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Photo by Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
Information on state-level noxious weed status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.
Chinaberrytree is a nonnative tree in North America. It occurs throughout the southern United States north to Virginia and west to central California [20,128]. It also occurs in Utah, Oklahoma, Missouri and New York [28,135]. It has been recommended for highway planting in Nevada  and may occur there. It also occurs in Hawaii and Puerto Rico . In southern forests, its estimated cover is greatest in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Texas . Plants Database provides a map of Chinaberrytree's distribution within the United States.
Because Chinaberrytree has been extensively cultivated around the world, its native distribution is uncertain . Chinaberrytree is considered native to southeastern Asia, specifically central and western China, northern India (review by ), the Himalayan region (, review by ), Burma, and Malaysia . It is also native to tropical Australia . In addition to North America, Chinaberrytree occurs as a nonnative in Mexico, Argentina (reviews by [10,94]), and other warm-temperature parts of the world .
Chinaberrytree has been cultivated and planted in many parts of the world since the 16th century. In North America, it was initially introduced in 1830 to South Carolina and Georgia as an ornamental (review by ). Chinaberrytree readily escapes cultivation [22,35,130,137,146] and spreads to disturbed sites and wildlands.
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Chinaberrytree often occurs around human habitation or on sites associated with anthropogenic disturbance (see Site characteristics). Where it escapes to wildlands, it occurs in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed riparian/floodplain forests [14,17,26,31,38,39,44,67,86,99,100,141], swamps [67,108], thickets ([31,47], review by ), upland forests [53,74,129,140], open woodlands [1,31,39,47], and forest margins ([31,45,47], review by ). Information on specific habitat types and plant communities associated with Chinaberrytree is lacking; however, a sufficient amount of incidental information is available to provide a broad description of its common associates in North America.
Southeastern United States: Chinaberrytree occurs with a variety of overstory species including longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) [74,129], loblolly pine (P. taeda) [12,27,48,86,95], hickory (Carya spp.) [27,44,86], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) [12,44,48,86,95,113], southern red oak (Quercus falcata) [44,113], water oak (Q. nigra) [44,48,113], and live oak (Q. virginiana) [98,113]. In Florida, it has occasionally been collected in oak hammocks and pine flatwoods [1,113,145] and may establish in wet grasslands in areas where fire has been excluded (review by ). In one study, Chinaberrytree occurred in abandoned agricultural fields infested with kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) .
South-central and Southwestern United States: In riparian and floodplain forests, Chinaberrytree occurs with live oak, pecan (Carya illinoensis), netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata) , eastern swampprivet (Forestiera acuminata) , and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) . In New Mexico, Chinaberrytree occurred in a cottonwood- (Populus spp.) dominated floodplain forest . In Texas, Chinaberrytree occurred in an upland pine-oak forest (Pinus spp.-Quercus spp.) dominated by shortleaf pine (P. echinata) , an oak-sweetgum upland forest that had been logged , and upland grasslands (Randall and Rice unpublished cited by ). In one instance, Chinaberrytree formed impenetrable patches of vegetation in combination with pokeweed (Phytolacca sp.) and boneset (Eupatorium sp.) on an island off the coast of Texas .
Photo by James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Aboveground: In North America, Chinaberrytree is a deciduous tree (reviews by [26,78]) that typically has a single trunk  and a rounded crown ([39,135], reviews by [33,78]). In Australia, Chinaberrytree is semi-evergreen . In North America, Chinaberrytree typically grows from 32 feet (9.8 m) [60,104] to about 50 feet (15 m) tall [31,36,39,104,130,135], with about a 20-inch (60 cm) diameter (DBH) . In Hawaii, it may grow to about 70 feet (20 m) tall . In the United States, the largest recorded Chinaberrytree tree occurs in Hawaii and is 75 feet (23 m) in height, 18.6 feet (5.64 m) in circumference, and has a 96-foot (29 m) canopy spread . Occasionally, Chinaberrytree is shrub-like ([47,79], review by ). On Chinaberrytree trees that have been cut, fasciation (change from relatively round stem to relatively flat stem) may occur on 4- to 5-foot (1-2 m) long, branched segments . Chinaberrytree's dark green leaves  are 2 to 3 times compound, about 1 (, review by ) to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) long ([22,84,130], reviews by [33,77,78,89]), and about 9 to 16 inches (20-41 cm) wide (review by ).
Chinaberrytree's inflorescence is a loose, many-flowered , stalked panicle [13,28,105,132], sometimes cymose . Chinaberrytree's fruit is a globose  to subglobose [130,132] drupe [22,28,105,137] about 0.4 to 0.8 inches (1-2 cm) in diameter [47,105,130,132], but may be as much as 2 inches (5 cm) wide (review by ). At maturity the Chinaberrytree fruit is various shades of yellow (, reviews by [33,77]). In Chinaberrytree's native Asian range, fruit grows in clusters of 2 to 15 or more and drupes are 0.3 to 0.59 inches (0.8-1.5 cm) in diameter . Chinaberrytree seed is fleshy and is 7.6 mm long × 3.2 mm wide , but may be as small as 3.5 mm long × 1.6 mm wide in some cultivars .
Cultivars: Mabberley  indicated that Chinaberrytree cultivars throughout the world are variable in form and are morphologically different from wild types growing in Asia. It is likely that all Chinaberrytree trees introduced to this continent descended from some form of cultivar. In the United States, two cultivars occur that are morphologically distinct from the common type (see above description) in North America. 'Umbraculiformis' is distinguished from the common type by its multiple stems, umbrella-like canopy and shorter stature (20 to 25 feet (6-7.6 m) tall) (reviews by [33,55,78]). 'Jade Snowflake' is distinguished by its variegated leaves (review by ).
Belowground: Available literature as of this writing (2009) suggests that Chinaberrytree's root system may vary under different growing conditions. In India, 6-year-old Chinaberrytree trees growing in a nonirrigated plantation lacked tap roots. Lateral roots occurred at an average depth of 39.9 inches (76.0 cm) and weighed about 2.9 pounds (1.3 kilograms)/tree . In Argentina, Chinaberrytree trees on wildlands had both lateral roots and a tap root. First order lateral roots grew horizontally, within 2 inches (4 cm) of the soil surface .
Stand structure: Chinaberrytree can occur as scattered trees (review by ) but can also form dense stands, as has been observed in Florida (review by ) and Texas [39,121]. Chinaberrytree density was 6 trees/acre (15 trees/ha) in a red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp forest in Florida . On an island off the coast of Texas, dense stands of Chinaberrytree, in combination with pokeweed and boneset, were "impenetrable" . Following physical damage (from fire, herbivory, etc.) Chinaberrytree may exhibit clonal growth , which may increase its potential to form dense stands.
Longevity: One review indicated that Chinaberrytree may be short-lived . Chinaberrytree wood is weak (review by ) and susceptible to heartwood rot and rapid decay (review by ).
Other: In the laboratory, dried material from Chinaberrytree suppressed the germination and growth of radish, leading researchers to conclude that Chinaberrytree had allelopathic potential. Dried Chinaberrytree material only moderately reduced weed emergence in a rice paddy, leading researchers to speculate that allelopathic potential of Chinaberrytree could be influenced by soil chemistry and microorganisms . Chinaberrytree's allelopathic potential has not been studied in wildlands.
Reproduction: In Florida (, reviews by [77,89]) and Texas , Chinaberrytree flowers from March through April or May. Fruits and seeds are produced by July (reviews by [77,89]) and ripen from September to October (, review by ). Fruit often remains on the tree until the leaves fall ([47,130], review by ) or longer; sometimes until winter (reviews by [33,89]), the next spring (, review by ), or the following summer (review by ). In Japan, Chinaberrytree fruits ripen autumn through winter .
Growth: In India, Chinaberrytree shoot growth was initiated by bud burst and new leaf development in late February. Most Chinaberrytree growth (69-80%) occurred during the next 4 months. Maximum shoot growth occurred during the dry months of the growing season from March to April. Increases in Chinaberrytree diameter occurred primarily from April through August .
Photo by Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org
Chinaberrytree typically reproduces from seed ([36,124], review by ) but also sprouts from root buds (, review by ) or stumps . In wild populations, sexual reproduction may be more common in undisturbed conditions , while vegetative regeneration may be limited to Chinaberrytree trees that have been damaged .
Pollination and breeding system: Chinaberrytree trees have perfect (reviews by [33,47]) flowers or a combination of perfect and staminate flowers (review by ). Chinaberrytree flowers are fragrant (review by ), which may serve as an attractant for insect pollinators. The mahogany family (Meliaceae) as a whole uses nectar and fragrance to attract pollinators, most often moths and bees (review by ). Flowers of the Chinaberrytree clutivar 'Umbraculiformis' are self-pollinated or cross-pollinated , and it is likely both methods occur in wild Chinaberrytree.
Seed production: A review indicates that Chinaberrytree is a prolific seeder and may begin flowering in the seedling stage . Available literature (2009) regarding Chinaberrytree seed production is inconsistent. Numerous North American floras indicate that Chinaberrytree drupes are 1-seeded [60,70,105]; other literature indicates that the drupe contains 3 to 6 seeds ([63,130], reviews by [55,89]). Mabberley  describes Chinaberrytree's drupes as having 1 to 8 locules that each contain 1 or 2 seeds. Welsh  describes Chinaberrytree fruit as containing 1 seed per locule but does not indicate how many locules Chinaberrytree has per drupe. A flora from China indicates that Chinaberrytree fruit has 5 to 8 locules, with 2 ovules per locule .
Seed dispersal: In North America, Chinaberrytree seed is dispersed by animals, gravity, and possibly water. Birds and mammals eat Chinaberrytree fruit and disperse its seed ([95,130], reviews by [33,77,134]). Cattle egrets in Texas use fruit-bearing twigs of Chinaberrytree for nesting material, thus dispersing its seed . Seedlings emerge in abundance near the parent plant (review by ), suggesting that much of the seed is gravity dispersed. In Hawaii, Chinaberrytree does not appear to have a natural dispersal agent and is thought to be dispersed by humans . In Africa, Chinaberrytree is dispersed by water and birds [59,64].
Seed banking: Chinaberrytree likely forms a short-term seed bank, and its longevity may be extended under certain conditions. A review  classified Chinaberrytree with a group of other rainforest species that may undergo at least a short period of physiological dormancy (see Germination and seedling establishment). In Australia, Chinaberrytree occurred occasionally in a tropical rainforest where viable Chinaberrytree seeds were collected from soil samples at depths up to 2 inches (5 cm). A total of 13 Chinaberrytree seeds germinated from 2 of the 12 samples . In a forested sand dune in Virginia, Chinaberrytree failed to germinate from 3-inch-deep (8 cm) soil samples although it occurred as a minor component in the overstory . Menvielle and Scopel  indicated that under nondisturbed conditions, an annual supply of fresh Chinaberrytree fruit may be necessary to maintain a continually viable Chinaberrytree seed bank.
Chinaberrytree seed may retain viability for at least 1 year if kept in dry storage (, review by ). In a laboratory, seed in Chinaberrytree stones stored at temperatures from -4 to 50 °F (-20 to 10 °C), and in variable moisture conditions, remained viable for 26 months. Seed viability declined with increased temperature and moisture, and lowest viability occurred in stones stored at 50 °F (10 °C) and 11.7% moisture. Researchers concluded that Chinaberrytree seed may remain viable when stored over a wide range of air and moisture conditions, but longevity is typically increased with decreases in temperature and moisture .
Germination and seedling establishment: Some Chinaberrytree seed may undergo a short period of dormancy prior to germination. A review indicated that in a nursery, Chinaberrytree seed may take 1 to 3 months to germinate . A propagation manual indicated that when grown in a nursery, 65% of Chinaberrytree seed could be expected to germinate within 3 weeks after being sown  but no details were given on growing conditions or potting medium. In the laboratory, 50% of Chinaberrytree seed germinated in 4 weeks . A review suggested that Chinaberrytree seed undergoes physiological dormancy for more than 4 weeks before germinating, but dormancy is broken by warm or cold stratification (Nikolaeva 1977 cited in ).
Chinaberrytree seed remaining encased within the stone may be capable of germinating. Under laboratory conditions, Chinaberrytree seed germinated from 80% of stones after 91 days at alternating temperatures from 68 to 86 °F (20-30 °C) .
Germination may occur across a range of pH; however, seedling establishment and vigor may be negatively impacted by highly acidic conditions. Reduced seedling emergence and "severe" leaf damage were observed in Chinaberrytree when exposed to acid rain (pH 2-6). In the laboratory, Chinaberrytree germinated in solutions of various pH ranging from 2 to 6. Continual exposure of germinated Chinaberrytree seed to pH 2 caused primary shoots and roots to rot, leading to "very low" seedling emergence .
Plant growth: In North America, Chinaberrytree is a fast growing tree (, reviews by [33,55,78,96]) and sometimes produces fruit in as little as 3 to 4 years (review by ). In its native range, annual growth rings are wide, sometimes as much as 0.5 inch (1 cm) (review by ). Chinaberrytree seedlings planted in experimental croplands in Uganda grew to 15 feet (4.5 m) tall and 1.8 inches (4.5 cm) wide (root-collar diameter) within 30 months. On another site, Chinaberrytree seedlings grew to nearly 30 feet (10 m) tall and 8 inches (20 cm) wide within 50 months of planting. Seedlings planted at 4,100 feet (1,250 m ) elevation grew faster than those planted at 5,280 feet (1,610 m) . On a plantation in northwestern India, 6-year-old Chinaberrytree trees had an average height of 32 feet (9.8 m), a diameter (DBH) of 4.17 inches (10.6 cm), and a crown spread of about 18 feet (5.6 m) .
Vegetative regeneration: When damaged, Chinaberrytree sprouts from roots (, review by ) or from stumps [7,124]. Root sprouts grow from root buds on lateral roots as a response to physical damage (e.g., fire, animal injury, tree felling) . Chinaberrytree has been propagated from cuttings, root suckers , and adventitious buds that develop on the callus tissue of root segments. The larger the diameter of root segment, the more sprouts it will produce .
Chinaberrytree trees produced from sprouts may grow faster and reproduce earlier than trees produced from seed. Following disturbance, survivorship of Chinaberrytree root sprouts (ca. 40%) was higher than for seedlings (0.5-3%). Within 2 years, trees produced from root sprouts accumulated more than 200 times the biomass of trees produced from seed, and some trees had reached reproductive stage .
In North America, Chinaberrytree occurs in many habitats (review by ) and variable environments.
Climate: Chinaberrytree's North American distribution is likely restricted by winter temperatures. Based on the United States Department of Agriculture's hardiness zone classification system, it has been suggested that in temperate climates, Chinaberrytree can withstand winter temperatures ranging from 5 to 30 °F (-15 °C to -1.1 °C) (reviews by [33,78]), or maybe as low as -10 °F (-23.3 °C) . A review by Dirr , however, indicated that Chinaberrytree would be severely injured or killed at temperatures at or below -3 °F (20 °C). In North America, Chinaberrytree's most northern distribution at the time of this writing (2009) is New York state, where average January temperature can range from near 22 °F (-6 °C) along the coast to below -14 °F ( -10 °C) in the mountains , suggesting that Chinaberrytree may tolerate moderately cold winter temperatures even if it only occurs in the warmer portions of this state.
Available information indicates Chinaberrytree occurs in climates of variable humidity and precipitation. A study from India indicated that Chinaberrytree is suitable for arid regions (Randhawa 1965-1983 cited in ). In the northern Cape of Africa, where Chinaberrytree is nonnative, it was common along streambanks and roadsides in a semiarid savanna, but its abundance declined in arid regions . In North America, Chinaberrytree has been observed in humid climates (Alabama  and Virginia ), subtropical humid, subtropical subhumid , and dry-subhumid to semiarid climates (Texas) (Larkin and Bomar 1983 cited in ). In North America, Chinaberrytree occurs in areas that receive average rainfalls of about 20 to 60 inches (600-1,500 mm)/year ([86,99,143], Larkin and Bomar 1983 cited in , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1979 cited in ). Rainfall may be uniformly distributed throughout the year (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1979 cited in ) or may be seasonally distributed .
In parts of its native range, Chinaberrytree may occur in areas that receive seasonally restricted rainfall. In India, Chinaberrytree occurs in dry monsoon climates with average annual rainfall from 2 inches (50 mm) to 40 inches (1,000 mm) [13,123]. In Australia, Chinaberrytree is a rainforest canopy species [103,117] and occurs in areas that received average annual rainfall of 55 inches (1,401 mm) to 172 inches (4,383 mm), primarily during summer months (November to May) [65,103].
General Habitat and Moisture: Chinaberrytree occurs on sites altered by human activity such as fence rows [36,47], abandoned agricultural fields , pastures [132,138], highways (review by ), logging sites [53,117], and riparian areas that are heavily grazed . It is frequently associated with disturbance [26,31,45,105,132], especially soil disturbance . Chinaberrytree occurs on sites impacted by hurricanes [45,65,117] and flooding [17,64]. In wildlands it occurs in both disturbed [1,53] and undisturbed [12,124] plant communities.
Chinaberrytree occurs in wet and dry habitats and may occur in either extreme. In Texas, Chinaberrytree occurred in habitat that was inundated year-round . It established in a Texas floodplain where deep, high velocity flooding occurred . In the mediterranean region of California, Chinaberrytree withstood flooding for almost an entire growing season while continuing to develop new roots . Four out of 6 Chinaberrytree trees that were partially submersed up to 1.5 feet (0.46 m) during the growing season were alive after 45 days and were classified as intermediately tolerant to flooding . In Africa, Chinaberrytree occurred in a wet floodplain floor that experienced periodic flooding .
In Hawaii, Chinaberrytree prefers dry sites, especially in gulches and pastures . Reviews indicate that Chinaberrytree is drought tolerant in Texas (reviews by [21,49]), although one flora indicated otherwise . In southwestern Alabama, Chinaberrytree was an occasional species on well drained sites . In the southeastern United States, Chinaberrytree occurs with longleaf pine [74,129], a species found on well-drained sites . In Florida, Chinaberrytree was one of a number of species that established in a hammock after its hydrology had been changed from wet to mesic by draining . A study from India indicated that Chinaberrytree is drought-resistant (Randhawa 1965-1983 cited in ).
Elevation: Information pertaining to Chinaberrytree's elevational range is sparse; however, available information indicates that Chinaberrytree occurs over a range of elevations in North American, from sea level on the coast, up to 3,000 feet (915 m) in one western state. Chinaberrytree may be uncommon at high elevations in the southeastern United States (review by ). One review indicated that where it is native, Chinaberrytree occurs in both lowland and highland rainforests .
|Reported elevational ranges for Chinaberrytree|
|Alabama||210 feet (63 m) |
|California||0 to 656 feet (0-200 m) |
|Hawaii||0 to 2,000 feet (0- 610 m) |
|Texas||381 to 430 feet (116-131 m) |
|Utah||2,800 to 3,000 feet (850- 900 m) |
|Australia||300 feet (100 m) |
|Pakistan||up to 5,600 feet (1,700 m) |
Substrate: Chinaberrytree does not appear to be limited by soil texture. In Texas, Chinaberrytree occurred in a floodplain with deep, well-drained (Coffee and others 1980 cited in ) silty clays ; in a riparian area characterized by loams (Carter 1931 cited in ); and near a lake on sands and sandy loams . In 24 sampled sites across the south-central United States, Chinaberrytree was most frequently associated with soils containing a high percent of clay . In a Louisiana floodplain, Chinaberrytree occurred on a site with poorly drained silt loams and silty clay loams . In South Carolina, Chinaberrytree occurred on abandoned agricultural lands in soils that were primarily loams .
Little information is available on other characteristics of Chinaberrytree substrates at the time of this writing (2009). One study reported Chinaberrytree in a Texas floodplain in which the entire study area was described as having calcareous, moderately alkaline soils with a pH ranging from 7.6 to 7.8 . In Georgia, Chinaberrytree occurred in an area with pH ranging from 4.9 to 6.9 and an average pH of 5.6 . In a tropical rainforest in Australia, Chinaberrytree occurred on a site where drainage was impeded, and soils derived from granite overlaid sandstone and schist bedrock .
Chinaberrytree has not been studied from a successional perspective as of this writing (2009), but available evidence suggests it may occur across a range of successional stages, from early to late succession.
Shade tolerance: Chinaberrytree grows in full sun and in forests (see Habitat Types and Plant Communities and Site Characteristics), but its tolerance to shade is unclear. One review indicates that Chinaberrytree is not shade tolerant , but it does occur in forests. In the wild, Chinaberrytree occurs as an overstory tree  and in relatively open habitats such as flatwoods, hammocks, and other types of open woodlands (see Habitat Types and Plant Communities). However, it is unclear if Chinaberrytree occurs as a shade intolerant overstory tree or as a shade tolerant mid-story or understory tree. In one instance, researchers from Louisiana reported Chinaberrytree in the mid-story of the canopy .
Chinaberrytree sprouts on open sites (see Vegetative regeneration), and seedlings also likely establish in sunlight, but it is unknown whether the species reproduces in shade.
Successional stages: Chinaberrytree is a common associate of early successional species such as loblolly pine and sweetgum  and is associated with disturbed sites (see Vegetative regeneration and General Habitat and Moisture), suggesting it may have a role in early succession. A few North American studies have noted Chinaberrytree's occurrence on sites in early succession. In South Carolina, it established in an abandoned agricultural field . In Alabama, patches of Chinaberrytree trees occurred in a 7-year-old clearcut , and in Texas it occurred in a forest 10 years after intensive logging . Chinaberrytree's establishment in early succession may occur from on or off-site seed sources, or it can persist by root or stump sprouting.
Chinaberrytree also occurs with a variety of shade tolerant oak species that establish after early succession , suggesting that it may persist past early succession in some forests, but for how long is unclear.
Chinaberrytree has been observed in late-successional forests in the southeastern United States. In Alabama, Chinaberrytree occurred in a late-successional longleaf pine forest [74,129] and in South Carolina, Chinaberrytree occurred in a late-successional floodplain forest . Chinaberrytree's longevity (see General Botanical Characteristics), however, may preclude it from being a major component in late successional forests.
Tree with adventitious buds, a sprouting root crown, sobols, and/or root suckers
Ground residual colonizer (on site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off site, initial community)
Fire adaptations and plant response to fire:
Fire adaptations: Chinaberrytree sprouts from roots and stumps when damaged (see Vegetative regeneration), suggesting it may sprout after fire. An abstract summarizing Menvielle and Scopel's  research suggests that vegetative regeneration is more likely than sexual reproduction in Chinaberrytree after fire; however, Chinaberrytree seedlings may establish from buried seed (see Seed banking) or from off-site seed sources soon after fire [87,117] (see Seed dispersal).
Plant response to fire: Chinaberrytree is likely to survive fire and can establish from seed on recently burned sites. Menvielle and Scopel  studied postfire regeneration of Chinaberrytree in a South American forest and reported that burned Chinaberrytree trees sprouted "vigorously" from stumps and roots and produced 2 to 6 times more root sprouts than Chinaberrytree trees on unburned sites. In the same study, the surface seed bank of Chinaberrytree was completely killed by fire, but some seedlings emerged from buried seed on burned sites. Seedling emergence was 5 to 20 times less on burned sites than on controls. Chinaberrytree's fruit production was reduced in trees exposed to fire compared to controls; however, by how much was not clear . In Alabama, Chinaberrytree occurred prior to and after 3 consecutive annual prescribed fires in a longleaf pine forest [74,129]. However, it is unclear whether Chinaberrytree's postfire occurrence was due to tree survival, sprouting, or seedling emergence.
Chinaberrytree may establish or perist following logging and slash burning. In an Australian rainforest, trees over 4 feet (1.2 m) in circumference were logged, remaining large trees were felled, and the site was cleared of small trees, shrubs, and vines by slashing. Three months later, debris was burned where it lay. A few (≤10) Chinaberrytree seedlings occurred within 23 months after treatments; however, no information was given on the characteristics of the fire or on Chinaberrytree's prefire occurrence .
FUELS AND FIRE REGIMES:
Fuels: A publication from Virginia on firewise landscaping techniques gave Chinaberrytree a low flammability rating ; however, no details were provided on how this determination was made.
Fire regimes: Published information on fire regimes in Chinaberrytree's native habitats was not available as of this writing (2009). In its North American range, Chinaberrytree occurs in plant communities with historic fire regimes of varied frequency and severity, although Chinaberrytree was not widespread when these reference fire regimes were functioning. Based on its ability to persist following annual prescribed fires a in longleaf pine forest [74,129], Chinaberrytree may be adapted to high-frequency, low-severity fire regimes. In the southeastern United States, Chinaberrytree may invade wet grasslands historically associated with frequent fire, when fire is excluded (review by ). As of this writing (2009) information pertaining to Chinaberrytree's tolerance to low-frequency fire regimes is lacking. See the Fire Regime Table for further information on fire regimes of vegetation communities in which Chinaberrytree may occur. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
Fire regime change: As of this writing (2009) information pertaining to Chinaberrytree's ability to alter fire regimes is lacking.
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Prescribed fire is not likely to control current infestations of Chinaberrytree or stop its spread. Fire may temporarily reduce Chinaberrytree populations if seedlings and small trees are top-killed, but Chinaberrytree is likely to sprout from intact root systems and/or stumps (see Plant response to fire). Additionally, Chinaberrytree's ability to invade open, disturbed sites from off-site seed sources (see Site characteristics and Seed dispersal) suggests that fire may create favorable conditions for seedling establishment.
Fire exclusion: Chinaberrytree may invade wet grasslands on sites where fire has been excluded (review by ). However, Chinaberrytree may respond favorably to fire (see Plant response to fire) and has not been recommended as a means to reduce Chinaberrytree in any plant community.
Preventing postfire establishment and spread: In general, preventing invasive plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. Prevention of Chinaberrytree's postfire establishment and spread on burned sites may be accomplished by limiting seed dispersal to burned sites, early detection and eradication of seedlings and sprouts, and careful monitoring and follow-up.
General recommendations for preventing postfire establishment and spread of invasive plants include:
Use of prescribed fire as a control agent: Prescribed fire is not likely to control Chinaberrytree and may encourage its spread (see Fire adaptations and plant response to fire). In Alabama, Chinaberrytree persisted in a longleaf pine forest after 3 consecutive annual prescribed fires (see Plant response to fire). According to a review by Tourn and others , attempts to control Chinaberrytree in Argentina using treatments that included chemicals, tree felling, or prescribed fire induced "prolific" sprouting in Chinaberrytree that likely contributed to its spread.
IMPORTANCE TO WILDLIFE AND LIVESTOCK:
White-tailed dear , feral pigs , plain chachalaca , American robins , gray catbirds, northern mocking birds , and songbirds in the southeastern United States  eat Chinaberrytree fruit to a limited extent. In Florida, songbirds sometimes gorge on Chinaberrytree fruit to a point of intoxication . In Texas, researchers found Chinaberrytree plant material in the stomach of a ringtail .
Palatability and/or nutritional value: The fruit of Chinaberrytree is poisonous [47,60,104] to humans (, review by ) and some other mammals (review by ), including livestock . Chinaberrytree causes gastrointestinal problems in livestock . The toxic substance in Chinaberrytree may cause digestive, liver, and kidney problems in humans. Six to 8 Chinaberrytree fruits have been reported to cause death in young children . The fruit contains a narcotic capable of causing paralysis (review by ).
Chinaberrytree leaf litter is high in calcium (40.8 mg/g dried leaf) .
Cover value: On islands off the coast of Texas, cattle egrets used Chinaberrytree trees for nesting sites in place of native vegetation that had been killed by guano deposited from breeding birds. Cattle egrets also used Chinaberrytree's fruit-bearing twigs for nesting material. The continued accumulation of bird guano eventually killed Chinaberrytree trees .
Chinaberrytree has many uses around the world. In the United States ([47,70,83], review by ) and in South America , Chinaberrytree was primarily planted as an ornamental tree and for shade (reviews by [78,138]). It is likely so abundant it is seldom planted anymore . In other parts of the world its wood is used for cabinets  and furniture (Dalton and others 1991 cited in ) and its seed for rosary beads (, review by ). In India, Chinaberrytree is grown for fuel .
Chinaberrytree trees have been recommended for planting at landfills in developing countries to offset environmental problems caused by landfills . In China, Chinaberrytree as been studied for its ability to uptake selenium—an element that causes health problems in humans and other animals—on croplands that have high concentrations of this element .
Extracts from Chinaberrytree have been studied for potential medicinal applications including antibacterial, antimalarial, antifertility, and antiviral properties . Its antiviral properties have led researchers to evaluate Chinaberrytree as a potential treatment for the herpes simplex virus type 1 . Extracts from Chinaberrytree have been used as pesticides ([88,130], review by ). One study found that dried Chinaberrytree leaves had limited inhibitory effects on weeds in croplands . Dried Chinaberrytree leaves have also been studied for their potential to augment soil nitrogen .
IMPACTS AND CONTROL:
Impacts: Reports on Chinaberrytree's impacts in the United States vary, and it is not considered invasive in all states where it occurs. A study investigating characteristics of invasive plants placed Chinaberrytree in a group of woody plants considered potentially invasive based on seed mass and other reproductive characteristics . Dirr  described Chinaberrytree as a "genuine weed tree" and a "true biological vagrant", and one of the most prevalent nonnative trees in southern forests. Although it commonly invades wildlands, little has been documented on its ecology and associated ecological impacts (, review by ). Most available information on Chinaberrytree impacts in wildlands is anecdotal. A review by Woodcock  lists Chinaberrytree with several nonnative woody plants that are considered among the greatest threats to native Hawaiian biota. It is ranked as a "severe threat" in South Carolina . In Georgia, Chinaberrytree is ranked as a Category 1 invasive species: nonnative plants that pose serious problems in Georgia natural areas by "extensively invading native plant communities and displacing native species" . In Florida, it is ranked as a Category II nonnative invasive: species "that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species" . It has been banned from sale in some Florida counties . According to Everitt and others , Chinaberrytree is abundant in native riparian woodlands in parts of Texas, and "often forms dense stands that reduce light to other understory vegetation"; the source of this information was not given. Herbaria specimens from California indicate Chinaberrytree has begun to invade wildlands in that state .
In one study, Chinaberrytree's leaf litter had an inhibitory affect on weeds in a cropland  and may have a similar impact on native plants in wildlands. Chinaberrytree leaf litter may increase nitrogen  and pH, and reduce aluminum levels in the soil .
In Mississippi and Alabama, Chinaberrytree saplings serve as a host for the ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus mutilatus, an insect that may negatively impact forest ecosystems .
Control: This section is not intended to be comprehensive or prescriptive in nature but focuses on control methods for Chinaberrytree in wildlands, and their potential to influence wildfire and or the use of fire as a management tool.
Control of biotic invasions is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystem-wide strategy rather than a tactical approach focused on battling individual invaders . Managing to maintain the integrity of the native plant community and mitigate the factors enhancing ecosystem invasibility is likely to be more effective than managing solely to control the invader . Regardless what control methods are employed, the potential for other invasive species to replace Chinaberrytree once it is controlled must be considered .
Fire: Prescribed fire is not recommended for controlling this species (see Fire Management Considerations).
Prevention: It is commonly argued that the most cost-efficient and effective method of managing invasive species is to prevent their establishment and spread by maintaining "healthy" natural communities [80,110] (e.g., avoid road building in wildlands ) and by monitoring several times each year . Researchers in Texas  have developed a color-infrared aerial photography technique that may help to monitor population trends of Chinaberrytree in wildlands. Weed prevention and control can be incorporated into many types of management plans, including those for logging and site preparation, grazing allotments, recreation management, research projects, road building and maintenance, and fire management . See the Guide to noxious weed prevention practices  for specific guidelines in preventing the spread of weed seeds and propagules under different management conditions. For a widespread species like Chinaberrytree, however, prevention alone will not stop its spread.
Cultural control: No information is available on this topic at the time of this publication (2009).
Physical or mechanical control: Physical or mechanical control of Chinaberrytree is general only effective during the initial stages of invasion. Seedlings can be hand pulled (, review by ), but care must be taken to remove the entire root . Physical controls that damage Chinaberrytree's stem or root system will likely encourage sprouting (see Vegetative regeneration).
Biological control: Preliminary surveys have been conducted for biological controls of Chinaberrytree (review by ), although at the time of this writing (2009), no biological control was available for Chinaberrytree. In 2001, Chinaberrytree was listed as 1 of the top 10 invasive plants from Asia that spread to North America, for which a biological control is needed. Chinaberrytree is considered a good candidate for biological control because it has no congeners in the United States .
Chemical control: According to reviews [21,49,68,134], triclopyr is the preferred method for chemical control of seed-producing Chinaberrytree trees, and it controls root- and stem-sprouting . Triclopyr applied to the base or foliage of Chinaberrytree trees was recommended for Chinaberrytree control . Direct foliar application of triclopyr or imazapyr has been recommended to kill Chinaberrytree sprouts and seedlings (review by ). Triclopyr and sodium chlorate produced partial or complete root mortality on containerized seedlings of Chinaberrytree, which resulted in foliage damage . Injecting triclopyr into Chinaberrytree's stem [21,72] or applying triclopyr directly to its foliage or a freshly-cut stump in conjunction with a cut-surface treatment (e.g., girdle, cut-stump) kills Chinaberrytree (, reviews by [21,49]).
Herbicides are typically effective in gaining initial control of a new invasion or a severe infestation, but they are rarely a complete or long-term solution to weed management . See the Weed control methods handbook  for considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals.Integrated management: No information is available on this topic at the time of this publication (2009).
|Fire regime information on vegetation communities in which Chinaberrytree may occur. This information is taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models , which were developed by local experts using available literature, local data, and/or expert opinion. This table summarizes fire regime characteristics for each plant community listed. The PDF file linked from each plant community name describes the model and synthesizes the knowledge available on vegetation composition, structure, and dynamics in that community. Cells are blank where information is not available in the Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model.|
|Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group)||Fire severity*||Fire regime characteristics|
|Percent of fires||Mean interval
|Riparian forest with conifers||Replacement||100%||435||300||550|
|Riparian deciduous woodland||Replacement||50%||110||15||200|
|Surface or low||30%||180||10|
|Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group)||Fire severity*||Fire regime characteristics|
|Percent of fires||Mean interval
|South-central US Woodland|
|Surface or low||99%||3.2|
|Interior Highlands dry oak/bluestem woodland and glade||Replacement||16%||25||10||100|
|Surface or low||80%||5||2||7|
|Oak woodland-shrubland-grassland mosaic||Replacement||11%||50|
|Surface or low||33%||17|
|Interior Highlands oak-hickory-pine||Replacement||3%||150||100||300|
|Surface or low||97%||4||2||10|
|Surface or low||96%||4|
|South-central US Forested|
|Interior Highlands dry-mesic forest and woodland||Replacement||7%||250||50||300|
|Surface or low||75%||22||5||35|
|Gulf Coastal Plain pine flatwoods||Replacement||2%||190|
|Surface or low||95%||5|
|West Gulf Coastal plain pine (uplands and flatwoods)||Replacement||4%||100||50||200|
|Surface or low||93%||4||4||10|
|West Gulf Coastal Plain pine-hardwood woodland or forest upland||Replacement||3%||100||20||200|
|Surface or low||94%||3||3||5|
|Surface or low||58%||100|
|Southern floodplain (rare fire)||Replacement||42%||>1,000|
|Surface or low||58%||714|
|Surface or low||94%||6|
|Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group)||Fire severity*||Fire regime characteristics|
|Percent of fires||Mean interval
|Southern Appalachians Woodland|
|Appalachian shortleaf pine||Replacement||4%||125|
|Surface or low||92%||6|
|Table Mountain-pitch pine||Replacement||5%||100|
|Surface or low||92%||5|
|Surface or low||49%||55|
|Southern Appalachians Forested|
|Bottomland hardwood forest||Replacement||25%||435||200||>1,000|
|Surface or low||51%||210||50||250|
|Mixed mesophytic hardwood||Replacement||11%||665|
|Surface or low||79%||90|
|Surface or low||89%||6||3||10|
|Oak (eastern dry-xeric)||Replacement||6%||128||50||100|
|Surface or low||78%||10||1||10|
|Appalachian oak forest (dry-mesic)||Replacement||6%||220|
|Surface or low||79%||17|
|Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group)||Fire severity*||Fire regime characteristics|
|Percent of fires||Mean interval
|Surface or low||97%||4||1||5|
|Longleaf pine (mesic uplands)||Replacement||3%||110||40||200|
|Surface or low||97%||3||1||5|
|Longleaf pine-Sandhills prairie||Replacement||3%||130||25||500|
|Surface or low||97%||4||1||10|
|Surface or low||99%||3||1||5|
|Surface or low||10%||43||2||50|
|South Florida slash pine flatwoods||Replacement||6%||50||50||90|
|Surface or low||94%||3||1||6|
|Atlantic wet pine savanna||Replacement||4%||100|
|Surface or low||94%||4|
|Coastal Plain pine-oak-hickory||Replacement||4%||200|
|Surface or low||89%||8|
|Surface or low||80%||9||3||50|
|Surface or low||97%||2||1||8|
|Surface or low||93%||63|
Replacement: Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants.
Mixed: Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects.
Surface or low: Any fire that causes less than 25% upper layer replacement and/or removal in a vegetation-fuel class but burns 5% or more of the area [56,75].
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