37], and chimney swift [84]. Wood duck use American sycamores as nest trees [29]. The bottomland forests in which American sycamore occurs are very important wildlife habitat, sheltering numerous animal species including wood duck, other waterfowl, upland game birds, and deer [57]. In Indiana, riparian forests in which American sycamore occurs are important habitat for the endangered Indiana bat, which uses these areas for nursery colonies [10]. PALATABILITY: NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE: The nutritional value of American sycamore "grab samples" was reported as follows: 25 percent dry matter, 13.7 percent crude protein, and 67 percent total digestible nutrients [17]. Foliage samples were 18.2 percent lignin, 2.67 percent calcium, 0.38 percent magnesium, 0.12 percent phosphorus, and 1.65 percent potassium [65]. COVER VALUE: NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: American sycamore occurs naturally on disturbed sites if there is sufficient moisture for seedling establishment. It occasionally occurs in mostly pure, well-stocked stands on naturally regenerated strip-mined lands in the central states. In Missouri, it is often found in pure stands or in mixtures with other hardwoods that pioneer on spoil banks. In Alabama and Tennessee, waterway disposal sites (material removed from stream channels) seeded with grass mixtures were invaded by American sycamore [38]. In Tennessee, channelization projects resulting in degrading streambanks were colonized by American sycamores during the early recovery period [44]. American sycamore saplings were present in small numbers on unreclaimed limestone quarries in Oklahoma [64]. Between 1928 and 1975, American sycamore was one of the 10 most commonly planted hardwoods on surface-mined soils in Indiana [11]. American sycamore is recommended for planting on all types of strip-mined land in many northeastern and central states [78]. In Florida, American sycamore was planted on a phosphate mine site for a wetland reclamation project [51]. In Tennessee, beaver impoundments were drained and planted with American sycamore; American sycamore was chosen for its ability to tolerate saturated soils [42]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: American sycamore is planted as a street tree [83], although it is highly susceptible to ozone damage [25] and is susceptible to foliar injury and reduced growth when exposed to salt spray [73]. The London plane tree is more resistant to air pollutants and is more commonly planted as a street tree [28]. American sycamore has been planted in shelterbelts [16]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: American sycamore is a valuable timber species that can be regenerated from natural seed sources, by planting, or by coppice systems. Seed: American sycamore invades bottomland old fields when adequate seed sources are present [3,59]. It often seeds in on clearcuts; good initial establishment from natural seed sources requires some site preparation [79]. Its potential for establishment from direct seeding is unknown [3]. Plantation: American sycamore usually shows good initial capture of planting sites [49]. American sycamores interplanted with herbaceous legumes were larger than control plants 6 years after legume establishment [36]. On mined sites interplanting American sycamore with the nitrogen-fixing European black alder (Alnus glutinosa) doubled American sycamore height and diameter growth over that of control plants [77]. Site characteristics, rather than site preparation method, had the most pronounced effect on American sycamore height growth [24]. However, Hunt and Cleveland [43] reported American sycamore growing on disc-cultivated sites showed better growth than with other treatments. American sycamore does not establish well in dense herb or shrub cover [77]. Clatterbuck and Burkhardt [21] reported on the effects of various mixtures and spacings for cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata) and American sycamore plantations in Arkansas. Coppice: For short-rotation intensive culture systems, American sycamore yield is influenced by site, fertilizer, spacing, and rotation [80]. American sycamore has good coppice regeneration potential although it may not be sustainable over many rotations. Geyer [33] reported that American sycamore died after two coppice harvests in Kansas. A high percentage of stumps sprout, regardless of stump size or time of harvest. However, dormant season cuts produce larger and heavier sprout clumps than cuts during the growing season [5,78]. Insects and Diseases: Natural stands of American sycamore have few lethal diseases [22]; disease problems occur mostly in plantations. Important diseases include anthracnose and eastern mistletoe (Phoradendron spp.) [78]. There have been some reports of a potentially serious disease of American sycamore in Illinois and adjacent states, and possibly spreading to Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama. This disease has been attributed to attacks by various organisms on environmentally stressed trees; it is not attributed to a single cause [22]. There are no insects of economic importance in natural stands, although problems with insects occur in landscaping trees [78]. Large American sycamores sometimes develop wind shake, a wood defect that reduces its economic value [78]. American sycamore is susceptible to ice damage [78]; of six trees examined after an ice/sleet storm in Missouri and Illinois, only one escaped major damage [23]. Under powerlines, American sycamore regrowth was appreciably reduced with pressure-injected malic hydrazide or daminozide [12].


SPECIES: Platanus occidentalis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: American sycamore is a native, deciduous tree. Although not the tallest, it is among the tallest trees of eastern deciduous forests [78]. Mature heights range from 60 to 120 feet (18-37 m) [9,83]. Reported diameters range from 2 to 6.6 feet (0.6-2 m) [83]. The bark of young trunks has small scales. Bark at the base of large trunks is deeply furrowed and up to 3 inches thick (7.6 cm) [83]; on the upper portions of the trunk the bark exfoliates in patches, leaving areas of inner bark exposed [30,78]. The leaves are 4 to 10 inches (10-25.4 cm) long, often as broad or broader than they are long [83]. American sycamores form widespread, strongly branched root systems [78]. The fruit is a plumed achene [52]; numerous fruits are tightly aggregated into a ball-shaped fruiting head 0.8 to 2 inches (2-5 cm) in diameter [9,13]. American sycamore is characterized by rapid growth throughout its life; it is also long lived (over 250 years) [78]. A American sycamore measuring 140 feet (43 m) tall and 120 inches (305 cm) dbh has been reported; a specimen from Indiana was reported as 168 feet (51 m) tall and 33 feet (10 m) in circumference. Open-grown individuals can achieve a crown spread of 100 feet (30 m) or more [78]. A survey of big trees in seven mid-southern states reported that the second and fourth largest trees (of all species) were American sycamores. The largest American sycamore in these states was a Tennessee tree 140 feet tall (42.67 m) and 65.9 inches (167.4 cm) dbh, with a circumference of 207 inches (525.8 cm), the largest circumference of any tree in these states [53]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: American sycamore is monoecious. Plantation-grown American sycamores are usually sexually mature in 6 to 7 years. Natural stands of American sycamore usually produce appreciable numbers of seed at approximately 25 years; optimum seed production occurs from 50 to 200 years of age. Seed production is not dependable from trees over 250 years old. Good seed crops are produced every 1 to 2 years [78]. American sycamore seeds are dispersed by wind and water [83]. They have a relatively rapid rate of descent for light seeds; the estimated lateral travel distance in a 6 mile per hour (10 km/hr) breeze is 223.7 feet (62.8 m) [52]. Since seed dispersal occurs at a time of year when water levels are declining after spring floods, water dispersal often results in seed deposition on muddy flats that are highly conducive to germination [44,83]. American sycamore seeds do not require any pretreatment for good germination [9]. They do require very moist conditions for good germination and are tolerant of inundation [83]. Soaking seeds in water for up to 32 days did not reduce germination rates; the seeds did not germinate during the soaking period [40]. American sycamore seeds germinated at a significantly higher percentage in light than in dark [54]; they do not germinate well in heavy litter or in deep shade [78]. American sycamore seeds did not germinate in laboratory tests at temperatures lower than 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 deg C); they germinated well at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit (15-30 deg C), with maximum emergence at 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 deg C) in the wetter part of a moisture gradient [18]. American sycamore seedlings require direct sunlight for good growth and establishment [78]. At the end of their first year, American sycamore seedlings on clay soil showed better height growth in partial shade than in full sun. On alluvial soil or loess, height growth was better in full sun [7]. Seedling roots penetrate the soil quickly and grow deeper in loess soils than in alluvial or clay soils [78]. Young American sycamore stems sprout readily from the stump; American sycamore is not a vigorous epicormic sprouter. American sycamore can be vegetatively propagated by cuttings [78]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: American sycamore is primarily a species of alluvial soils along streams and in bottomlands, but occurs occasionally as a pioneer on drier upland slopes [13,30.78]. It occurs on a wide variety of soils, including both sands and clays [57]. Its best growth occurs on sandy loams or loams with a good supply of ground water but it also occurs on wet muck, shallow peat and other, more poorly drained bottomland soils [78]. American sycamore occurs on a variety of wet sites, including shallow swamps, sloughs, and very wet riverbottoms where soil is saturated 2 to 4 months during the growing season [39]. American sycamore seedlings survived almost 2 months of continuously waterlogged soils [46]. In a greenhouse experiment, after experiencing 60 days of completely waterlogged soils, about half of current-year seedlings died shortly after their removal from the water; none died with shorter treatment periods [41]. American sycamore is more tolerant of poorly drained soils in the northern parts of its range. It was given an adaptation value of 7.5 (out of a maximum of 10) for moisture tolerance [1]. American sycamore has a recommended lower pH range of 4.0 to 4.5 [77] American sycamore is rated as moderately tolerant of flooding. In the Northeast, American sycamore occurs on sites with greater than 98 percent probability of flooding in any given year [56]. In Illinois, sites that experience flooding approximately 3 months of the year are dominated by silver maple, American sycamore, and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. lanceolata). These sites are usually flooded before the growing season; American sycamore is intolerant of flooding during the growing season and will die if the entire tree is inundated for more than 2 weeks [78]. Saplings may be more resilient than mature trees due to their higher sprouting capacity; Baker [4] reported that even though 4 weeks of flooding appeared to have killed 65 percent of American sycamore saplings, 90 percent of the saplings were alive at the end of one growing season following flooding. Most of them had only been top-killed and subsequently sprouted from the root crown [4]. Seedlings are less tolerant of flooding than larger plants simply because they are more likely to be completely covered by water during active growth. Only 28.8 percent of American sycamore seedlings survived complete inundation for 5 days during a June flood as compared to a survival rate of 88.9 percent for unflooded seedlings [46]. The elevational range of American sycamore extends from sea level to 1,000 feet (305 m) in the northern parts of its range and to 2,500 feet (762 m) in the southern Appalachians [13,78]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: American sycamore is intolerant of shade. Seedling growth is greatly reduced in deep shade (defined as 5 percent of full sunlight) [45]. American sycamore occurs in forest types that are pioneer, transitional, subclimax, and climax [31,78]. American sycamore pioneers on sand and gravel bars and other newly formed land, often persisting through later seres, such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis), particularly on wet sites [78]. It is an occasional pioneer on upland oldfield sites, particularly in the central parts of its range. In Illinois, American sycamore was the most common tree species present in the seed rain or as seedlings in local old fields [18]. In southern Illinois, 1- to 5-year-old American sycamore seedlings were most common on newly formed land, then on old fields, in cottonwood-willow communities, and in soft mixed-hardwoods (elms, ashes, birches [Betula spp.], silver maple, and red maple [Acer rubrum]); there were no seedlings present in hard mixed-hardwood communities (oaks and hickories) [85]. American sycamore usually replaces willows (Salix spp.) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). The American sycamore-sweetgum-American elm type usually succeeds cottonwood on river fronts, but may pioneer on heavily cutover sites or old fields in bottomlands. This type may persist as a subclimax type where repeated disturbances such as flooding occur. It is usually succeeded by swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii)-cherrybark oak or sweetgum-willow oak (Liquidambar styraciflua-Q. phellos) [31]. In the North Carolina Piedmont, American sycamore and river birch (Betula nigra) usually replace alders (Alnus spp.) and willows on small islands or spits in streams after the land becomes stable and moderately well drained [78]. American sycamore and river birch are usually followed by elms (Ulmus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.) and red maple [78]. In Kentucky, an island that formed in 1913 was occupied by a pure stand of eastern cottonwood 30 to 40 feet tall by 1922. Trees coming in among the cottonwoods included American sycamores [67]. The presence of American sycamore in upland climax forests may be a function of disturbance rather than a function of moisture or drainage regime; its establishment in these woods may require larger disturbances than those produced by single or multiple tree falls [8]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: American sycamore flowers appear in May in the northern parts of its range, and as early as late March in the South. Late spring frosts will kill flowers, leaves, and twigs [78]. The fruits ripen from September to October or November, and usually remain on the tree over winter, breaking up or falling off the following spring from February through April [9,78].


SPECIES: Platanus occidentalis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: American sycamore is a member of bottomland hardwood communities that do not usually experience crown fires. Fire returns approximately every 5 to 8 years; summer droughts extended into fall create conditions for ground and surface fires that can cause damage and mortality. Bottomland fires usually move rapidly along the surface, consuming shrubs and herbs and usually killing all tree reproduction under about 10 years of age. Larger trees suffer bark scorch, which causes wounds that create points of entry for rots, stains, and insects; this results in reduced vigor and delayed mortality. Under extreme fire conditions, large trees may be killed outright [61]. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Platanus occidentalis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Surface fires in the bottomland forests in which American sycamore occurs readily kill saplings and seedlings of all species. Larger trees are wounded by fire; fire wounds act as vectors of disease, increasing rot and decreasing plant vigor [57,61]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT: NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: American sycamore is unlikely to be a major pioneer on burned sites. On bottomlands, rapid growth of competing weeds and vines would reduce American sycamore establishment, and burned upland sites are usually too dry for good seedling establishment. Only one published report of American sycamore seedlings on a burned site is available. In North Carolina, an oldfield loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stand experienced both surface and crown fire. American sycamore seedlings were present in small numbers on the crown fire plots, indicating that moisture and light conditions were sufficient for American sycamore seedling establishment [60]. Top-killed American sycamore will sprout; it is unlikely, however, that a fire severe enough to kill the aboveground portions will not also kill the shallow roots. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: In the Southeast, the usual fire season is fall; fire years occur when the usual summer drought extends into autumn and early winter. Most fires are accidentally caused by humans [61]. Prescribed fire is not recommended for southeastern bottomland forests in which American sycamore occurs; aside from damaging and killing trees, fire reduces soil organic layers, leading to site degradation. Following fire, weeds and vines flourish on exposed sites, increasing competition with tree seedlings that may establish after fire [57,61]. American sycamore had a significantly lower proportion of its stem weight in bark than any of the other species tested. In the soft hardwoods group (red maple, sweetgum, American sycamore, and yellow-poplar [Liriodendron tulipifera]), American sycamore had the highest average total-tree moisture content of any species tested [20]. A formula to estimate recoverable heat energy in wood or bark fuels is available [86].


SPECIES: Platanus occidentalis
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Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 7. Biswell, Harold H. 1935. Effects of environment upon the root habits of certain deciduous forest trees. Botanical Gazette. 96(4): 676-708. [3076] 8. Boerner, Ralph E. J.; Cho, Do-Soon. 1987. Structure and composition of Goll Woods, an old-growth forest remnant in northwestern Ohio. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(2): 173-179. [8711] 9. Bonner, F. T. 1974. Platanus L. sycamore. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 641-644. [7730] 10. Brady, John T. 1983. Use of dead trees by the endangered Indiana bat. 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Carey, Andrew B.; Gill, John D. 1980. Firewood and wildlife. Res. Note 299. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. [9925] 20. Clark, Alexander, III; Phillips, Douglas R.; Frederick, Douglas J. 1986. Weight, volume, and physical properties of major hardwood species in the Piedmont. Res. Pap. SE-255. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 78 p. [11025] 21. Clatterbuck, W. K.; Oliver, C. D.; Burkhardt, E. C. 1987. The silvicultural potential of mixed stands of cherrybark oak and American sycamore: spacing is the key. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 11(3): 158-161. [4184] 22. Cooper, D. T.; Filer, T. H., Jr.; Wells, O. O. 1977. Geographic variation in disease susceptibility of American sycamore. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 1(4): 21-24. [10637] 23. Croxton, W. C. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to breakage by ice accumulation. Ecology. 20: 71-73. [5993] 24. Daniels, K. R., Jr.; Sarigumba, T. I. 1980. Survival and height growth of sycamore following different site-preparation treatments. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(4): 185-187. [6890] 25. Davis, D. D.; Umbach, D. M.; Coppolino, J. B. 1981. Susceptibility of tree and shrub species and response of black cherry foliage to ozone. Plant Disease. 65(11): 904-907. [12517] 26. Dibble, Alison C.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Tyler, Harry R., Jr.; Vickery, Barbara St. J. 1989. Maine's official list of endangered and threatened plants. Rhodora. 91(867): 244-269. [15681] 27. Dollar, K. E.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Garrett, H. Gene. 1992. Composition and environment of floodplain forests of northern Missouri. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 22: 1343-1350. [19706] 28. Dorris, Lenadams. 1993. Platanus spp.: Sycamores and plane trees. Arbor Age. 13(2): 32-33. [20110] 29. Dugger, Katie M.; Fredrickson, Leigh H. 1992. 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