Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page

Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Vaccinium arboreum
Farkleberry. Creative Commons image by Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia,



SPECIES: Vaccinium arboreum
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium arboreum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
Revisions : On 2 March 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS from: tree sparkleberry to: farkleberry. Images were also added. ABBREVIATION: VACARB SYNONYMS: Vaccinium arboreum var. arboreum Vaccinium arboreum var. glaucescens (Greene) Sarg. [16] Vaccinium diffusum NRCS PLANT CODE: VAAR COMMON NAMES: farkleberry Missouri farkleberry tree huckleberry tree sparkleberry sparkleberry winter huckleberry TAXONOMY: The currently accepted scientific name of farkleberry is Vaccinium arboreum Marshall [34]. Farkleberry is the sole North American representative of the section Batodendron (Nutt.) A. Gray. L. T. within the family Ericaceae [45,46]. LIFE FORM: Shrub, Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Vaccinium arboreum
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Farkleberry grows from central Florida westward to central Oklahoma, southeastern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, and the Edwards Plateau of Texas [6,22,38]. It extends northward to southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and Virginia [22,49]. Farkleberry is rare and local in Kentucky, Virginia, Illinois, and Indiana [45]. Uttal [44] has reported that it occurs in parts of Mexico and the West Indies. The variety glaucescens grows from Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma, northward to Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois [48].
Distribution of farkleberry. 1977 USDA, Forest Service map digitized by Thompson and others [54].

   FRES12  Longleaf - slash pine
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES14  Oak - pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory

     AL  AR  FL  GA  IL  IN  KS  KY  LA  MS


   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K082  Mosaic of K074 and K100
   K084  Cross Timbers
   K090  Live oak - sea oats
   K091  Cypress savanna
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest
   K112  Southern mixed forest
   K113  Southern floodplain forest
   K115  Sand pine scrub
   K116  Subtropical pine forest

    23  Eastern hemlock
    40  Post oak - blackjack oak
    51  White pine - chestnut oak
    53  White oak
    69  Sand pine
    70  Longleaf pine
    71  Longleaf pine - scrub oak
    73  Southern redcedar
    75  Shortleaf pine
    76  Shortleaf pine - oak
    78  Virginia pine - oak
    79  Virginia pine
    80  Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
    81  Loblolly pine
    82  Loblolly pine - hardwood
    83  Longleaf pine - slash pine
    84  Slash pine
    85  Slash pine - hardwood
    89  Live oak
    91  Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
    92  Sweetgum - willow oak
    93  Sugarberry - American elm - green ash
   104  Sweetbay - swamp tupelo - redbay
   111  South Florida slash pine


Farkleberry is listed as an indicator in the following community
type classification.  Blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica) and hickory
(Carya spp.) codominate these often infertile sites.

Area              Classification                Authority

e OK, n AR        southern pine cts             Silker 1971


SPECIES: Vaccinium arboreum
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE: The wood of farkleberry is brown to reddish-brown, fine-grained, tough and hard [38,48,52]. Wood weighs an average of 48 pounds per cubic foot (112 kg/cu m) [48]. It was formerly used to make various tool handles and craft items [48,52]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Browse: White-tailed deer browse farkleberry in many areas [15,21]. It is considered an important summer deer food in parts of Georgia [15]. Many species of hares and rabbits also feed on the leaves and twigs of species within this genus [45]. Fruit and flowers: A wide variety of birds and mammals readily feed on the fruit of farkleberry [38,48]. Fruits and flowers provide spring and summer food for the bobwhite quail [15]. Black bear, chipmunks, and many species of birds, including the American robin, ruffed grouse, and tanagers, feed on the fruit of Vacciniums [45]. Flowers are attractive to various bees [44]. PALATABILITY: Farkleberry browse is reportedly of "low to medium" palatability to white-tailed deer [21]. Berries are palatable to many species of birds and mammals. NUTRITIONAL VALUE: Nutrient content of farkleberry browse varies by season and burn history of a particular site [20]. Food values are as follows [20]: Date burn nutrient content (%) at 15% moisture level sampled history %air dry protein fat fiber N-free ash phos- Ca (#burns weight extract phoric reported) acid spring none 26.4 9.75 3.93 25.46 40.47 5.39 0.23 0.39 spring 1 22.9 13.25 7.85 13.78 47.37 2.75 0.37 0.32 summer none 37.8 6.65 4.45 22.46 48.19 3.24 0.15 0.87 summer 1 32.0 7.50 4.13 17.01 53.52 2.84 0.18 0.52 summer 2 34.6 7.17 -- -- -- -- 0.17 - summer 3 22.9 11.13 -- -- -- -- 0.32 - fall none 41.0 6.64 4.66 21.27 48.43 4.00 0.12 1.11 fall 1 45.5 6.29 4.80 20.73 49.75 3.42 0.14 0.79 winter none 48.2 5.31 4.51 26.15 45.60 3.44 0.14 1.01 winter 1 42.9 6.63 4.07 22.19 47.94 4.16 0.20 0.91 winter 2 49.3 5.51 4.07 23.85 48.38 3.18 0.14 0.78 winter 3 44.2 6.35 2.96 21.88 50.44 3.38 0.15 0.61 COVER VALUE: Stephens [38] reported that most birds rarely nest in farkleberry and typically seek out denser vegetation. However, Thackston and others [42] noted that shrubby thickets of farkleberry form favored activity centers for transplanted ruffed grouse in northern Georgia. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES: Farkleberry bark was formerly used in tanning leathers [48]. Extracts obtained from roots were traditionally used to treat diarrhea [48]. Unlike the fruit of most Vacciniums, the berries of farkleberry are inedible to humans [44]. Farkleberry flowers abundantly and is "very ornamental" [44]. Flowers are a good source of nectar for foraging honey bees [44]. Farkleberry may have potential value for developing commercial fruit-producing strains of blueberries [2]. Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) can be grafted onto the rootstock of farkleberry. The resulting cultivars are well suited to droughty upland sites with soils with a relatively high pH [2]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Fruit production: Fruit production is highly variable in farkleberry. Yields are generally greater in older burned stands than in young open stands [15]. Plants in pine plantations may not bear fruit [15]. [See Fire Management Considerations]. Grazing: Farkleberry apparently decreases in response to heavy livestock grazing. Cover by grazing intensity was as follows in an eastern Louisiana study [8]: light medium heavy grazed ungrazed grazed ungrazed grazed ungrazed control control control .15 .32 .13 .14 .01 .00 Chemical control: Farkleberry is resistant to aerially applied herbicides [36]. Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) exhibit variable susceptibility to herbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, glyphosate, karbutilate, and picloram [51]. Drought resistance: Although reportedly resistant to drought [2], plants occasionally succumb during extreme dry periods [45].


SPECIES: Vaccinium arboreum
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Farkleberry grows as a large, much-branched, upright shrub or small tree [13,34,48]. Individuals may grow as tall plants with rounded crowns, or as flat-topped shrubs with crooked branches [38]. Shrubby plants commonly reach only 7 to 10 feet (2-3 m) in height [38,45]. However, on favorable sites, plants may grow to 33 feet (10 m) with a d.b.h. of up to 14 inches (35 cm) [38,45]. Record trees have been measured at 64 feet (19 m) in height with circumferences of up to 116 inches (45.9 cm) [25]. Farkleberry is the only member of the Vaccinium genus to reach tree size [22]. Shrubby plants commonly form loose thickets [38]. The outer bark is gray to grayish-brown, thin, and smooth, with narrow ridges [48]. The slender, rigid twigs are reddish-brown to reddish-green or gray, and glaucous, glabrous, or glandular-pubescent [38,44,45]. Stem morphology has been reported in detail [32]. Leaves of farkleberry are variable in size, shape, and persistence [38]. Plants tend to be deciduous in the north but evergreen in the southern part of the species' range [13,48]. The simple, alternate leaves are coriaceous, glabrous, and lustrous above [38,45]. The lower surface is glaucous, duller green, and often glandular-pubescent [45,48]. Leaves are obovate to elliptic, approximately 1 to 3 inches (3-8 cm) in length with entire or obscurely denticulate margins [44,48]. The showy, white to pinkish flowers of farkleberry grow in abundance [44,48]. The perfect flowers are borne in leafy-bracted racemes or panicles that average 0.8 to 2.7 inches (2-7 cm) in length [13,48]. Inflorescences typically occur on second year growth [34]. Palser [33] has examined floral morphology in detail. Fruit is a black, lustrous, globose berry 0.2 to 0.4 inch (5-9 mm) in diameter [34,45,48]. Berries are sweet but dry, hard, and mealy [2,48]. The fruit typically persists well into the winter months [44,48]. Each berry contains 8 to 10 stony, shiny, black to golden-brown seeds [2,38,48,52]. The variously-shaped, deeply pitted seeds average 0.08 inch (2 mm) in length [45,48]. The variety glaucescens is distinguished by a larger inflorescence and glaucescent leaves [48]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Farkleberry normally fruits after attaining "the height of a large shrub or tall tree" [15]. Fruit production is apparently somewhat erratic. In some years fruit production is prolific, but in other years, plants produce no fruit [40]. Stephens [38] reported that even plants that flower in abundance commonly produce only sparse amounts of fruit. Various birds and mammals serve as dispersal agents. Seedling establishment presumably occurs when conditions are favorable. Germination characteristics are unknown. Although many ericaceous shrubs sprout after aboveground foliage is damaged or destroyed, sprouting has apparently not been documented in farkleberry. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Farkleberry grows on sand dunes, hammocks, granitic outcrops, dry sterile hillsides, in rocky woods, abandoned fields, and meadows [37,38,41,45,49]. It also occurs on a variety of moist sites such as in wet bottomlands and along creek banks [37,41,45]. Farkleberry is common throughout much of the Coastal Plain and in the Piedmont [34]. In the southern Appalachians, plants generally grow below 2,591 feet (790 m) in elevation [52]. Farkleberry grows in many plant communities including mixed swamps, cypress heads or domes, bayheads, and sand hills [19,28,29,30]. It also occurs in many xeric mixed pine-hardwood forests, pine flatwoods, post oak savanna, and sand-pine scrub [19,37,45]. Common overstory dominants include longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (P. taeda), slash pine (P. elliottii), shortleaf pine (P. echinata), turkey oak (Quercus laevis), live oak (Q. virginana), blackjack oak, hickory, black swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) [5,7,9,12,26,36,40]. Toward the northern portion of its range in Missouri and Illinois, farkleberry may be an important mid-canopy species in eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) or eastern redcedar-post oak (Quercus stellata) stands [31,50]. Understory associates: Common understory associates in longleaf pine and longleaf-slash pine communities include deerberry (Vaccinium stamineum), flameleaf sumac (Rhus copallina), poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), southern bayberry (Myrica cerifera), bluejack oak (Quercus incana), gum bumelia (Bumelia languginosa), yaupon (Ilex vomitoria), and muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) [5,24,39]. Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), possumhaw (Ilex decidua), yaupon, saw greenbriar (Smilax bona-nox), common greenbrier (S. rotundifolia), rusty blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum), muscadine grape, and various oaks are common components of loblolly-shortleaf pine forests [4,7,40]. Other common associates include hawthorne (Crataegus spp.), common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), sweet bay (Magnolia grandiflora), red bay (Persea borbonia), hackberry (Celtis spp.), water oak (Quercus nigra), and coast laurel oak (Q. laurifolia) [9,14,37]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Farkleberry grows in many successional stages in pine-oak-hickory and evergreen oak-hardwood forests of Florida [18]. It is an important component of "subclimax" communities in loblolly pine-shortleaf pine stands [4] and grows in successional cypress dome and flatwood communities [29]. Farkleberry invades mesic sites in longleaf pine-turkey oak sandhill communities of Florida [47]. It also assumes prominence in some "young" forest-grassland communities of eastern Texas [37]. Farkleberry grows in all successional phases of many pine-hardwood communities [37]. It occurs as an understory dominant with deerberry, flameleaf sumac, poison-ivy, southern bayberry, and American beauty-berry (Callicarpa americana) on "less frequently burned" sites in longleaf pine-shortleaf pine forests [5]. Where fires occur at frequent intervals, bluejack oak, post oak, blackjack oak, sweetgum, flowering dogwood, and loblolly pine are more common [5]. Farkleberry is a component of seasonally flooded bayheads and southern mixed hardwood swamps which are considered climax communities [29]. It also grows in southern mixed hardwood forests which represent the dominant climax upland vegetation over most of the southeastern Coastal Plain [29]. Farkleberry occurs in dry, old growth upland stands with such species as bluejack oak, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum, and gum bumelia [24]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Farkleberry flowers in late spring or summer. Some plants flower much earlier than others at the same geographic location [52]. Fruit ripens over a relatively long period [38], with ovules maturing in approximately 200 days [45]. Fruit commonly persists into the winter months [48]. Flowering and fruiting by geographic location is as follows: Location Flowering Fruiting Authority SC, NC late April-June Sept.-Oct. Radford and other 1968 FL March-April Aug.-Oct. Ward 1974 (infreq. in Feb., July) Great Plains May-June Aug.-Sept. Great Plains Flora Association 1986 c Great Plains late May Sept.-Oct. Stephens 1973 VA April-May June-Nov. Uttal 1987 se U.S. March-July ---- Duncan and Duncan 1988


SPECIES: Vaccinium arboreum
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Farkleberry occurs in many pine flatwood and sand pine scrub communities that are essentially maintained by fire [27]. During recent years, fire suppression has contributed to the decline of these communities [1]. Many of these communities are now being replaced by southern mixed hardwood forests, bayheads, and swamps [29]. However, farkleberry also occurs in these communities and often assumes greater relative prominence in areas with longer fire-free intervals. In longleaf pine-shortleaf pine communities, farkleberry reaches greatest abundance on less frequently burned sites [5]. Individuals on relatively nonflammable microsites, such as in moist areas or on rocky sites lacking fuels, may be somewhat protected from the effects of fire. Vegetative regeneration is not known to occur in this species, but many Vacciniums are capable of sprouting after aboveground foliage is damaged by fire. Farkleberry presumably reoccupies a site through bird- and mammal- dispersed seed. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2


SPECIES: Vaccinium arboreum
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Farkleberry can be girdled and killed by fire [36]. Following a prescribed burn near Nacogdoches, Texas, mortality of important understory species, including farkleberry, ranged from 11 to 31 percent [40]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT: NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: The fire response of farkleberry has not been well documented. Average height was reduced by a winter fire near Nacogdoches, Texas, but the average number of stems per plant increased [40]. Response was as follows [40]: winter burn - March 1974 control 1973 1975 1973 1975 avg. ht. (cm) 243 214 288 317 avg. # stems/ plant 1.15 1.69 1.07 1.00 Many ericaceous shrubs sprout from the root crown or rhizomes after aboveground vegetation is destroyed by fire. The postfire increase in stems per plant suggests that sprouting may sometimes occur. However, sprouting in farkleberry has not been discussed in the available literature. Reestablishment presumably occurs through seedling establishment where plants are killed by fire. Many birds and mammals transport seed from adjacent unburned areas. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Wildlife management: Prescribed fire can be an effective means of managing farkleberry thickets for wildlife habitat in some areas [42]. Prescribed fire can promote livestock forage and deer browse [21] and may have some potential for increasing fruit production [40]. Deer utilization of farkleberry before and after a prescribed fire in Texas was as follows [21]: unburned burned 1958 1959 1960 1958 1959 1960 (before fire) (after fire) (percent utilization) 6 17 11 4 57 18 However, researchers caution that excessive burning for wildlife can result in loss of overstory and midstory hardwoods [21]. Prescribed fire: Managers frequently spray herbicides on southern pine forests and allow 2 years for the release of native bunchgrasses [36]. Bunchgrass development provides a uniform fuel for subsequent prescribed fires. Backfires can then be used to kill "low quality" hardwoods such as farkleberry [36]. However, researchers note that blackjack oak-hickory-farkleberry associations commonly occur on poor sites [36]. Limited growth potential on these sites may make prescribed burning for hardwood control uneconomical [36]. Nutrient content: Nutrient content of farkleberry browse may be altered by burning. [See Food Value].


SPECIES: Vaccinium arboreum
REFERENCES: 1. Abrahamson, Warren G. 1984. Post-fire recovery of Florida Lake Wales Ridge vegetation. American Journal of Botany. 71(1): 9-21. [9509] 2. Ballinger, W. E.; Maness, E. P.; Ballington, J. R. 1982. Anthocyanins in ripe fruit of the sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum Marsh. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 62(3): 683-687. [9189] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Blair, Robert M.; Brunett, Louis E. 1976. Phytosociological changes after timber harvest in a southern pine ecosystem. Ecology. 57: 18-32. [9646] 5. Bridges, Edwin L.; Orzell, Steve L. 1989. Longleaf pine communities of the west Gulf Coastal Plain. Natural Areas Journal. 9(4): 246-263. [10091] 6. Camp, W. H. 1945. The North American blueberries with notes on other groups of Vacciniaceae. Brittonia. 5(3): 203-275. [9515] 7. Harlow, Richard F.; Bielling, Paul. 1961. Controlled burning studies in longleaf pine-turkey oak association on the Ocala National Forest. Proceeding, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Game and Fish. 15: 9-24. [9905] 8. Clary, Warren P. 1979. Grazing and overstory effects on rotationally burned slash pine plantation ranges. Journal of Range Management. 32(4): 264-266. [9657] 9. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1990. The Magnolia grandiflora-Quercus virginiana forest of Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 123: 331-347. [10871] 10. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 11. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 12. Golden, Michael S. 1979. Forest vegetation of the lower Alabama Piedmont. Ecology. 60(4): 770-782. [9643] 13. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 14. Hartley, Jeanne J.; Arner, Dale H.; Hartley, Danny R. 1990. Woody plant succession on disposal areas of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration '89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 227-236. [14698] 15. Johnson, A. Sydney; Landers, J. Larry. 1978. Fruit production in slash pine plantations in Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(3): 606-613. [9855] 16. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 17. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 18. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799] 19. Laessle, Albert M. 1958. The origin and successional relationship of sandhill vegetation and sand-pine scrub. Ecological Monographs. 28(4): 361-387. [9780] 20. Hodgkins, Earl J. 1958. Effects of fire on undergrowth vegetation in upland southern pine forests. Ecology. 39(1): 36-46. [7632] 21. Lay, Daniel W. 1967. Browse palatability and the effects of prescribed burning in southern pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 65(11): 826-828. [145] 22. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952] 23. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 24. Matos, J. A.; Rudolph, D. C. 1985. The vegetation of the Roy E. Larsen Sandylands Sanctuary in the Big Thicket of Texas. Castanea. 50(4): 228-249. [10114] 25. May, Dennis M. 1990. Big trees of the midsouth forest survey. Res. Note SO-359. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 17 p. [10556] 26. McGinty, Douglas T.; Christy, E. Jennifer. 1977. Turkey oak ecology on a Georgia sandhill. American Midland Naturalist. 98(2): 487-491. [6431] 27. Monk, Carl D. 1965. Southern mixed hardwood forest of northcentral Florida. Ecological Monographs. 35: 335-354. [9263] 28. Monk, Carl D. 1966. An ecological study of hardwood swamps in north-central Florida. Ecology. 47: 649-654. [10802] 29. Monk, Carl D. 1968. Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north central Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 79(2): 441-457. [10847] 30. Monk, Carl D.; Brown, Timothy W. 1965. Ecological consideration of cypress heads in north-central Florida. American Midland Naturalist. 74: 126-140. [10848] 31. Nelson, Paul; Ladd, Douglas. 1983. Preliminary report on the identification, distribution and classification of Missouri glades. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 59-76. [3195] 32. Odell, A. E.; Vander Kloet, S. P.; Newell, R. E. 1989. Stem anatomy of Vaccinium section Cyanococcus and related taxa. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67(8): 2328-2334. [8944] 33. Palser, Barbara F. 1961. Studies of floral morphology in the Ericales. V. Organography and vascular anatomy in several United States species of the Vacciniaceae. Botanical Gazette. 123(2): 79-111. [9032] 34. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 35. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 36. Silker, T. H. 1971. Prescribed burning for southern pine management. In: National Meeting American Society of Agricultural Engineering; 1971 June 27 - June 30; Pullman, WA. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher unknown]. 15. [9910] 37. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708] 38. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804] 39. Stewart, Aberdeen, W.; Hurst, George A. 1987. Vegetation in the longleaf-slash pine forest, Biloxi District, Desoto National Forest, Mississippi. In: Pearson, Henry A.; Smeins, Fred E.; Thill, Ronald E., compilers. Ecological, physical, and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests; 1987 May 26-27; Long Beach, MS. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-68. New Orleans, LA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Experiment Station: 149-155. [10172] 40. Stransky, John J.; Halls, Lowell K. 1979. Effect of a winter fire on fruit yields of woody plants. Journal of Wildlife Management. 43(4): 1007-1010. [9660] 41. Streng, D. R.; Harcombe, P. A. 1982. Why don't east Texas savannas grow up to forest?. American Midland Naturalist. 108(2): 278-294. [10120] 42. Thackston, Reginald E.; Hale, Philip E.; Johnson, A. Sydney; Harris, Michael J. 1982. Chemical composition of mountain-laurel Kalmia leaves from burned and unburned sites. Journal of Wildlife Management. 46(2): 492-496. [9076] 43. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 44. Uttal, Leonard J. 1987. The Genus Vaccinium L. (Ericaceae) in Virginia. Castanea. 52(4): 231-255. [6240] 45. Vander Kloet, S. P. 1988. The genus Vaccinium in North America. Publication 1828. Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. 201 p. [11436] 46. Vander Kloet, S. P. 1989. Typification of some North American Vaccinium species names. Taxon. 38: 129-134. [8918] 47. Veno, Patricia Ann. 1976. Successional relationships of five Florida plant communities. Ecology. 57: 498-508. [9659] 48. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707] 49. Ward, Daniel B. 1974. Contributions to the flora of Florida - 6, Vaccinium (Ericaceae). Castanea. 39(3): 191-205. [10868] 50. Fralish, James S.; Jones, Steven M.; O'Dell, R. Kent; Chambers, Jim L. 1978. The effect of soil moisture on site productivity and forest composition in the Shawnee Hills of southern Illinois. In: Balmer, William E., ed. Proceedings: Soil productivity symposium; 1977 November 1-3; Myrtle Beach, SC. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry: 263-285. [4268] 51. Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p. [8899] 52. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764] 53. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 54. Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Bartlein, Patrick J. 1999. Digital representations of tree species range maps from "Atlas of United States trees" by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (and other publications). In: Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America. Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services (Producer). On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; FEIS files. [92575]

FEIS Home Page