|FEIS Home Page|
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Simonin, Kevin A. 2000. Vaccinium membranaceum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/vacmem/all.html .
Vaccinium globulare Rybd. 
Vaccinium membranaceum Hook 
NRCS PLANT CODE :
The currently accepted scientific name of thinleaf huckleberry is Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl. (Ericaceae) [40,60,76,160,163].
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
Thinleaf huckleberry is listed as imperiled in South Dakota .
Thinleaf huckleberry is native to North America. It occurs from British Columbia and Nunavut south through the Cascade and Olympic mountains to California and Arizona and east to Ontario, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Minnesota [12,40,60,75,76,160,163]. Populations also occur in 3 counties of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan on the east side of Lake Superior .
|Distribution of thinleaf huckleberry. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC .|
Soils: Thinleaf huckleberry grows in moist, moderately deep, well-drained soils [64,121]. It prefers soils with a pH around 5.5 . Clay and silt content are usually low (under 40%) leaving soil with a fine, loamy texture . Relatively low concentrations of essential elements are required to sustain growth. Mesic and drier sites are preferred, although thinleaf huckleberry may inhabit soils with a wide range of available moisture .
In Montana, Goldin and Nimlos  evaluated thinleaf huckleberry presence in the Garnet Mountains in relation to soil physical properties. Thinleaf huckleberry prefers quartzite and granitic soils to limestone-derived soils possessing similar pH and gravel content. Quartzite soils resulted in the greatest coverage of thinleaf huckleberry, compared to granite and limestone derived soils :
|Relative Cover (%)|
|Average organic horizon thickness (cm)||4.0||2.3||4.0|
|Soil texture||loam||silty loam||sandy loam|
|Gravel content||very gravelly||gravelly to very gravelly||slightly gravelly|
|Calcareousness||none at surface, slight to strong at depth||slight to strong on surface, strong at depth||none|
Within sites, thinleaf huckleberry grew under Douglas-fir on limestone, limber pine on quartzite and subalpine fir on granite.
Aspect/Slope: Thinleaf huckleberry prefers northern aspects  although populations may exist on all aspects . Martin  observed thinleaf huckleberry to prefer moderate to steep slopes (25-40%). Gentle slopes were found to allow greater competition from other plant species.
Elevation: Elevation by geographic area is:
|California ||3,609 to 7,217 feet (1,100-2,200 m)|
|Montana||3,000 to 9,650 feet (914-2,930 m)|
|Oregon and Washington ||3,000 feet (914 m) to high mountains|
|Utah ||8,202 to 10,318 feet (2,500-3,145 m)|
Common shrub associates include sticky flowering currant (Ribes viscosissimum), mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus) [9,24], common snowberry (S. albus), grouse whortleberry (Vaccinium scoparium), Cascade bilberry (V. deliciosum), red huckleberry (V. parvifolium) , Utah honeysuckle (Lonicera utahensis), bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) , fool's huckleberry (Menziesia ferruginea) [9,42]. Other common shrub associates include white spirea (Spirea betulifolia) [124,143], whiteveined wintergreen (Pyrola picta) , pink mountainheath (Phyllodoce empetriformis), Cascade azalea (Rhododendron albiflorum), Sitka mountain-ash (Sorbus sitchensis), western moss-heather (Cassiope mertensiana), strawberryleaf raspberry (Rubus pedatus), roughfruit berry (R. lasiococcus) , little prince's pine (Chimaphila menziesii) , Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum) [46,89], Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) , and Oregon-grape (Mahonia repens) .
Forb associates include common beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax) [9,20,24], Brewer's aster (Chrysopsis breweri) [9,24], pinewoods lousewort (Pedicularis semibarbata) , fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Sitka valerian (Valeriana sitchensis) , queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora) , twinflower (Linnaea borealis), lupine (Lupinus spp.) , Pacific trillium (Trillium ovatum), and threeleaf foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata) .
Pacific Northwest: Thinleaf huckleberry is well represented in subalpine habitats [14,53,113]. In mesic subalpine communities, thinleaf huckleberry is a common understory associate of Pacific silver fir and mountain hemlock . Thinleaf huckleberry is an important understory component of subalpine fir forests in the eastern Olympic Mountains, Washington . Within the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, thinleaf huckleberry frequently occurs on dry subalpine sites with beargrass [53,113].
Thinleaf huckleberry is a dominant species within fir/hemlock (Abies spp./Tsuga spp.) stands in the Cascade Mountains, understory to Pacific silver fir, noble fir, mountain hemlock, Douglas-fir, western white pine, and western redcedar . Within fir/hemlock (Tsuga spp.) understory communities in the Cascades of southern Washington, thinleaf huckleberry is often codominant with common beargrass .
Thinleaf huckleberry is associated with cool western hemlock zones in the Mount Hood National Forest, Oregon. It occupies a dominant understory status in the coldest, driest portions of the western hemlock zone. When overstories are dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock, common associates include little prince's pine and Oregon-grape .
Stewart  compared understory composition of Douglas-fir and western hemlock stands in the west-central Cascade Range. Both stands were found on a southeast aspect at 3,740 feet (1,140 m) with a 15% slope. Fire history, mean tree age, and mean tree height were similar. Differences were in frequency of canopy gaps: Douglas-fir at 9.3% and western hemlock at 1.3%. Thinleaf huckleberry was more frequent and had greater coverage (p<0.05) in Douglas-fir stands:
|Cover (%)||< 1||3.3|
Rocky Mountain Region: Thinleaf huckleberry is a dominant shrub species in subalpine fir forests of northern Utah. Subalpine fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat types are also described for south-central and southwestern Montana, eastern Idaho, and western Wyoming .
In Montana thinleaf huckleberry is a major undergrowth component in pole stage or older stands of Douglas-fir and subalpine fir . Thinleaf huckleberry is an understory component of mountain hemlock communities in western Montana, in association with common beargrass, grouse whortleberry and fool's huckleberry .
Thinleaf huckleberry is an important shrub species in climax Douglas-fir/ninebark (Physocarpus spp.) habitat type, ponderosa pine phase in west-central Idaho, and in the Rocky Mountain maple phase of Douglas-fir/Rocky Mountain maple habitat types .
Thinleaf huckleberry is a frequently occurring understory species within the grand fir mosaic of northern Idaho . Thinleaf huckleberry is uncommon in grand fir/Douglas-fir stands in Montana and Idaho below 3,937 feet (1,200 m) and common in higher elevations. Thinleaf huckleberry is a major understory species for grand fir/western redcedar stands when grand fir is dominant, and almost unrepresented below where western redcedar is dominant. Thinleaf huckleberry is common in intermediate aged stands of subalpine fir and limber pine on open slopes and within mature stands on mesic sites .
In general, thinleaf huckleberry is dominant to grouse whortleberry at lower-elevation subalpine fir habitats. At mid- and higher elevations, thinleaf huckleberry is generally subordinate to grouse whortleberry, although representation is sometimes about equal .
Published classifications listing thinleaf huckleberry as an indicator or dominant species are listed below:Forest types of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex 
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Thinleaf huckleberry is rhizomatous, frost-tolerant  shrub with stems ranging from 12 to 47 inches (30-120 cm) in height [64,74,107,163]. Leaves are alternate, elliptic to oblong , and small, ranging from 0.7 to 2.75 inches (1.8-7 cm) long. The fruit is a berry [74,163]. Roots may penetrate to 39.4 inches (100 cm) of soil. Rhizomes are usually found within the 3.15 to 11.8 inch (8-30 cm) range of a soil profile . Largent and others  observed a minor occurrence of mycorrhizal symbiosis.
|Thinleaf huckleberry foliage and fruit. Creative Commons image by Jason Hollinger.|
Seed: Flowers are pollinated by bees [79,100] with each stem node having the capacity to produce 1 berry . A typical berry carries 47 seeds. Mean germination is around 42% .
Fruit production is not halted during dry summers. Fructification may occur after 4 to 6 months void of rain . In the southern Washington, Cascade Mountain region, individual stems are capable of producing fruit for 14 years . Although berry production is moderately tolerant of moisture deficits, successful germination and subsequent establishment is extremely reduced or eliminated by water stress. Cool spring temperatures also negatively affect seed germination .
Establishment through seed is not heavily relied upon after disturbance. Number of seedlings emerging from soil blocks collected from a western hemlock/Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum)/dwarf Oregon-grape community was monitored after experimentally applied disturbance. Thinleaf huckleberry showed no regeneration from seed after burning and mechanical mixing of soil layers .
Thinleaf huckleberry offers a relatively minor contribution to soil seed banks. Viable seed most often occurs within the 1st 2 inches (5cm) of soil. Kramer and Johnson  evaluated the soil seed banks of Douglas-fir/ninebark habitat type; grand-fir/Rocky Mountain maple habitat type; and grand-fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat types in central Idaho. The constancy (%) of viable, buried, thinleaf huckleberry seed, by habitat type is summarized below:
|Douglas-fir/ninebark||Grand fir/Rocky Mountain maple||Grand fir/thinleaf huckleberry|
Vegetative: Thinleaf huckleberry sprouts from the rhizomes and root crown. It has an extensive system of rhizomes [64,107], with adventitious buds distributed evenly along the length of the rhizome . Vegetative production is relied upon highly for regeneration after disturbance . Fruit productivity is more sensitive to solar radiation than vegetative production .SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Fields dominated by thinleaf huckleberry are seral.
Decline of thinleaf huckleberry as forests move toward climax status is inevitable, especially in areas of crown closure . Without disturbance, thinleaf huckleberry will gradually decrease in dominance, crowded out by trees .
Early seral: In spruce-fir forests thinleaf huckleberry may have a significant presence within 1 to 5 postdisturbance years . Response varies greatly with intensity of disturbance. In a spruce-fir forest in Idaho, thinleaf huckleberry was not a dominant shrub until 40-79 years after clear cutting, sharing understory dominance with wild ginger (Asarum caudatum) in sites undisturbed for 80 years or longer .
Habeck  observed thinleaf huckleberry as a common understory component of pioneer and seral communities within cedar-hemlock habitats of Glacier National Park, Montana. Thinleaf huckleberry is also an early seral species in western redcedar-western hemlock forests of northern Idaho .
In grand fir habitats of north-central Idaho, thinleaf huckleberry may occupy an important role in early seral stages at high elevations on north slopes . Thinleaf huckleberry decreases as a major understory species of developing grand fir/Douglas-fir stands above 3,937 feet (1,200 m) in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness of Montana and Idaho as stands move toward maturity . Thinleaf huckleberry is well represented throughout all seral stages in grand fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat types. Steele  presents a detailed model of succession in the grand-fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat type.
In subalpine prairies of the Mount Hood area, Oregon, thinleaf huckleberry is an early seral plant species . Thinleaf huckleberry is greater in frequency and coverage in open stands of mountain hemlock and Pacific silver fir associations and decreases as stands close .
Late seral: Thinleaf huckleberry is a widespread understory dominant in late seral and climax communities in subalpine forests . Within Montana, northern Idaho, and eastern Washington habitat types, thinleaf huckleberry generally shows a slow recovery increasing toward a peak at 20 to 30 postdisturbance years .SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Throughout thinleaf huckleberry's range in Montana, flowering begins the 1st week of June with total floret development requiring 4 months (mid-July to October) . Gough  observed vegetative and reproductive development in the Lee Metcalf Wilderness, Montana, at 6,562 feet (2,000 m) with an 80-day growing season. Shoot growth from vegetative buds on stems began in mid-May. Buds on plants where the soil was still frozen showed no bud break. Vegetative buds on shoots greater than 0.08 inches (2 mm) diameter swell before buds on thinner, less vigorous shoots. Shoot elongation occurs until mid- to late June. Seasonal shoot growth is generally completed within a 4-week period .Drew  mapped the phenology of thinleaf huckleberry within the cedar/hemlock zone of Idaho. Onset of leaf fall was directly related to limitations in soil moisture availability. Bud burst occurred early to mid-April followed by leafing out (beginning of May) and stem elongation (May-beginning of July). Leaf fall is initiated in mid-August .
The clonal habit of thinleaf huckleberry favors ecotypic variation among populations. Plants subjected to regular fire intervals may be better suited to surviving fire than individuals developed under fire suppression . Plants are consumed by fire only when adequate fuels are present to dry and preheat stems and foliage. Seed is not an important postfire recolonization method and is rarely found in postfire areas .
Historically, burning of thinleaf huckleberry patches by Native Americans was a regular activity in the subalpine zone of the Cascade and Pacific ranges. To enhance production, fires were set in autumn after berry harvest. Fires reduced invasion of shrubs and trees . Fields of thinleaf huckleberry in the Pacific Northwest are considered a product of uncontrolled wildfires occurring before effective fire suppression .
Western Montana: Cool habitats dominated by lodgepole pine, with thinleaf huckleberry as a plentiful understory species, showed high severity (stand replacing) fire return intervals of 150 to 250 years in past centuries . Lower subalpine stands in the Bitterroot National Forest, including stands in the Douglas-fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat type, common beargrass phase, showed mean intervals between surface fires ranging from 17 to 28 years with a range of 3 to 67 years. At lower elevations, on montane slopes including stands in the Douglas-fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat type, mean fire return intervals ranged from 7 to 19 years with a range of 2 to 48 years . About 60% of mature subalpine fir/common beargrass stands in western Montana show evidence of surface fire .
Northern Idaho: Dry, lower subalpine fir habitat types where thinleaf huckleberry occurs show historic intervals between low to moderate severity fires averaging 35 years. Stand replacing fires occurred at average intervals >217 years. Severe fires occurred at intervals of 60 to 70 years in cold, dry grand fir habitats where thinleaf huckleberry is a dominant species .
Mixed conifer forests of the grand fir series within the Elkhorn Mountains of Oregon showed historic fire return intervals of 50-200 years on sites where thinleaf huckleberry is the dominant understory species . The Douglas-fir forests of the eastern Cascade Range possess longer fire return intervals and higher fire intensities where thinleaf huckleberry is present than where thinleaf huckleberry does not occur .
The following table provides some fire-return intervals where thinleaf huckleberry is found. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|silver fir-Douglas-fir||Abies amabilis-Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii||> 200|
|grand fir||Abies grandis||35-200|
|western larch||Larix occidentalis||25-100|
|Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir||Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa||35 to > 200|
|whitebark pine*||Pinus albicaulis||50-200|
|Sierra lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. murrayana||35-200|
|Pacific ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa||1-47|
|Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum||2-10|
|Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca||25-100 |
|coastal Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii||40-240 [8,115,129]|
|California mixed evergreen||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii-Lithocarpus densiflorus-Arbutus menziesii||35|
|western redcedar-western hemlock||Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla||> 200|
|western hemlock-Sitka spruce||Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis||> 200|
|mountain hemlock*||Tsuga mertensiana||35 to > 200 |
FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
In preferred habitats, thinleaf huckleberry will generally survive low to moderately
severe surface fires, attaining prefire coverage within about 3 to 7 years [19,25]. Stem
numbers and density generally increase in early postfire years. High-severity burns may result in moderate to high
mortality  or greatly reduced sprouting . Moderate to severe fires on
coarse textured soil or areas with a thin organic layer kill underground rhizomes,
resulting in heavy mortality [25,131]. Strong decreases occur after severe broadcast
burning and wildfire with recovery generally occurring within 15 to 20 years .
Overall, low-severity, top-killing fires can result in heavy sprouting from rhizomes .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
Low to moderate severity fire: Thinleaf huckleberry showed good vegetative response in lightly burned areas of western larch/Douglas-fir forests in western Montana. The same result was seen in moderate fires top-killing the majority of shrubs and consuming up to half of the litter .
A comparison of postfire thinleaf huckleberry sprouts was made after spring (May-June) and fall (September-October) fires at the University of Montana's Lubrecht Experimental Forest. The number of stems present before burns was closely related to the number of postfire stems. Spring burns produced a lower mortality of adventitious buds on rhizomes than fall burns. Moist duff and soil present during spring burns served as a heat shield. Spring burns causing rhizome mortality occurred only in areas with duff and soil of low moisture content. Results summarizing the average stem number/meter2 on 9 sites are presented below :
|Before Fire (1973)||1974 (yr 1)||1975 (yr 2)||1973-1974 change in stem # (%)||1973-1975 change in stem # (%)|
|Before Fire (1973)||1974||1975||1973-1974 change in stem # (%)||1973-1975 change in stem # (%)|
Moderate to high severity fire: Doyle and others  evaluated plant species richness 17 years after the July 17, 1974, Waterfalls Canyon Fire, in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Thinleaf huckleberry dominated (30-36% coverage) the understory of adjacent unburned areas with greatly reduced coverage (approximately 7%) in moderately burned areas and almost no coverage in severely burned areas. Thinleaf huckleberry populations were greatly reduced the 1st growing season following a high intensity fire in the Payette River drainage near, Lowman, Idaho .
Thinleaf huckleberry showed no postfire re-establishment through seed after the Sundance fire of 1967, a severe burn in northern Idaho .
In general, thinleaf huckleberry is slow to recover from moderate to high severity fire. After stand replacing fire in upland Douglas-fir/thinleaf huckleberry sites in Pattee Canyon, west-central Montana, thinleaf huckleberry showed "slow" recovery. In severely burned ravines, thinleaf huckleberry sprouted from rhizomes at depths of 3.5 to 6 inches (9 to 15 cm). Before effective fire exclusion began in the early 1900s, fire return intervals in the area averaged 15.8 years .
Vegetation recovery for thinleaf huckleberry after an August wildfire in Sleeping Child Creek, Bitterroot Valley, Montana was slow; density and crown volume showed little recovery after 4 postfire years :
|Crown volume feet3/1,000 feet2||96.9||--||1.2||2.5||5.4|
The Gitxsan and Wet'suwet'en people of northwestern British Columbia used fire to manage thinleaf huckleberry fields. Burning typically occurred in the early fall, late August, and September. Late fall burns were specifically chosen to reduce fire severity and spread since fall frontal storm systems were likely to bring precipitation. Elders (women) decided burning time and scheduled fires during times they felt were prior to rainfall. Intervals between burns varied . Sahaptin and Chinook Native Americans started fires in the fall (end of huckleberry season) during periods when winter rains had begun .
In habitat types were thinleaf huckleberry is dominant, fires conducted when duff is relatively moist and not completely consumed result in heavy sprouting from rhizomes [39,119,128]. Low severity burning may stimulate lateral bud growth similar to pruning and assist in eradication of parasites . Burning that consumes large amounts of duff is most harmful to thinleaf huckleberry regeneration . Quantity of heat released by fire and relative amounts of duff and soil moisture are controlling factors .
In western Montana, spring burning is recommended to increase thinleaf huckleberry density within the Douglas-fir/western larch habitat type, except when lower duff and soil are dry . In moist Douglas-fir habitat types of Montana, where ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine are seral components, low severity burning in the early spring stimulates thinleaf huckleberry, increasing shoot density . In the Lolo National Forest, low and moderate severity surface fires increase density and nutrient content of thinleaf huckleberry in moist Douglas-fir and cool, dry Douglas-fir habitat types . In the Douglas-fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat type, spring fires and moderate amounts of shade may enhance production of thinleaf huckleberry .
In the grand fir series of the eastern Cascade Range, 2 consecutive fires in short intervals favor thinleaf huckleberry over grand fir, and thinleaf huckleberry may share dominance with lodgepole pine after intense fires on moist sites . Dense stands of thinleaf huckleberry may not burn if fuels are limited, due to low flammability of thinleaf huckleberry foliage . Density of thinleaf huckleberry may be increased by low severity surface fires in subalpine fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat type in northern Utah .
In sub-boreal spruce zones of British Columbia, postfire sprouting of thinleaf huckleberry occurs almost exclusively through rhizomes. Postfire recovery is slow in the 1st 10 years postfire . Likewise, in mesic and drier sites of the sub-boreal spruce zone in Canada, thinleaf huckleberry recovers slowly after fire .
Miller, Melanie. 1977. Response of blue huckleberry to prescribed fires in a western Montana larch-fir forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-188. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. .SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION:
|Elevation||4,800 feet (1,460 m)|
|Aspect||northwest to northeast|
|Slope||15 to 45%|
|Soils||sandy, thin, and poorly developed|
|Prefire Fuel Weight (kg/m2):|
|0-1/4 inch (0-0.635 cm)||0.7||0.10|
|1/4-1 inch (0.635-2.54 cm)||0.14||0.15|
|1-3 inch (2.54-7.62 cm)||0.43||0.57|
|rotten, > 3 inch (7.62 cm)||5.84||4.10|
|sound, > 3 inch||1.11||0.65|
|total, > 3 inch||6.95||4.75|
|Prefire duff depth (cm)||7.59||5.57|
|Prefire dead fuel depth (cm)||16.59||16.15|
|Prefire herbaceous vegetation weight (kg/m2)||0.09||0.07|
|Slope (average %)||35||37|
|Fuel moisture (%)|
|0-1/4 inch (0-0.635 cm)||10.74||20.38|
|1/4-1 inch (0.635-2.54 cm)||11.46||23.24|
|Soil moisture content (%)||29.09||12.51|
|Relative humidity (%)||37.44||39.45|
|Understory foliage moisture (%)||259.00||128.31|
|Ambient air temperature (°F)||68.56||59.91|
|Fuel reduction weight (kg/m2)|
|0-1/4 inch (0-0.635 cm)||0.02||0.04|
|1/4-1 inch (0.635-2.54 cm)||0.06||0.08|
|0-1 inch (0-2.54 cm)||0.09||0.12|
|1-3 inch (2.54-7.62 cm)||0.08||0.28|
|Total > 3 inch (7.62 cm)||4.38||3.36|
|Total fuel reduction||4.63||3.88|
|Mean duff reduction (cm)||1.74||3.85|
|Duff reduction (%)||24.41||53.41|
|Heat release (kcal/sec/m2)||103.07||71.68|
|Average mineral soil temperature (°F)||143.56||232.73|
|Average duff surface temperature (°F)||252.4||359.27|
|Average temperature (°F) at 2.5 (cm) below duff surface||191.00||320.27|
|Average temperature (°F) at 5.0 (cm) below duff surface||163.89||299.27|
|Average temperature (°F) at 7.5 (cm) below duff surface||141.78||263.91|
On fall-burned plots, postfire year 1 stem numbers exceeded prefire levels on only 55% of the plots. The majority of plants sprouted during the 1st growing season, although some additional sprouting occurred during the 2nd year. These later sprouting plants presumably originated from deeper rhizomes. On parts of some fall-burned plots, plant density increased but elsewhere all rhizomes were killed.
Sprouting was primarily related to depth of heat penetration rather than to specific phenological development. Sprouting was common on fall-burned plots where heat penetration was slight. Maximum soil temperatures were recorded on microsites with high fuel concentrations and/or low soil moisture. High soil moisture tended to limit rhizome heating. Influence of moisture level on thinleaf huckleberry regeneration was:
|Promote thinleaf huckleberry regeneration||Inhibit thinleaf huckleberry regeneration|
|Lower duff moisture content||> 100%||< 70%|
|Soil moisture content||> 30%||< 19%|
|Large fuel moisture||high||low|
Stem densities were also significantly related to the number of stems present prior to the burn.FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS:
Fall burns generally produce greater heat penetration than spring burns and probability of mortality is increased. Fall burns can effectively reduce thinleaf huckleberry, particularly where duff reduction is complete.
|Lodgepole pine||Western white pine||Mountain hemlock||Subalpine fir||Willow||Engelmann spruce||Douglas-fir||Total overstory|
|Average overstory cover||11.8||2.6||1.7||1.3||1.0||0.4||0.3||19.1|
|Property||0-15 (cm)||16-30 (cm)||31-46 (cm)|
|CEC* (meq/100 g)||13.19||13.10||11.66|
|Ca (meq/100 g)||1.04||0.70||0.39|
|Mg (meq/100 g)||0.08||0.07||0.05|
|Na (meq/100 g)||0.02||0.02||0.03|
|Acetate extractable Fe (ppm)||42.00||53.00||168.00|
|Average temperature||66 degrees Fahrenheit (19 °C)|
|Wind||dry, east, 7 miles/hour (11 km/hr)|
Flamethrowers and diesel fuel were used to initiate burns.
Cut and Burn: Although slash would not carry fire, plots were burned applying flamethrowers over the entire area. Fine fuels and herbaceous vegetation were consumed.
Burn: Little understory fuel was present and fire could not be kindled or spread. Diesel fuel and flamethrowers were used to deliberately burn herbaceous vegetation and lower tree branches. Fine fuels and herbaceous vegetation were consumed. Coarse fuels and duff were blackened. Most trees were killed immediately; others were severely injured.FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES:
Burn: Thinleaf huckleberry leaves were consumed with a few stems surviving.
Berry production (kg/ha) was severely reduced on both cut and burn, and burn treatments:
|Cut and burn||--||0||0||0.27||0.15|
Average overstory cover for 4 postfire growing seasons:
|Thinleaf huckleberry||Lodgepole pine 1,2||Western white pine 1,2||Total competing species 3|
|Cut and Burn||--||--||--||--|
|Cut and Burn||4.1||0||0||36.5|
|Cut and Burn||8.8||0||0||42.9|
|Cut and Burn||6.7||0||0||23.3|
|Cut and Burn||11.6||0.1||0||54.5|
Thinleaf huckleberry provides browse for ungulates. The browse is a minor component in the summer diet of western Montana elk . Elk feed on thinleaf huckleberry when leaves are young and tender . Thinleaf huckleberry also provides browse for moose in north-central Idaho . It is an important species for white-tailed deer in grand fir and western redcedar forests of northern Idaho, with greatest use occurring in the fall .
Avian: Thinleaf huckleberry berries are an important food source for ruffed grouse , band-tailed pigeon , and various songbirds. Although not preferred, the foliage provides a fall food source for blue grouse in Oregon .PALATABILITY:
|Elk||fair to good||----||----||good||----|
|Small nongame birds||----||----||----||----||good|
|Upland game birds||-----||----||----||----||good|
|Upland game bird||good|
|Small non-game bird||good|
Light intensity (litter temperature of 150 degrees Fahrenheit (66 °C) at 1.9 inches (5 cm)) slash burning, after a clearcut in subalpine fir/queencup beadlily habitat type composed largely of Douglas-fir and western larch, had no significant effect (p> 0.05) on thinleaf huckleberry nutritional value .COVER VALUE:
|Small nongame birds||good|
|Upland game birds||good|
|Propagation method||Seed collection||Seed extraction||Stratification||Seed planting||Seedling container||Seedling media||Other treatment|
|seed||summer||mash fruit with water, separate||short/cool||tray||10-15 cm pot||Perlite/vermiculite/peatmoss
|inoculation with mycorrhizae|
Flowering by new seedlings usually requires 3 growing seasons .OTHER USES AND VALUES:
Thinleaf huckleberry may hybridize with Vaccinium cultivars, producing drought-resistant cultivars for the West Coast .OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Thinleaf huckleberry decreases after clearcutting without site preparation or slash treatment, clearcutting followed by broadcast burning, and clearcutting with mechanical scarification (dozer piling and burning) within Douglas-fir/ninebark, Douglas-fir/thinleaf huckleberry, subalpine fir/common beargrass, and subalpine fir/fool's huckleberry habitat types of western Montana.
Douglas-fir forests: Within the Douglas-fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat type, strong decreases in thinleaf huckleberry occur after disturbance. Thinleaf huckleberry is drastically reduced after overstory removal in the Douglas-fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitat type of west-central Montana. .
Subalpine fir forests: Moderate decreases in thinleaf huckleberry after clearcutting without site preparation or slash treatment are associated with subalpine fir/common beargrass habitat type, thinleaf huckleberry phase. Strong decreases in thinleaf huckleberry occur after clearcutting followed by broadcast burning or stand-replacing wild fire. Stand-replacing wildfires without clearcutting have the quickest recovery. Within the subalpine fir/fool's huckleberry habitat type, little or no decrease in thinleaf huckleberry occurs after clearcutting without site preparation or slash treatment, and light to moderate broadcast burning .
Depending upon moisture regimes, clearcut logging that leaves the understory intact could decrease productivity of thinleaf huckleberry fields. Removal of forest cover on dry, south-facing slopes exposes thinleaf huckleberry to sun, wind, and frost, or winter desiccation damage. Thinleaf huckleberry shows a greater tolerance of overstory removal, clearcutting, and wildfire within subalpine fir/common beargrass habitat type in north-west Montana, than in dry west-central Montana .
Plant species composition was evaluated in a moist Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir forest in southeastern British Columbia. The area was logged during summer using conventional ground skidding. Two years later a broadcast burn was implemented on 27 August. Engelmann spruce seedlings were planted in the area during September at 648 trees/acre (1,600 trees/ha). Five years later, thinleaf huckleberry had greater frequency within slash burned areas than in the sidecast (shown in the paper as the downhill, filled edge of the skid trail), mid-trail, and cutbank areas of skid trails :
Thinleaf huckleberry was slow to develop even in slash burn areas, showing 3% coverage at 3 postfire years, 6.7% coverage at 4 postfire years, and 11.5% coverage at 5 postfire years .
Soil scarification through mechanical means (bulldozing) does not promote thinleaf huckleberry growth .
Laursen  provides detailed models for predicting height and cover of thinleaf huckleberry following management disturbance. Model equations were generated following observations in the Douglas-fir to mountain hemlock zones throughout northern Idaho, eastern Washington and western Montana.
Martin  provides specific management recommendations for thinleaf huckleberry within subalpine fir/common beargrass-thinleaf huckleberry habitat type; subalpine fir/queencup beadlily-menziesia habitat type; subalpine fir/queencup beadlily-common beargrass habitat type; and subalpine fir/menziesia habitat type.
Coates  provides a general description of thinleaf huckleberry response to a variety of silvicultural treatments in British Columbia :
|Treatment||Thinleaf huckleberry response|
|Overstory removal||Berry production increases, with population numbers increasing slowly.|
|Manual cutting||Sprouting and suckering occurs but recovery is slow and may take 3 to 7 years to regain pretreatment levels. Increases in number and density of stems are common.|
|Mechanical site prep||Likely to reduce frequency and cover for several years.|
|Chemical treatments||Tolerant to very tolerant to glyphosate; 2,4-D as early foliar spray kills aerial parts with sprouting occurring the following season.|
Recreation Management: Cole and Trull  evaluated thinleaf huckleberry response to recreational disturbance (human trampling) on the east slopes of the North Cascades. Thinleaf huckleberry was not tolerant of trampling. Decreases in vigor occurred after trampling, with little recovery the following growing season. Results from trampling experiments (a one-way walk at a natural gait by a 154 lb (70 kg) trampler in lug-soled boots) in subalpine fir stands are summarized below:
|Number of passes||Cover (%): after trampling||Cover (%): 1 year recovery|
Similar results of low resistance and low recovery potential to summer trampling were seen in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, .
Berry Production: Several abiotic and biotic factors determine the extent of fructification by thinleaf huckleberry. Greater berry production occurs in soils high in organic matter. Soil moisture availability will affect quality and quantity of berry production within a growing season .
Pruning can significantly (p < 0.05) increase vegetative production of thinleaf huckleberry through increased lateral bud development. Bud elongation usually begins within a few weeks of stem clipping, with buds nearest to point of stem removal developing 1st. Pruning date has no direct effect upon amount of lateral bud break if conducted before early July. Pruning after July may suppress lateral bud swelling and elongation through initiation of fall dormancy. Mid-June and early July pruning produced significantly less (p<0.05) lateral bud growth than earlier pruning :
|Treatment date||Mean # lateral shoots developing||Mean shoot growth (mm)|
Berry production usually decreases with increased forest overstory . In Montana, aspect has the greatest effect upon berry production. Fruit decreases from optimum northwest aspects to north, northeast, then from east to west. Canopy cover is inversely related to berry production; however, south or west aspects show no inverse relation. On south and west aspects, canopy removal may decrease population due to subsequent moisture stress .
According to Martin , in disturbed sites berry production is generally delayed at least 5 years. Berry production increases 15 to 20 years after wildfire on mesic north or east aspects and 5 to 10 years if sites are clearcut and broadcast burned.
Although coverage of thinleaf huckleberry may have a positive response to fire disturbance, berry production is usually delayed. Overstory removal with minimal huckleberry disturbance is recommended to increase berry production. Frilling (2,4-D applied to frills cut in trees) and girdling are 2 methods that effectively remove an overstory with minimal disturbance . Fields of thinleaf huckleberry, productive for huckleberry picking, have developed after fires within some areas of mountain hemlock-subalpine fir forests in Washington and Oregon .
Herbicide application (2,4-D) along with cut and burn treatments were evaluated to monitor effect on thinleaf huckleberry berry production within a Pacific silver fir forest zone in Oregon. Frill treatments (herbicide 2,4-D and water) applied to stem incisions, were carried out on overstory trees larger than 2 inches (5 cm) d.b.h. in July. Spraying of 2,4-D in late July on all vegetation below 9.8 feet (3 m) was also implemented. The cut and burn treatment consisted of overstory removal followed by an August broadcast slash burn which killed, but did not consume, shoots. Berry production in kg/ha, 5 and 7 posttreatment years, is summarized below :
|Treatment||5 post-treatment years||7 post-treatment years|
|Cut and burn||76.7||51.7|
Girdling is suggested as a nonchemical approach to achieve results produced by the frill treatment .
Indirect application of herbicides may have a profound negative effect on thinleaf huckleberry, producing high mortality. Glyphosate may provide minor control of thinleaf huckleberry . Top-kill and prevention of subsequent growing season sprouts may be obtained through use of 2,4-D  and triclopyr [103,105]. Miller  provides a summary of herbicide control within the inland Northwest.
Within subalpine fir/thinleaf huckleberry habitats of northern Utah, berry production is increased when the relative amount of direct sunlight received is increased . Overstory shading has no effect on berry sweetness .Stark and Baker  provide information on ecology and culture of thinleaf huckleberry for those interested in cultivation or more intensive field management.
1. Agee, James K. 1994. Fire and weather disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Cascades. In: Everett, Richard L.; Hessburg, Paul F., tech. eds. [Vol. 3: Assessment]. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-320. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p. 
2. Agee, James K. 1996. Fire in the Blue Mountains: A history, ecology, and research agenda. In: Jaindl, R. G.; Quigley, T. M., eds. Search for a solution: Sustaining the land, people and economy of the Blue Mountains. Washington, DC: American Forests: 119-145. 
3. Agee, James K.; Kertis, Jane. 1987. Forest types of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65: 1520-1530. 
4. Agee, James K.; Smith, Larry. 1983. Subalpine tree invasion after fire in the Olympic Mountains. In: Agee, James K.; Scott, David R. M. Ecological effects of the Hoh fire. Tech. Compl. Rep. 2. NPS Contract CS-9000-9-E079. Seattle, WA: National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region: Variously paginated. 
5. Almack, Jon. 1986. Grizzly bear habitat use, food habits, and movements in the Selkirk Mountains, northern Idaho. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 150-157. 
6. Arno, Stephen F. 1976. The historical role of fire on the Bitterroot National Forest. Res. Pap. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 29 p. 
7. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. 
8. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. 
9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p. 
10. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. 
11. Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1984. Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 278 p. 
12. Barclay-Estrup, P. 1987. A new shrub for Ontario: mountain bilberry, Vaccinium membranaceum, in Pukaskwa National Park. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 101(4): 526-531. 
13. Barmore, William J., Jr.; Taylor, Dale; Hayden, Peter. 1976. Ecological effects and biotic succession following the 1974 Waterfalls Canyon Fire in Grand Teton National Park. Research Progress Report 1974-1975. Unpublished report on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 99 p. 
14. Barrett, Stephen W.; Arno, Stephen F. 1999. Indian fires in the Northern Rockies: Ethnohistory and ecology. In: Boyd, Robert, ed. Indians, fire, and the land in the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University: 50-64. 
15. Beetle, Alan A. 1962. Range survey in Teton County, Wyoming. Part 2: Utilization and condition classes. Bull. 400. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 38 p. 
16. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
17. Boyd, Robert. 1999. Introduction. In: Boyd, Robert, ed. Indians, fire, and the land in the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 1-30. 
18. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. 
19. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. 
20. Brockway, Dale G.; Topik, Christopher; Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, William H. 1983. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone: Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-130a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 122 p. 
21. Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 257 p. 
22. Burke, Constance J. 1979. Historic fires in the central western Cascades, Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 130 p. + appendices. Thesis. 
23. Butler, David R. 1979. Snow avalanche path terrain and vegetation, Glacier National Park, Montana. Arctic and Alpine Research. 11(1): 17-32. 
24. Clary, Warren P. 1983. Overstory-understory relationships: spruce-fir forests. In: Bartlett, E. T.; Betters, David R., eds. Overstory-understory relationships in western forests. Western Regional Research Publication No. 1. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, Agriculture Experiment Station: 9-12. 
25. Coates, D.; Haeussler, S. 1986. A preliminary guide to the response of major species of competing vegetation to silvicultural treatments. Land Management Handbook No. 9. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 88 p. 
26. Cole, David N. 1982. Vegetation of two drainages in Eagle Cap Wilderness, Wallowa Mountains, Oregon. Res. Pap. INT-288. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 42 p. 
27. Cole, David N. 1988. Disturbance and recovery of trampled montane grassland and forests in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-389. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 37 p. 
28. Cole, David N.; Trull, Susan J. 1992. Quantifying vegetation response to recreational disturbance in the North Cascades, Washington. The American Midland Naturalist. 66(4): 229-236. 
29. Cooper, Stephen V.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Roberts, David W. 1991. Forest habitat types of northern Idaho: A second approximation. [Revised]. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-236. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 143 p. 
30. Crane, M. F.; Habeck, James R.; Fischer, William C. 1983. Early postfire revegetation in a western Montana Douglas-fir forest. Res. Pap. INT-319. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 29 p. 
31. Crawford, John A.; Van Dyke, Walt; Meyers, S. Mark; Haensly, Thomas F. 1986. Fall diet of blue grouse in Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 46(1): 123-127. 
32. Dahlgreen, Matthew Craig. 1984. Observations on the ecology of Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl. on the southeast slope of the Washington Cascades. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 120 p. Thesis. 
33. Darrow, George M. 1960. Blueberry breeding, past, present, future. American Horticultural Magazine. 39(1): 14-33. 
34. Davis, Dan; Butterfield, Bart. 1991. The Bitterroot Grizzly Bear Evaluation Area: A report to the Bitterroot Technical Review Team. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 56 p. 
35. Davis, Kathleen M.; Clayton, Bruce D.; Fischer, William C. 1980. Fire ecology of Lolo National Forest habitat types. INT-79. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 77 p. 
36. del Moral, Roger; Long, James N. 1977. Classification of montane forest community types in the Cedar River drainage of western Washington, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 7(2): 217-225. 
37. del Moral, Roger; Watson, Alan F. 1978. Gradient structure of forest vegetation in the central Washington Cascades. Vegetatio. 38(1): 29-48. 
38. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The Plant Information Network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
39. Donnelly, Steve. 1993. Spring burning by habitat type in relation to artificial restoration. McCall, ID: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest. 19 p. 
40. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. 
41. Douglas, George W. 1972. Subalpine plant communities of the western North Cascades, Washington. Arctic and Alpine Research. 4(2): 147-166. 
42. Douglas, George Wayne. 1970. A vegetation study in the subalpine zone of the western North Cascades, Washington. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 293 p. Thesis. 
43. Doyle, Kathleen M.; Knight, Dennis H.; Taylor, Dale L.; Barmore, William J., Jr.; Benedict, James M. 1998. Seventeen years of forest succession following the Waterfalls Canyon fire in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 8(1): 45-55. 
44. Drew, Larry Albert. 1967. Comparative phenology of seral shrub communities in the cedar/hemlock zone. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 108 p. Thesis. 
45. Edge, W. Daniel; Marcum, C. Les; Olson-Edge, Sally L. 1988. Summer forage and feeding site selection by elk. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 52(4): 573-577. 
46. Elzinga, Caryl L.; Shearer, Raymond C. 1997. Vegetation structure in old-growth stands in the Coram Research Natural Area in northwestern Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GRT-364. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 22 p. 
47. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
48. Ferguson, Dennis E.; Boyd, Raymond J. 1988. Bracken fern inhibition of conifer regeneration in northern Idaho. Res. Paper 388. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 11 p. 
49. Ferguson, Dennis E.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1996. Classification of grand fir mosaic habitats. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-337. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 16 p. 
50. Fonda, R. W.; Bliss, L. C. 1969. Forest vegetation of the montane and subalpine zones, Olympic Mountains, Washington. Ecological Monographs. 39(3): 271-301. 
51. Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press. 452 p. 
52. Franklin, Jerry F.; Moir, William H.; Hemstrom, Miles A.; Greene, Sarah E.; Smith, Bradley G. 1988. The forest communities of Mount Rainier National Park. Scientific Monograph Series No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 194 p. 
53. Franklin, Jerry Forest. 1966. Vegetation and soils in the subalpine forests of the southern Washington Cascade Range. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 132 p. Thesis. 
54. French, David. 1999. Aboriginal control of huckleberry yield in the Northwest. In: Boyd, Robert, ed. Indians, fire, and the land in the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University: 31-49. 
55. Gabriel, Herman W., III. 1976. Wilderness ecology: the Danaher Creek Drainage, Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 224 p. Dissertation. 
56. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
57. Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1994. Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Res. Pap. INT-472. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 18 p. 
58. Goldin, A.; Nimlos, T. J. 1977. Vegetation patterns on limestone and acid parent materials in the Garnet Mountains of western Montana. Northwest Science. 51(3): 149-160. 
59. Gough, R. E. 1998. Vegetative and reproductive development of the Montana blue huckleberry (Vaccinium globulare Rydb.). Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology. 73(5): 606-611. 
60. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. 
61. Habeck, James R. 1967. Mountain hemlock communities in western Montana. Northwest Science. 41(4): 169-177. 
62. Habeck, James R. 1968. Forest succession in the Glacier Park cedar-hemlock forests. Ecology. 49(5): 872-880. 
63. Habeck, James R. 1976. Forests, fuels, and fire in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 305-353. 
64. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D.; Mather J. 1990. Autecology of common plants in British Columbia: A literature review. Economic and Regional Development Agreement FRDA Rep. 158. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 272 p. 
65. Hall, Frederick C. 1973. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. R6 Area Guide 3-1. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 82 p. 
66. Halverson, Nancy M.; Emmingham, William H. 1982. Reforestation in the Cascades Pacific silver fir zone: A survey of sites and management experiences on the Gifford Pinchot, Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests. R-6 Regional Area Guide R6-ECOL-091-1982. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 37 p. 
67. Halverson, Nancy M.; Topik, Christopher; Van Vickle, Robert. 1986. Plant association and management guide for the western hemlock zone: Mt. Hood National Forest. R6-ECOL-232A. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 111 p. 
68. Hamilton, Evelyn H. 1988. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil-vegetation relationships in the sub-boreal spruce zone. In: Feller, M. C.; Thomson, S. M., eds. Wildlife and range prescribed burning workshop proceedings; 1987 October 27-28; Richmond, BC. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry: 171-184. 
69. Hamilton, Evelyn H.; Yearsley, H. Karen. 1988. Vegetation development after clearcutting and site preparation in the SBS zone. Economic and Regional Development Agreement: FRDA Report 018. Victoria, BC: Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands. 66 p. 
70. Harrington, Constance A.; McGrath, James M.; Kraft, Joseph M. 1999. Propagating native species: experience at the Wind River Nursery. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 14(2): 61-64. 
71. Hawkes, B. C.; Feller, M. C.; Meehan, D. 1990. Site preparation: Fire. In: Lavender, D. P.; Parish, R.; Johnson, C. M.; Montgomery, G.; Vyse, A.; Willis, R. A.; Winston, D., eds. Regenerating British Columbia's forests. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press: 131-149. 
72. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E.; Pavlat, Warren. 1987. Plant association and management guide: Willamette National Forest. R6-Ecol 257-B-86. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 312 p. 
73. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. 
74. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. 
75. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. 
76. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. 
77. Hungerford, Kenneth E. 1957. Evaluating ruffed grouse foods for habitat improvement. Transactions, 22nd North American Wildlife Conference. 22: 380-395. 
78. Hunn, Eugene S. 1981. On the relative contribution of men and women to subsistence among hunter-gatherers of the Columbia Plateau: a comparison with Ethnographic Atlas summaries. Journal of Ethnobiology. 1(1): 124-134. 
79. Hunn, Eugene S.; Norton, Helen H. 1984. Impact of Mt. St. Helens ashfall on fruit yields of mountain huckleberry, Vaccinium membranaceum, important Native American food. Economic Botany. 38(1): 121-127. 
80. Ingersoll, Cheryl A.; Wilson, Mark V. 1990. Buried propagules in an old-growth forest and their response to experimental disturbances. Canadian Journal of Botany. 68(5): 1156-1162. 
81. Johnson, Charles G., Jr.; Simon, Steven A. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province: Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. Baker, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 p. 
82. Johnson, Leslie Main. 1999. Aboriginal burning for vegetation management in northwest British Columbia. In: Boyd, Robert, ed. Indians, fire and the land in the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 238-254. 
83. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. 
84. Kendall, Katherine C. 1986. Grizzly and black bear feeding ecology in Glacier National Park, Montana. Progress Report. West Glacier, Montana: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Glacier National Park Biosphere Preserve, Science Center. 42 p. 
85. Kessell, Stephen R.; Potter, Meredith W. 1980. A quantitative succession model for nine Montana forest communities. Environmental Management. 4(3): 227-240. 
86. Kingery, James L.; Mosley, Jeffrey C.; Bordwell, Kirsten C. 1996. Dietary overlap among cattle and cervids in northern Idaho forests. Journal of Range Management. 49(1): 8-15. 
87. Klebenow, Donald A. 1965. A montane forest winter deer habitat in western Montana. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 29(1): 27-33. 
88. Knight, Richard R; Blanchard, Bonnie M. 1983. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: Annual report of the Interagency Study Team--1982. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 45 p. 
89. Kramer, Neal B.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1987. Mature forest seed banks of three habitat types in central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65(9): 1961-1966. 
90. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States: Map, [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. 
91. Largent, David L.; Sugihara, Neil; Wishner, Carl. 1980. Occurrence of mycorrhizae on ericaceous and pyrolaceous plants in northern California. Canadian Journal of Botany. 58(21): 2274-2279. 
92. Laursen, Steven B. 1984. Predicting shrub community composition and structure following management disturbance in forest ecosystems of the Intermountain West. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 261 p. Dissertation. 
93. Lepofsky, Dana; Turner, Nancy J.; Kuhnlein, Harriet V. 1985. Determining the availability of traditional wild plant foods: An example of Nuxalk foods, Bella Coola, British Columbia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 16: 223-241. 
94. Lillybridge, Terry R.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Williams, Clinton K.; Smith, Bradley G. 1995. Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-359. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 335 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wenatchee National Forest. 
95. Lotan, James E.; Alexander, Martin E.; Arno, Stephen F.; French, Richard E.; Langdon, O. Gordon; Loomis, Robert M.; Norum, Rodney A.; Rothermel, Richard C.; Schmidt, Wyman C.; van Wagtendonk, Jan. 1981. Effects of fire on flora: A state-of-knowledge review: National fire effects workshop: Proceedings. 1978 April 10-14; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-16. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 71 p. 
96. Lyon, L. Jack. 1976. Vegetal development on the Sleeping Child burn in western Montana, 1961 to 1973. Res. Pap. INT-184. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. 
97. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1966. Two forest fires: and some specific implications in big-game management. Proceedings, Annual Conference of Western Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. 46: 181-193. 
98. Mace, Richard D.; Bissell, Gael N. 1986. Grizzly bear food resources in the flood plains and avalanche chutes of the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., comps. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 78-91. 
99. March, G. L.; Sadleir, R. M. F. S. 1973. Studies on the band-tailed pigeon (Columba fasciata) in British Columbia. II. Food resource and mineral-gravelling activity. Syesis. 5: 279-284. 
100. Martin, Patricia A. E. 1979. Productivity and taxonomy of the Vaccinium globulare, V. membranaceum complex in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 136 p. Thesis. 
101. Mauk, Ronald L.; Henderson, Jan A. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-170. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 89 p. 
102. Miller, Daniel L. 1981. The effects of Roundup herbicide on northern Idaho conifers and shrub species. Forestry Technical Paper TP-81-2. Lewiston, ID: Potlatch Corporation. 13 p. 
103. Miller, Daniel L.; Kidd, Frank A. 1982. How to write a herbicide prescription for shrub control. Forestry Technical Paper TP-82-6. Lewiston, ID: Potlatch Corporation, Wood Products, Western Division. 12 p. 
104. Miller, Daniel L.; Kidd, Frank A. 1983. Shrub control in the Inland Northwest--a summary of herbicide test results. Forestry Research Note RN-83-4. Lewiston, ID: Potlatch Corporation. 49 p. 
105. Miller, Daniel L.; Pope, W. W. 1982. The effects of Garlon 3A and Garlon 4 on North Idaho conifers and shrubs. Forestry Technical Paper TP-82-3. Lewiston, ID: Potlatch Corporation. 11 p. 
106. Miller, Melanie. 1976. Shrub sprouting response to fire in a Douglas-fir/western larch ecosystem. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 124 p. Thesis. 
107. Miller, Melanie. 1977. Response of blue huckleberry to prescribed fires in a western Montana larch-fir forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-188. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. 
108. Miller, Melanie. 1978. Effect of growing season on sprouting of blue huckleberry. Res. Note INT-240. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p. 
109. Minore, Don. 1972. The wild huckleberries of Oregon and Washington--a dwindling resource. PNW-143. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. 
110. Minore, Don. 1975. Observations on the rhizomes and roots of Vaccinium membranaceum. Res. Note PNW-261. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 5 p. 
111. Minore, Don. 1984. Vaccinium membranaceum berry production seven years after treatment to reduce overstory tree canopies. Northwest Science. 58(3): 208-212. 
112. Minore, Don; Dubrasich, Michael E. 1978. Big huckleberry abundance as related to environment and associated vegetation near Mount Adams, Washington. Research Note PNW-322. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p. 
113. Minore, Don; Smart, Alan W. 1975. Sweetness of huckleberries near Mount Adams, Washington. PNW-248. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. 
114. Minore, Don; Smart, Alan W.; Dubrasich, Michael E. 1979. Huckleberry ecology and management research in the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-93. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 50 p. 
115. Morrison, Peter H.; Swanson, Frederick J. 1990. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-254. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 77 p. 
116. Neiland, Bonita J. 1958. Forest and adjacent burn in the Tillamook Burn area of northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 39(4): 660-671. 
117. Nelson, Eric A. 1974. Greenhouse and field fertilization of thin-leaved huckleberry. Res. Note PNW-236. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 13 p. 
118. Noble, William. 1985. Shepherdia canadensis: its ecology, distribution, and utilization by the grizzly bear. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 28 p. 
119. Norton, Helen H.; Boyd, Robert; Hunn, Eugene. 1999. The Klikitat Trail of south-central Washington: A reconstruction of seasonally used resource sites. In: Boyd, Robert, ed. Indians, fire, and the land in the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University: 65-93. 
120. Ogilve, R. T. 1990. Distribution and ecology of whitebark pine in western Canada. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on whitebark pine ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989 March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen Tech. Rep. INT-270. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 54-60. 
121. Orme, Mark L.; Leege, Thomas A. 1976. Emergence and survival of redstem (Ceanothus sanguineus) following prescribed burning. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 391-420. 
122. Oswald, E. T.; Brown, B. N. 1993. Vegetation development on skid trails and burned sites in southeastern British Columbia. Forestry Chronicle. 69(1): 75-80. 
123. Patten, Robin S.; Knight, Dennis H. 1994. Snow avalanches and vegetation pattern in Cascade Canyon, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research. 26(1): 35-41. 
124. Pfister, Robert D.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Arno, Stephen F.; Presby, Richard C. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p. 
125. Pierce, John D. 1984. Shiras moose forage selection in relation to browse availability in north-central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 62(12): 2404-2409. 
126. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Publishing. 526 p. 
127. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
128. Reichert, Chris. 1989. Silviculture in grizzly bear habitat. In: Silviculture for all resources: Proceedings of the national silviculture workshop; 1987 May 11-14; Sacramento, CA. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 48-60. 
129. Ripple, William J. 1994. Historic spatial patterns of old forests in western Oregon. Journal of Forestry. 92(11): 45-49. 
130. Ross, Robert L.; Hunter, Harold E. 1976. Climax vegetation of Montana: Based on soils and climate. Bozeman, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 64 p. 
131. Ruediger, William; Mealey, Stephen. 1978. Coordination guidelines for timber harvesting in grizzly bear habitat in northwestern Montana. [Libby, MT]: [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Kootenai National Forest]. 44 p. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
132. Schoonmaker, Peter; McKee, Arthur. 1988. Species composition and diversity during secondary succession of coniferous forests in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Forest Science. 34(4): 960-979. 
133. Schwartz, John E., II; Mitchell, Glen E. 1945. The Roosevelt elk on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 9(4): 295-319. 
134. Scrivner, Jerry H.; Smith, H. Duane. 1984. Relative abundance of small mammals in four successional stages of spruce-fir forest in Idaho. Northwest Science. 58(3): 171-175. 
135. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. 
136. Smith, Jane Kapler; Fischer, William C. 1997. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-363. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 142 p. 
137. South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, Natural Heritage Program. (2000). Rare, threatened, and endangered plants, [Online]. Available: http://www.state.sd.us/gfp/Diversity/RarePlant.htm [2000, June 30]. 
138. Stark, N. 1980. Light burning and the nutrient value of forage. Res. Note INT-280. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 7 p. 
139. Stark, N.; Baker, Stephen. 1992. The ecology and culture of Montana huckleberries: A guide for growers and researchers. Miscellaneous Publication 52. Missoula, MT: The University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 87 p. 
140. Stark, Nellie M. 1977. Fire and nutrient cycling in a Douglas-fir/larch forest. Ecology. 58: 16-30. 
141. Stark, Nellie M. 1989. The ecology of Vaccinium globulare: seedling establishment and nutrition. In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall R., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and biotechnology; 1987 June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 164-168. 
142. Steele, Robert W.; Stark, Nellie. 1977. Understory burning in larch/Douglas-fir forests as a management tool. Western Wildlands. 4(1): 25-29. 
143. Steele, Robert. 1984. An approach to classifying seral vegetation within habitat types. Northwest Science. 58(1): 29-39. 
144. Steele, Robert; Cooper, Stephen V.; Ondov, David M.; Roberts, David W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-144. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 122 p. 
145. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. 
146. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1991. Monitoring the effects of postfire grass seeding on the Lowman Burn. Unpublished first year progress report. 4 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
147. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1995. Major Douglas-fir habitat types of central Idaho: A summary of succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-331. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 23 p. 
148. Steele, Robert; Pfister, Robert D.; Ryker, Russell A.; Kittams, Jay A. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-114. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 138 p. 
149. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the north Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. 
150. Stewart, G. H. 1988. The influence of canopy cover on understory development in forests of the western Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. Vegetatio. 76: 79-88. 
151. Stickney, Peter F. 1985. Data base for early postfire succession on the Sundance Burn, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-189. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 121 p. 
152. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance forest fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. 
153. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. 
154. Stiger, Everett M. 1980. Level I fire management analysis: The fire situation: Lewis and Clark National Forest: Phase I. Great Falls, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Helena National Forest. 31 p. 
155. Thilenius, John Frederick. 1960. Forage utilization by cattle and white-tailed deer on a northern Idaho forest range. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 87 p. Thesis. 
156. Topik, Christopher. 1989. Plant association and management guide for the grand fir zone, Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-TP-006-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 110 p. 
157. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. 
158. Unsworth, James W.; Beecham, John J.; Irby, Lynn R. 1989. Female black bear habitat use in west-central Idaho. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 668-673. 
159. Vogl, Richard J.; Ryder, Calvin. 1969. Effects of slash burning on conifer reproduction in Montana's Mission Range. Northwest Science. 43(3): 135-147. 
160. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Bulletin 61. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 622 p. 
161. Waring, R. H. 1969. Forest plants of the eastern Siskiyous: their environment and vegetational distribution. Northwest Science. 43(1): 1-17. 
162. Welch, Christy A.; Keay, Jeffrey; Kendall, Katherine C.; Robbins, Charles T. 1997. Constraints on frugivory by bears. Ecology. 78(4): 1105-1119. 
163. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
164. Williams, Carroll B.; Dyrness, C. T. 1967. Some characteristics of forest floors and soils under true fir-hemlock stands in the Cascade Range. PNW-37. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 19 p. 
165. Williams, Clinton K.; Kelley, Brian F.; Smith, Bradley G.; Lillybridge, Terry R. 1995. Forest plant associations of the Colville National Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-360. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 375 p. 
166. Young, Vernon A.; Robinette, W. Leslie. 1939. A study of the range habits of elk on the Selway Game Preserve. Bulletin No. 9. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, School of Forestry. 47 p. 
167. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Mauk, Ronald L. 1985. Coniferous forest habitat types of central and southern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 89 p. 
168. Zamora, Benjamin Abel. 1975. Secondary succession on broadcast-burned clearcuts of the Abies grandis-Pachistima myrsinites habitat type in northcentral Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 127 p. Dissertation.