Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page

Index of Species Information

Typical variety of slash pine (left) and Florida slash pine (right). Images by William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International,, and Chris M. Morrism, respectively.



SPECIES: Pinus elliottii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus elliottii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : PINELL PINELLE PINELLD SYNONYMS : Pinus densa (Little & Dorman) Gaussen Pinus caribaea Morelet (misapplied) Pinus heterophylla (Ell.) Sudworth SCS PLANT CODE : PIEL COMMON NAMES : slash pine yellow slash pine swamp pine Florida slash pine South Florida slash pine Dade County slash pine Dade County pine Cuban pine TAXONOMY : The scientific name of slash pine is Pinus elliottii Engelm. There are two geographic varieties [23,24]: Pinus elliottii var. elliottii, slash pine (typical variety) Pinus elliottii var. densa Little & Dorman, Florida slash pine There is a transitional zone where morphological traits of the two varieties show clinal variation. Both varieties will be discussed in this report with emphasis on the typical slash pine variety, P. elliottii var. elliottii. Slash pine occasionally hybridizes with loblolly pine (P. taeda), late flowering sand pine (P. clausa), and early flowering longleaf pine (P. palustris) [23,24]. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Pinus elliottii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : The native range of the typical slash pine variety includes the Coastal Plain from southern South Carolina to central Florida and west to eastern Louisiana. Slash pine has been planted as far north as Kentucky and Virginia [37], and as far west as eastern Texas, where it now reproduces naturally [24]. South Florida slash pine occurs in central and southern Florida and in the lower Florida Keys [2,24].
Overall disritbution of slash pine (above), and distributions of typical variety of slash pine (lower left) slash pine and Florida slash pine (lower right). Maps courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, June 12] [37].

   FRES12  Longleaf - slash pine
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES14  Oak - pine
   FRES16  Oak - gum - cypress

     AL  AR  FL  GA  KY  LA  MS  NC  OK  SC
     TN  TX  VA


   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest
   K112  Southern mixed forest
   K113  Southern floodplain forest
   K114  Pocosin
   K116  Subtropical pine forest

    70  Longleaf pine
    74  Cabbage palmetto
    81  Loblolly pine
    82  Loblolly pine - hardwood
    83  Longleaf pine - slash pine
    84  Slash pine
    85  Slash pine - hardwood
    97  Atlantic white cedar
    98  Pond pine
   100  Pond cypress
   103  Water tupelo - swamp tupelo
   104  Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
   111  South Florida slash pine


The published classifications listing slash pine as dominant in
community types (cts) are presented below:

Area                    Classification          Authority

SC                      general veg. cts        Nelson 1986
se US: Gulf Coast       general forest cts      Pessin 1933
se US                   general forest cts      Waggoner 1975
se US                   general veg. cts        Christensen 1988
nc FL                   general forest cts      Monk 1968


SPECIES: Pinus elliottii
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Slash pine is an important timber species in the southeastern United States. Its strong, heavy wood is excellent for construction purposes. Because of its high resin content, the wood is also used for railroad ties, poles, and piling [7,24,26,27]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Slash pine seeds are eaten by birds and small mammals. Cattle and deer occasionally browse seedlings [24]. In the St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge of northwestern Florida, slash pine made up 0.7 percent of Indian sambar deer rumens and 0.6 percent of white-tailed deer rumens [34]. The dense foliage of slash pine provides cover and shelter for wildlife [24]. The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker is known to nest in slash pine, although it is not this cavity dweller's preferred species [15]. Large slash pine provide nest sites for bald eagles [48]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Because of slash pine's rapid growth, it is used to stabilize soil and rehabilitate mine spoils. It grows well on coal mine spoils in northern Alabama [24,40]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Slash pine is the preferred naval stores species. Its resin is used for gum turpentine and rosin production [24,41]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Slash pine forest management requires integration of three primary uses: turpentine, wood, and forage production. Intense production and management for one use will likely reduce production for another use. For instance, turpentining reduces slash pine growth by 25 percent while the tree is worked, a closed canopy reduces understory forage production, and fire used to improve forage production and quality may damage young trees [26]. Slash pine is best regenerated using even-aged management. Both the seed tree and shelterwood silviculture systems are effective. For adequate regeneration, leave 6 to 10 seed trees per acre and 25 to 40 shelterwood trees per acre. Overstory trees should be removed 1 to 3 years after seedlings are established. Seedbed preparation increases seedling establishment. Pine growth is enhanced by site preparation and removal of hardwood and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) understory competition [22]. Cattle grazing is extensive on pine flatwoods in the Southeast. Pearson [31] reported that light to moderate grazing did not affect establishment, survival, or growth of seeded or planted slash pine up to 5 years old. Heavy grazing decreased survival, but most losses occurred in the first year. It is recommended that cattle be withheld from grazing young stands until after the first growing season [31]. Disease: The two most serious diseases of slash pine are fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) and annosus root rot (Heterobasidion annosum) [22,24]. Fusiform rust is a stem disease that affects seedlings and saplings. The younger the pine is when it becomes infected, the more likely it is to die [35]. Removing trees with severe stem galls minimizes timber losses and improves stand quality [3]. Annosus root rot infects thinned stands. The fungus colonizes on freshly cut stumps and spreads by root contact. Thick litter is associated with sporophore development [9]. Annosus root rot is most damaging to slash pine if there is good surface drainage. Slash pine grown on shallow soils with a heavy subsoil clay layer are not susceptible to annosus root rot [24]. Lophodermella cerina, a needle-blight-causing fungus, mainly affects slash pine close to metropolitan areas. Air pollution is thought to worsen this disease [38]. Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans, is common in plantations and can girdle a pine [24]. Insects: Insects that attack slash pine include pales weevil (Hylobius pales), black turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus terebrans), engraver beetles (Ips spp.), and defoliators such as pine web worm (Tetralopha robustella), blackheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion excitans), redheaded pine sawfly (N. lecontei), and Texas leafcutting ant (Atta texana) [24]. Florida slash pine is less susceptible to insects and disease than the typical variety of slash pine. Grass-stage seedlings of South Florida slash pine are attacked by brown-spot needle blight (Scirrhia acicola) [24].


SPECIES: Pinus elliottii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Slash pine is a native evergreen conifer with thick platy bark and relatively long needles. It grows rapidly and lives approximately 200 years. Slash pine has an extensive lateral root system and a moderate taproot [24]. The typical slash pine variety has a straight bole and a narrow ovoid crown. Mature trees of this variety vary in height from 60 to 100 feet (18-30.5 m) and average 24 inches (61 cm) in d.b.h. [13]. The two varieties differ considerably in morphology. South Florida slash pine has longer needles, smaller cones, denser wood, and a thicker and longer taproot [24]. The trunk forks into large spreading branches which form a broad, rounded crown [13,46]. Mature trees attain only 56 feet (17 m) in height. The relatively short stature of South Florida slash pine probably evolved to avoid tropical storm damage [21]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Seed production and dissemination: Slash pine is monoecious. Trees usually begin producing cones between 10 and 15 years of age. Good cone crops occur every 3 years for the typical variety and every 4 years for the South Florida variety. Ninety percent of the light, winged seeds fall within 150 feet (46 m) of the source tree [24]. Germination and seedling development: Germination is epigeal and occurs within 2 weeks of seedfall. Slash pine seeds have good viability. Exposed mineral soil enhances germination [24]. Open-grown seedlings of the typical slash pine variety grow 16 inches (41 cm) in the first year. Root development is best in clayey soil and worst in sandy soil [24]. Seedlings of the South Florida variety have a 2- to 6-year grass stage similar to that of longleaf pine. During the grass stage, seedlings develop an extensive root system and a thick root collar. Once initiated, height growth is rapid [13]. Florida slash pine seedlings are more drought and flood tolerant than those of the typical variety [1,2]. Vegetative reproduction: Florida slash pine grass-stage seedlings can sprout from the root collar if top-killed [24]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Slash pine grows in a warm, humid climate and up to about 500 feet (150 m) in elevation. Slash pine grows best on mesic flatwood sites and on pond or stream margins where soil moisture is ample but not excessive, and drainage is poor [24]. Established stands grow well on flooded sites, but flooding restricts seedling establishment [14]. Soils include Spodosols, Ultisols, and Entisols. Slash pine's native range was probably more restricted by frequent fire than by soil types or soil moisture. With fire suppression, slash pine has spread to drier sites [2,14]. The Florida slash pine variety grows from near sea level to about 70 feet (20 m) in elevation [8]. This variety grows in a wide range of conditions, from wet sites in the northern part of its range to well-drained sandy soils and rocky limestone outcrops in the South [2,21]. Tree associates of slash pine include live oak (Quercus virginiana), water oak (Q. nigra), post oak (Q. stellata), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), myrtle oak (Q. myrtifolia), bluejack oak (Q. incana), turkey oak (Q. laevis), southern red cedar (Juniperus silicicola), pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens), cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto), red maple (Acer rubrum), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) [8]. Understory species on drier sites include pineland threeawn (Aristida stricta), bluestem (Andropogon spp.), saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens), gallberry (Ilex glabra), fetterbush (Lyonia lucida), and pitcher plant (Sarracenia spp.). On moist to wet sites, understory species include southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), buckwheat-tree (Cliftonia monophylla), yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), and dahoon (I. cassine). Undergrowth on very wet sites is primarily Sphagnum spp. [8]. More than fifteen species of herbs are endemic to the Miami rock ridge pinelands where Florida slash pine dominates [36]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Slash pine is relatively intolerant of competition and intolerant of shade [24]. It will reproduce in small openings and invade open longleaf pine stands, but growth is reduced by competition and partial shade [22]. Slash pine invades fallow agricultural fields and disturbed areas. It will invade longleaf pine stands where fire has been absent for at least 5 to 6 years. In the absence of fire, slash pine flatwoods are replaced by southern mixed hardwood forests on drier sites and by bayheads on wetter sites [29]. Florida slash pine may be an edaphic or fire climax on flatwood sites [8]. In the absence of fire, this variety is also replaced by hardwoods. In pine rocklands, hardwood succession is rapid, but in pine flatwoods, vegetative changes occur more slowly [42]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Male strobili begin to develop in June, grow for several weeks, and then go dormant until midwinter. Pollen is shed from late January to February. Female strobili begin to develop in late August and grow until they are fully developed. Cones mature in September, approximately 20 months after pollinization. Seed fall is in October [24].


SPECIES: Pinus elliottii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Young slash pine is susceptible to fire, but mature trees are fire resistant [4]. Thick bark and high, open crowns allow individuals to survive fire. Slash pine, however, is less fire resistant than longleaf or sand pine [27]. Seedlings grow fast, and in 10 to 12 years slash pine is resistant to fire that does not crown [46]. Estimates of the natural fire frequency of slash pine flatwoods range from 3 to 15 fires per century [8,21]. A fire interval of at least 5 to 6 years allows young trees to develop some fire resistance. Fires are ignited by lightning in late spring and summer [10,41]. Ample soil moisture and seasonally wet depressions and drainages of slash pine habitat impede fire entry. Occasional fire serves to reduce hardwood competition and expose mineral soil which enhances germination [21,24]. The bark structure of slash pine is important to its fire resistance. Outer bark layers overlap and protect grooves where the bark is thinner [6]. The platy bark flakes off to dissipate heat [21]. The South Florida variety is more fire resistant than the typical variety because seedlings and saplings have thicker bark [1,2,24,42]. The estimated natural fire frequency of Florida slash pine communities is 25 fires per century [21]. Crown fires are rare because frequent fires reduce fuel build-up, trees self-prune well, and stands are open [1]. In addition to adaptations of the typical slash pine variety, the South Florida variety is fire resistant in the seedling grass stage. A dense tuft of needles protects the terminal bud. If top-killed by fire, the grass-stage seedling may sprout from the root collar [45]. See the longleaf pine review for further information on grass-stage seedlings. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Crown-stored residual colonizer; short-viability seed in on-site cones off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years one and two


SPECIES: Pinus elliottii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : One- and two-year-old slash pine are killed by low-severity fire. After 3 to 4 years, seedlings survive low-severity fire but not moderate-severity fire. Ten- to fifteen-foot-tall (3.0-4.6 m) saplings survive moderate-severity fires. Once slash pine is 10 to 12 years old, it survives fire that does not crown [10,24,41,46]. Slash pine is tolerant of crown scorch. Scorched foliage is replaced by new shoots. Slash pine as young as 5 years old may recover from 100 percent crown scorch [6,41]. Slash pine taller than 5 feet (1.5 m) seldom die if less than 70 percent of the crown is scorched [26]. In New South Wales, Australia, a fall wildfire burned a slash pine plantation averaging 20 feet (6.1 m) in height. The fire crowned in most areas. Trees with no green needles, few or no brown needles, and a drooping apical branch had 31 percent survival, trees with mostly brown needles and few or no green needles present had 93.8 percent survival, and trees with clearly visible green needles at the top had 96.9 percent survival [39]. Slash pine needles were killed instantly when immersed in water at 147 degrees Fahrenheit (64 deg C) but survived 9.5 minutes at 126 degrees Fahrenheit (52 deg C) [5]. If slash pine bark is thicker than 0.6 inch (1.5 cm), mortality due to cambium damage is unlikely from a low-severity fire. In one study, 0.08-inch (0.2 cm) thick bark protected the cambium from externally applied heat at a temperature of 572 degrees Fahrenheit (300 deg C) for 1 minute. Bark which was 0.47 inch (1.2 cm) thick protected the cambium from 1110 degrees Fahrenheit (600 deg C) for 2 minutes [6]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : Seedlings of the South Florida variety are more fire resistant than the typical slash pine variety but less resistant than longleaf pine seedlings [46]. In Florida, 2-year-old seedlings of both varieties averaging 3 feet (0.9 m) in height were burned by wildfire in December. Twenty-three percent of the South Florida variety burned by headfire and 56 percent burned by backfire survived. Less than one percent of the typical variety survived either headfires or backfires. One-third of the Florida slash pine survivors sprouted from dormant buds at or near the root collar and along the bole. Root collar sprouts died back after new needle growth appeared below the fire-killed leader [19]. A cool, prescribed winter fire in a Florida slash pine stand killed many older pines, but young pines survived. Although there was no outward sign of fire damage, fire may have killed the feeder roots, and only young, vigorous pines were able to recover [43]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Slash pine's growth response to fire is variable. Slash pine damaged by fire may suffer a short-term reduction in growth, although fires that result in light or no scorch may actually enhance growth [41]. In the Georgia Coastal Plain, a 9-year-old stand averaging 24.5 feet (7.5 m) in height and 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) in d.b.h. was prescribed burned in February. In the first postfire growing season, slash pine with 0 to 15 percent crown scorch outgrew the control, pine with 15 to 40 percent crown scorch was not significantly different in growth from the control, and pine with more than 40 percent scorch showed reduced growth. Growth returned to normal in the second postfire growing season [16]. Severely scorched, 25-year-old slash pine in Georgia, averaging 8 inches (20 cm) in d.b.h., lost almost a full year's growth in two growing seasons. Growth of trees with less than 10 percent crown scorch was only 85 percent of unburned trees after 2 years [17]. In Louisiana, annual and biennial prescribed backfires initiated in a 4-year-old stand averaging 7.8 feet (2.4 m) in height reduced growth, but trienniel fires did not. Whether the fires were in May or March had no effect on growth [12]. Height growth is slightly more sensitive to needle scorch than diameter growth. McCulley [26] reported that height growth loss occurred in trees with no crown scorch if they were smaller than 7 inches (18 cm) in d.b.h., but diameter growth loss only occurred in trees with greater than 30 percent crown scorch. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : If a poor seed crop is expected, prescribed burning should be done prior to seedfall to enhance germination. Prescribed burning before stand establishment also reduces fire hazard in young stands. Prescribed burning at 3 to 5 year intervals throughout the stand rotation will facilitate future seedbed preparation, and control but not eradicate hardwoods. Hardwoods benefit wildlife and complete eradication is not necessary. At the end of the rotation, successive summer fires can be used for site preparation [22]. In the southern Florida pine rocklands, fire every 3 to 7 years has effectively controlled hardwoods [42]. Young slash pine stands should not be burned for the first 5 years or until the stand is 12 to 15 feet (3.7-4.6 m) tall [22,26,46]. Cattle can be used to reduce fuel buildup until young pine stands are resistant to light fire [12,46]. Prescribed winter and spring burning is usually done in pine flatwoods every 2 to 3 years to increase range grasses for cattle [41]. In the Coastal Plain, prescribed burning before and after thinning reduced infection by root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum. The fire destroyed the litter that is associated with sporophore development of the fungus. A fungal competitor, Trichloderma spp., increased in the soil after burning and may have contributed to the reduced infection [9].


SPECIES: Pinus elliottii
REFERENCES : 1. Abrahamson, Warren G. 1984. Species response to fire on the Florida Lake Wales Ridge. American Journal of Botany. 71(1): 35-43. [9608] 2. Abrahamson, Warren G.; Hartnett, David C. 1990. Pine flatwoods and dry prairies. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 103-149. [17388] 3. Belanger, Roger P.; Zarnoch, Stanley J. 1991. Evaluating and predicting tree mortality associated with fusiform rust in merchantable slash and loblolly pine plantations. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 289-298. [17483] 4. Brown, Arthur A.; Davis, Kenneth P. 1973. Forest fire control and use. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 686 p. [15993] 5. Byram, G. M.; Nelson, R. M. 1952. Lethal temperatures and fire injury. Res. Note No. 1. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 2 p. [16317] 6. de Ronde, C. 1982. The resistance of Pinus species to fire damage. South African Forestry Journal. 122: 22-27. [9916] 7. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Froelich, R. C.; Hodges, C. S., Jr.; Sackett, S. S. 1978. Prescribed burning reduces severity of annosus root rot in the South. Forest Science. 24: 93-100. [8332] 10. Garren, Kenneth H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review. 9: 617-654. [9517] 11. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 12. Grelen, Harold E. 1983. Comparison of seasons and frequencies of burning in a young slash pine plantation. Res. Pap. SO-185. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. [10996] 13. Harlow, William M.; Harrar, Ellwood S., White, F. M. 1979. Textbook of dendrology. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. 510 p. [18070] 14. Hebb, Edwin A.; Clewell, Andre F. 1976. A remnant stand of old-growth slash pine in the Florida panhandle. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 103(1): 1-9. [12739] 15. Jackson, Jerome A. 1971. The evolution, taxonomy, distribution, past populations and current status of the red-cockaded woodpecker. In: Thompson, Richard L., ed. The ecology and management of the red-cockaded woodpecker: Proceedings of a symposium; 1971 May 26-27; Folkston, GA. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 4-29. [17996] 16. Johansen, R. W. 1975. Prescribed burning may enhance growth of young slash pine. Journal of Forestry. 73: 148-149. [12018] 17. Johansen, Ragnar W.; Wade, Dale D. 1987. Effects of crown scorch on survival and diameter growth of slash pines. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 11(4): 180-184. [11962] 18. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 19. Ketcham, D. E.; Bethune, J. E. 1963. Fire resistance of south Florida slash pine. Journal of Forestry. 61: 529-530. [17992] 20. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 21. Landers, J. Larry. 1991. Disturbance influences on pine traits in the southeastern United States. In: Proceedings, 17th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1989 May 18-21; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 61-95. [17601] 22. Langdon, O. Gordon; Bennett, Frank. 1976. Management of natural stands of slash pine. Res. Pap. SE-147. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 12 p. [11853] 23. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952] 24. Lohrey, Richard E.; Kossuth, Susan V. 1990. Pinus elliottii Engelm. slash pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 338-347. [13396] 25. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 26. McCulley, Robert D. 1950. Management of natural slash pine stands in the Flatwoods of south Florida and north Florida. Circular No. 845. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 57 p. [15016] 27. McCune, Bruce. 1988. Ecological diversity in North American pines. American Journal of Botany. 75(3): 353-368. [5651] 28. McMinn, James W. 1969. Preparing sites for pine plantings in south Florida. Res. Note SE-117. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6 p. [11866] 29. Monk, Carl D. 1968. Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north central Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 79(2): 441-457. [10847] 30. Nelson, John B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Wildlife & Marine Resources Department. 54 p. [15578] 31. Pearson, H. A.; Whitaker, L. B.; Duvall, V. L. 1971. Slash pine regeneration under regulated grazing. Journal of Forestry. 69: 744-746. [13830] 32. Pessin, L. J. 1933. Forest associations in the uplands of the lower Gulf Coastal Plain (longleaf pine belt). Ecology. 14(1): 1-14. [12389] 33. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 34. Shea, Stephen M.; Flynn, Les B.; Marchinton, R. Larry; Lewis, James C. 1990. Part 2. Social behavior, movement ecology, and food habits. In: Ecology of sambar deer on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Bull. No. 25. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 13-62. [17995] 35. Shoulders, Eugene; Scarborough, James H., Jr.; Arnold, Ray A. 1991. Fusiform rust impact on slash pine under different cultural regimes. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 282-288. [17482] 36. Snyder, James R. 1991. Fire regimes in subtropical south Florida. In: High-intensity fire in wildlands: management challenges and options: Proceedings, 17th annual meeting of the Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1991 May 18-21; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 303-319. [17068] 37. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer). Available: [34262] 38. Van Deusen, Paul C.; Snow, Glenn A. 1991. Paired-tree study suggests 20-year recurrent slash pine blight. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1145-1148. [15419] 39. Van Loon, A. P. 1967. Some effects of a wild fire on a southern pine plantation. Res. Note No. 21. New South Wales, Aust.: Forestry Commission of New South Wales. 38 p. [14548] 40. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577] 41. Wade, Dale D. 1983. Fire management in the slash pine ecosystem. In: Proceedings of the managed slash pine ecoystem; 1981; Gainesville, FL. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida: School of Forest Resources and Conservation: 203-227; 290-294; 301. [17997] 42. Wade, Dale; Ewel, John; Hofstetter, Ronald. 1980. Fire in South Florida ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-17. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 125 p. [10362] 43. Wade, Dale D.; Johansen, R. W. 1986. Effects of fire on southern pine: observations and recommendations. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-41. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. [10984] 44. Waggoner, Gary S. 1975. Eastern deciduous forest, Vol. 1: Southeastern evergreen and oak-pine region. Natural History Theme Studies No. 1, NPS 135. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 206 p. [16103] 45. Ward, Daniel B. 1963. Contributions to the flora of Florida--2, Pinus (Pinaceae). Castanea. 28(1): 1-10. [17991] 46. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620] 47. Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation of the southeastern Coastal Plain. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 317-363. [17414] 48. Breininger, David R.; Smith, Rebecca B. 1992. Relationships between fire and bird density in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods in Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 127(2): 233-240. [17993]

FEIS Home Page