Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Vaccinium myrsinites. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
On 27 August 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS
from: ground blueberry
to: shiny blueberry. Images were also added.
Cyanococcus myrsinites (Lam.) Small
Vaccinium nitidum Andrews
NRCS PLANT CODE:
Florida evergreen blueberry
southern evergreen blueberry
The scientific name of shiny blueberry is Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. .
Shiny blueberry has been described as a hybrid species  and is
thought to have been derived from a small cluster blueberry
(V. tennelum) x Darrow's evergreen blueberry (V. darrowii)
cross . A darrowoid phase, exhibiting characteristics more typical
of Darrow's evergreen blueberry, is concentrated along the Florida Gulf
Coast, whereas a tennelloid phase, more closely resembling small cluster
blueberry, occurs in northeastern Florida and southern Georgia . A
number of forms of shiny blueberry have been reported . Shiny
blueberry hybridizes with many species including V. arkansanum, low
sweet blueberry (V. angustifolium), V. australe, V. fuscatum, highbush
blueberry (V. corymbosum), and downy blueberry (V. atrococcum)
[8,41,45]. Numerous backcrosses and intermediates have been reported
. In northern Florida and southern Georgia, populations of V.
myrsinites x V. virgatum hybrids are common .
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
Shiny blueberry grows along the southeastern Coastal Plain and Gulf
Coast from South Carolina through southern Georgia and northern Florida
to southwestern Alabama [18,42]. It extends southward to peninsular
Florida . Disjunct populations occur in the Metamorphic Hills of
|Distribution of shiny blueberry. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database.
National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC. [2018, August 28] .
FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress
AL FL GA SC
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS:
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K112 Southern mixed forest
K115 Sand pine scrub
K116 Subtropical pine forest
SAF COVER TYPES:
69 Sand pine
70 Longleaf pine
71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak
72 Southern scrub oak
74 Cabbage palmetto
80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
83 Longleaf pine - slash pine
84 Slash pine
85 Slash pine - hardwood
98 Pond pine
104 Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
111 South Florida slash pine
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Shiny blueberry commonly grows in prairies, pine forests or barrens,
and at the edges of shrub-tree bogs or bays [18,33]. It is a prominent
component of scrubby, xeric pine flatwoods, sand pine (Pinus clausa)
scrub, oak (Quercus spp.)-palmetto (Sabal spp.) scrub, scrub palmetto
(S. etonia) communities, pine-oak scrub, and rosemary (Ceratiola
ericoides) balds [3,15,42]. Shiny blueberry also occurs in southern
mixed forests , on disturbed dunes,  and in fallow fields .
Plant associates: Common associates in scrub palmetto or Florida scrub
communities include scrub palmetto, pawpaw (Asimina reticulata),
scrubclover (Petalostemon feayi), dodder (Cassytha filiformis), blazing
star (Liatris tenuifolia), and scrub mint (Conradina grandiflora) .
Sand pine, tree sparkleberry (Vaccinium arboreum), saw palmetto, and oak
often grow with shiny blueberry in sand pine scrub . Slash pine
(Pinus elliottii), pond pine (P. serotina), longleaf pine (P.
palustris), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), lyonia (Lyonia spp.), dwarf
huckleberry (Gaylussacia dumosa), oaks, and inkberry (Ilex glabra) grow
with shiny blueberry in pine flatwoods or pine scrub [1,15,20,39].
Common associates on fallow ground include bracken fern (Pteridium
aquilinum), dwarf huckleberry, and running oak (Q. pumila) .
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Browse: The importance of shiny blueberry browse to wildlife and
livestock is not well documented. Fall deer utilization was estimated
at 10.0 percent during the first year after fire in a longleaf
pine-turkey oak (Quercus laevis) community of Florida .
Fruit: Mammals such as the black bear, raccoon, white-footed mouse, red
fox, gray fox, skunks, chipmunks, deer mice, and squirrels feed on the
fruit of Vaccinium spp. [29,44]. Throughout the southeastern Coastal
Plain, white-tailed deer consume the fruit of shiny blueberry .
The ring-necked pheasant, scarlet tanager, gray catbird, thrushes,
towhees, thrashers, and bluebirds eat berries of many species of
Vaccinium [29,44]. Large numbers of shiny blueberry fruit are eaten by
the ruffed grouse, wild turkey, and quail . In pine flatwood
communities, it is a major spring and summer food of the northern
Shiny blueberry fruit is highly palatable to a wide variety of birds
Browse: Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) foliage is relatively high in
carotene, manganese, and energy content [12,19].
Fruit: Vaccinium berries are sweet and contain high concentrations of
both mono- and di-saccharides . Berries are rich in vitamin C and
energy content but low in fats [22,35].
Shiny blueberry presumably provides cover for a variety of small birds
and mammals. Dense saw palmetto (Serenoa repens)-shiny blueberry
thickets provide good cover for many species of birds .
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Species within the genus Vaccinium can be propagated from hardwood stem
cuttings or from seed. Seedlings grown in the greenhouse can be
transplanted onto favorable sites 6 to 7 weeks after emergence. Seed
collection and storage techniques have been considered in detail .
OTHER USES AND VALUES:
The edible fruit of shiny blueberry is described as "juicy"  and of
"fair quality" . Fruit is commonly eaten raw. Many blueberries
(Vaccinium spp.) were important traditional foods of Native American
Shiny blueberry hybridizes with a number of highbush blueberries and
may have potential for improving heat and drought tolerance of
commercial fruit-producing strains . Its ability to grow well on
upland mineral soil makes it well Suited for use in commercial blueberry
breeding . Shiny blueberry was first cultivated in England after
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Mechanical removal: In southern mixed forests, double chopping produces
high mortality in the shiny blueberry .
Chemical control: Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) exhibit variable
susceptibility to herbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, glyphosate,
karbutilate, and picloram .
Habitat destruction: Shiny blueberry is a prominent understory
constituent of scrub palmetto communities which have been disappearing
as development occurs along the southeastern coast. Much of this unique
habitat has been destroyed within the past century .
Timber harvest: Most blueberries are susceptible to postlogging
treatments which include severe scarification . This appears to be
true of shiny blueberry as well.
Wildlife considerations: Blueberries are an extremely important food
source for black bears. In many areas, bear-human conflicts are most
likely to occur during years of blueberry crop failure [30,37].
Fruit production: In young pine plantations, fruit yields of shiny
blueberry tend to be greatest during the fourth year after conifer
plantings . Berry production in a young slash pine (Pinus
elliottii) plantation was as follows :
years since standing crops (g/100m sq) of fruit
site 1 site 2
1 6.7 12.0
2 0.5 4.0
3 6.6 4.0
4 11.4 4.0
5 1.4 4.0
6-10 0.1 4.0
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Shiny blueberry is an erect, much-branched shrub which grows 6 to 40
inches (16-100 cm) in height [8,32,42,44]. Although primarily
evergreen, subpersistent and even deciduous phases have been reported
. This rhizomatous shrub commonly forms extensive colonies .
Colonies approximately 0.6 mile (1 km) across and at least 1,000 years
of age  have been reported.
Twigs of shiny blueberry are green, verrucose, more or less angular,
and densely pubescent to glabrous [18,32,42]. Stem morphology has been
considered in detail . The small, alternate, coriaceous leaves are
obovate to elliptic [42,45]. Leaf margins are entire to obscurely
serrulate . Leaves are commonly glossy green to grayish green and
copiously pubescent to glabrous [8,18]. The lower surface is typically
The perfect flowers are white to deep pink or reddish tinged, and
narrowly urceolate to cylindrical [8,32,42,44]. Flowers are borne in
clusters of 2 to 8 . Floral morphology is highly variable .
Fruit is a black or glaucous blue, globular berry 0.24 to 0.32 inch (6-8
mm) in diameter [18,33]. Berries contain numerous seeds or nutlets
which average 0.04 inch (1 mm) in length .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM:
Shiny blueberry can reproduce through seed or by vegetative means.
Seed: Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) seedlings first emerge within
approximately 1 month after seeds are planted and continue to emerge for
long periods of time in the absence of cold stratification . Seeds
of most Vacciniums are not dormant and require no pretreatment for
germination . Seeds of shiny blueberry are readily dispersed by
many birds and mammals.
Vegetative regeneration: Shiny blueberry sprouts from stout, elongate,
underground rhizomes or "runners" after aboveground vegetation is
removed by fire or by other disturbances [5,15,18,42]. Plants form
extensive open clones through gradual rhizome expansion in the absence
of disturbance .
Soil: Most blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) require acidic soils and can
grow on relatively infertile sites which have small amounts of many
essential elements . Shiny blueberry commonly grows on dry, sandy,
acidic soils in full sun [8,42,44]. It occurs on poorly drained soils
in swales but also grows on seasonally wet to well-drained sites .
Fire is an integral part of most Florida ecosystems  including pine
flatwoods, sand-pine scrub, and saw palmetto communities in which shiny
blueberry is a prominent understory shrub. These communities depend on
fire for their continued existence [1,36] and have been variously
described as representative of a "pyric disclimax"  or "fire climax"
. Fire in these communities does not initiate multistage
succession. Little recruitment of new, short-lived, invasive species
occurs after fire . Instead, fire rejuvenates species such as shiny
blueberry which were present in preburn communities.
Shiny blueberry grows abundantly on many types of disturbed sites such
as in fallow fields , on disturbed dunes , and on clearcuts in
Florida longleaf pine stands .
Shiny blueberry flowers in early spring. Fruit ripens during late
spring or summer . Phenological development by geographic location
is as follows [23,33,46]:
location flowering fruiting
FL February-April May-July
GA -- April-June
SC March-April May-June
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Fire is an integral part of many southeastern plant communities in which
shiny blueberry occurs as an understory dominant or codominant  [see
Successional Status]. Evidence suggests that the flatwoods and swales
of central Florida burned every few years during presettlement times.
These frequent fires not only maintained the vigor of sprouters such as
shiny blueberry but also resulted in a compositionally stable plant
community. During recent years, fire suppression and declining stand
flammability attributed to urban encroachment, has contributed to the
decline of these communities. In some areas, concomitant increases in
various evergreen hardwood or southern mixed hardwood forests have been
observed . Natural fire intervals are estimated at approximately 10
to 20 years in coastal Georgia pine-oak scrub. These intervals, which
correspond to coastal drought cycles, are too short to allow hardwood
Shiny blueberry is well able to persist despite periodic fires.
Evidence suggests that short fire intervals characteristic of most
shiny blueberry communities have produced natural selection for a
"xerophytic genotype which is strongly adapted to fire" .
Abrahamson  reports that shiny blueberry "exhibits a 'sit and wait'
strategy, in that [plants] apparently survive with little aboveground
biomass for long periods of time before fire causes release from shading
and/or nutrient" depletion. Shiny blueberry typically sprouts from
underground rhizomes after the foliage is consumed by fire. Birds and
mammals may transport some seed to burned sites.
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find Fire Regimes".
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY:
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Fire commonly kills aboveground portions of shiny blueberry .
Underground rhizomes  are generally protected from the damaging
effects of heat and apparently survive most fires. Seeds of most
blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are of short viability and are readily
killed by heat .
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Growth of shiny blueberry is apparently stimulated by fire .
Canopy cover on recently burned sites often exceeds cover on unburned
plots . Plants typically sprout vigorously from underground
rhizomes after aboveground vegetation is consumed . Recovery of this
shrub is generally rapid and dramatic [1,39].
Shiny blueberry often forms a nearly continuous shrub canopy within 2
years after fire . Canopy cover was essentially unchanged soon after
fires in a northern Florida flatwood community . This shrub, along
with saw palmetto and Galaticia elliottii, dominated the shrub layer
within 4 months after fire in Georgia pine-oak scrub . Similarly,
density and dominance of shiny blueberry reached peak levels within 6
months after a January prescribed burn in central Florida, although
plants did not attain maximum height or crown widths until the fifth
postfire growing season. In central Florida, shiny blueberry increased
after consecutive fires at three year intervals, suggesting a 3- to
4-year density response .
Seedling establishment: Seed banking does not appear to represent an
important regenerative strategy in most blueberries (Vaccinium spp.).
However, birds and mammals can presumably transport some seed from
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Fruit production: Fruit production of shiny blueberry was higher in
older burned slash pine stands than in young open stands . Berry
production peaked during the third growing season after fire .
Fruit production was documented as follows :
standing crop (g/100 m sq) of fruit
years since fire
2 3 4 or >
site 1 4.7 39.0 --
site 2 4.0 8.0 --
Wildlife: Optimal intervals for burning flatwoods to enhance fruit
production of shiny blueberry for wildlife use is approximately 3 years
. Burning flatwoods at these intervals also produces good deer
browse and contributes to understory maintenance .
Prescribed fire: Flower buds tend to be more numerous on new shoots,
and periodic removal of old shoots can increase flower production in
Vacciniums . Prescribed fire has long been used to rejuvenate
commercial lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) fields and to increase
overall fruit production .
Postharvest burning: Cover, frequency, and biomass of shiny blueberry
was as follows after clearcutting, site preparation, and broadcast
burning in a northern Florida slash pine flatwood community :
pretreatment 1 yr. posttmt 2 yrs. posttmt
cover (%) 1.00 0.29 0.33
freq. (%) 38 12 8
foliage biomass (kg/ha) 38.1 9.7 24.7
SPECIES: Vaccinium myrsinites
1. Abrahamson, Warren G. 1984. Post-fire recovery of Florida Lake Wales
Ridge vegetation. American Journal of Botany. 71(1): 9-21. 
2. Abrahamson, Warren G. 1984. Species response to fire on the Florida Lake
Wales Ridge. American Journal of Botany. 71(1): 35-43. 
3. Austin, Daniel F. 1976. Florida scrub. Florida Naturalist. 49(4): 2-5.
4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,
reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's
associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.
5. Breininger, D. R.; Schmalzer, P. A. 1990. Effects of fire and
disturbance on plants and birds in Florida oak/ palmetto scrub
community. American Midland Naturalist. 123(1): 64-74. 
6. Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United
States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p. 
7. Camp, W. H. 1942. On the structure of populations in the genus
Vaccinium. Brittonia. 4(2): 189-204. 
8. Camp, W. H. 1945. The North American blueberries with notes on other
groups of Vacciniaceae. Brittonia. 5(3): 203-275. 
9. Clewell, Andre F. 1989. Natural history of wiregrass (Aristida stricta
Michx., Gramineae). Natural Areas Journal. 9(4): 223-233. 
10. Conde, Louis F.; Swindel, Benee F.; Smith, Joel E. 1983. Plant species
cover, frequency, and biomass: Early responses to clearcutting,
chopping, and bedding in Pinus elliottii flatwoods. Forest Ecology and
Management. 6: 307-317. 
11. Crossley, John A. 1974. Vaccinium L. Blueberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S.,
ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 840-843.
12. Dahlgreen, Matthew Craig. 1984. Observations on the ecology of Vaccinium
membranaceum Dougl. on the southeast slope of the Washington Cascades.
Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 120 p. Thesis. 
13. Darrow, George M. 1960. Blueberry breeding, past, present, future.
American Horticultural Magazine. 39(1): 14-33. 
14. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1990. The Magnolia grandiflora-Quercus virginiana
forest of Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 123: 331-347. 
15. Davison, Kathryn L.; Bratton, Susan P. 1988. Vegetation response and
regrowth after fire on Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia.
Castanea. 53(1): 47-65. 
16. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
17. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].
1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range
ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
18. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern
Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of
Georgia Press. 734 p. 
19. Hanley, Thomas A.; McKendrick, Jay D. 1983. Seasonal changes in chemical
composition and nutritive values of native forages in a spruce-hemlock
forests, southeastern Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-312. Portland, OR: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station. 41 p. 
20. Harlow, Richard F.; Bielling, Paul. 1961. Controlled burning studies in
longleaf pine-turkey oak association on the Ocala National Forest.
Proceeding, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Game and
Fish. 15: 9-24. 
21. Hartnett, David C.; Richardson, Donald R. 1989. Population biology of
Bonamia grandiflora (Convolvulaceae): Effects of fire on plant and seed
bank dynamics. American Journal of Botany. 76(3): 361-369. 
22. Hunn, Eugene S.; Norton, Helen H. 1984. Impact of Mt. St. Helens ashfall
on fruit yields of mountain huckleberry Vaccinium membranaceum,
important Native American food. Economic Botany. 38(1): 121-127. 
23. Johnson, A. Sydney; Landers, J. Larry. 1978. Fruit production in slash
pine plantations in Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(3):
24. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of
the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume
II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North
Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie
Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. 
25. Korcak, Ronald F. 1988. Nutrition of blueberry and other calcifuges.
Horticultural Reviews. 10: 183-227. 
26. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation
of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:
American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
27. Laessle, Albert M. 1958. The origin and successional relationship of
sandhill vegetation and sand-pine scrub. Ecological Monographs. 28(4):
28. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession
following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall
Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council
fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No.
14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. 
29. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American
wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p.
30. Martin, Patricia A. E. 1979. Productivity and taxonomy of the Vaccinium
globulare, V. membranaceum complex in western Montana. Missoula, MT:
University of Montana. 136 p. Thesis. 
31. Moore, William H.; Swindel, Benee F.; Terry, W. Stephen. 1982.
Vegetative response to prescribed fire in a north Florida flatwoods
forest. Journal of Range Management. 35(3): 386-389. 
32. Odell, A. E.; Vander Kloet, S. P.; Newell, R. E. 1989. Stem anatomy of
Vaccinium section Cyanococcus and related taxa. Canadian Journal of
Botany. 67(8): 2328-2334. 
33. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of
the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of
North Carolina Press. 1183 p. 
34. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant
geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
35. Reich, Lee. 1988. Backyard blues. Organic Gardening. 35(6): 28-34.
36. Robinson, Andrew F., Jr. 1978. Possible impacts of silvicultural
activities on proposed endangered and threatened plant species of pine
flatwoods. In: Balmer, William E., ed. Proceedings: Soil moisure...site
productivity symposium; 1977 November 1-3; Myrtle Beach, SC. Atlanta,
GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Area,
State and Private Forestry: 336-342. 
37. Rogers, Lynn. 1976. Effects of mast and berry crop failures on survival,
growth, and reproductive success of black bears. Transactions, North
American Wildlife Conference. 41: 431-438. 
38. Stiles, Edmund W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed
dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the Eastern deciduous
forest. American Naturalist. 116(5): 670-688. 
39. Tanner, George W. 1987. Soils and vegetation of the longleaf/slash pine
forest type, Apalachicola National Forest, Florida. In: Pearson, Henry
A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E., compilers. Ecological, physical,
and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests; 1987
May 26-27; Long Beach, MS. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-68. New Orleans, LA: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment
Station: 186-200. 
40. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 1989.
Final environmental impact statement. Vegetation management in the
Coastal Plain/Piedmont. Vol. 1. Management Bulletin R8-MB-23. Atlanta,
GA. 351 p. 
41. Vander Kloet, S. P. 1983. The taxonomy of Vaccinium and cyanococcus: a
summation. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61 1: 256-266. 
42. Vander Kloet, S. P. 1988. The genus Vaccinium in North America.
Publication 1828. Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. 201 p.
43. Vander Kloet, S. P.; Hall, I. V. 1981. The biological flora of Canada.
2. Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx., velvet-leaf blueberry. Canadian Field
Naturalist. 95: 329-345. 
44. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,
their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Agriculture. 362 p. 
45. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest.
Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. 
46. Ward, Daniel B. 1974. Contributions to the flora of Florida - 6,
Vaccinium (Ericaceae). Castanea. 39(3): 191-205. 
47. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern
Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire
Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. 
48. Kuchler, A. W. 1946. The broadleaf deciduous forests of the Pacific
Northwest. Association of American Geographers Annual. 36: 122-147.
49. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP
Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National
Biological Survey. 
50. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2018.
PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources
Conservation Service (Producer). Available: https://plants.usda.gov/. 
FEIS Home Page