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SPECIES:  Salix pulchra
Tealeaf willow at Happy Valley, North Slope, Alaska. Photo © M.K. Raynolds.


SPECIES: Salix pulchra
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Salix pulchra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : SALPUL SYNONYMS : Salix planifolia Pursh subsp. pulchra [1,5] SCS PLANT CODE : SAPLP COMMON NAMES : tealeaf willow diamond willow diamondleaf willow flatleaf willow flat-leaved willow paneleaf willow thin red willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of tealeaf willow is Salix pulchra Cham. [40]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Salix pulchra
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Tealeaf willow grows throughout most of Alaska and the Yukon Territory. It also occurs in the northwestern Northwest Territories, and in northwestern British Columbia. It is not found south of latitude 56 degrees N in British Columbia [5]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES44 Alpine STATES : AK BC NT YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : NO-ENTRY SAF COVER TYPES : 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 203 Balsam poplar 204 Black spruce 254 Black spruce - paper birch SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Tealeaf willow is a dominant or codominant in numerous sedge-shrub tundra communities mostly north of the Brooks Range in Alaska. Associated carices include aquatic sedge (Carex aquatilis), Bigelow sedge (C. bigelowii), and shortstalk sedge (C. microchaeta). Associated willows include Richardson willow (Salix lanata) and netleaf willow (S. reticulata). It may also codominate shrubby tundra communities with dwarf birches (Betula spp.), numerous huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.), northern Labrador-tea (Ledum palustre), Richardson willow, Alaska bog willow (S. fuscescens), least willow (S. rotundifolia), and other willows (Salix spp.) [15,34]. In interior Alaska, it is often a component of seral willow communities on floodplain terraces, forming thickets with grayleaf willow (S. glauca), Richardson willow, and alders (Alnus spp.) [34]. Published classifications listing tealeaf willow as a dominant in community types (cts) are presented below: Area Classification Authority ne AK general veg. cts Hanson 1953 AK general veg. cts Viereck & Dyrness 1980


SPECIES: Salix pulchra
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Tealeaf willow is an important moose browse in Alaska [23,26]. It is also browsed by snowshoe hare and Dall sheep [35]. Willows in general are a preferred food and building material of beaver [27]. Willow shoots, catkins, leaves, and buds are eaten by numerous small mammals and birds [14]. In Alaska, willows are an important food of ptarmigan [35]. PALATABILITY : Tealeaf willow is a preferred moose browse; however, it is less palatable than Alaska willow (Salix alaxensis), sandbar willow (S. interior), and littletree willow (S. arbusculoides) [23]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Tealeaf willow browse has moderate to relatively high moisture, protein, and caloric content. It provides a nutritious food supply for wintering moose [26]. COVER VALUE : Tealeaf willow thickets provide cover for wildlife. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : In Alaska, numerous willow species are used for wildlife habitat restoration, streambank protection, and reclamation of sites disturbed by mining and construction. Three general methods of planting willows on disturbed sites in northern latitudes are [21,24,38]: (1) planting stem cuttings, (2) transplanting containerized rooted cuttings or seedlings, and (3) planting bundles of dormant branches. OTHER USES AND VALUES : All willows produce salacin, which is closely related chemically to aspirin. Native Americans used various preparations from willows to treat tooth ache, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, and dandruff [22]. Native Americans also used flexible willow stems for making baskets, bows, arrows, scoops, and fish traps [18]. Native Alaskan peoples ate young tealeaf willow leaves both raw and cooked [35]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Salix pulchra
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Tealeaf willow is an upright, multiple-stemmed, deciduous shrub generally between 3 and 6 feet (0.9 and 1.8 m) tall but occasionally up to 15 feet (4.6 m) [35]. In exposed arctic and alpine sites it may assume a low, prostrate form [35]. It has smooth, gray bark. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants in 0.5- to 3-inch-long erect catkins [1]. The fruit is a two-valved silky,pubescent capsule 0.3 inch (8 mm) long [35]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Tealeaf willow's primary mode of reproduction is sexual. It produces an abundance of small, light-weight seeds. Like most willows, it probably begins seed production at an early age (between 2 and 10 years) [14]. At maturity, the fruit splits open, releasing the seed. Each seed has a cottony down that aids in dispersal by wind and water [6]. Seeds are dispersed during the growing season and remain viable for only about 1 week [6]. The seeds contain significant amounts of chlorophyll so that photosynthesis generally occurs as soon as the seed is moistened. Germination occurs within 24 hours of dispersal on moist seedbeds [6]. In germination tests, 95 to 100 percent of seeds germinated within 1 to 3 days at temperatures between 41 and 77 degrees F (5-25 C) [7]. Exposed mineral soils provide the best seedbed. Germination is inhibited by litter [14].
Female catkin in seed. Photo courtesy of Central Yukon Species Inventory Project.
Vegetative reproduction:  Tealeaf willow sprouts from the root crown
if aboveground stems are broken or destroyed by cutting, flooding, or
fire.  Detached stem fragments form adventitious roots if they remain
moist.  Thus portions of stems will root naturally if buried in moist
soil [14].

Tealeaf willow grows in arctic and alpine tundra, open black and
white spruce (Picea mariana, P. glauca) woodlands, muskegs, and sedge
fens [1].  In open spruce woodlands, tealeaf willow trees usually
occur as scattered individuals but become more dense along riparian
areas [26,35].  In open black spruce woodlands, tealeaf willow often
attains highest cover in areas with shallow, perched water tables on the
surface of permafrost [9].  In the mountains of interior Alaska, it
often forms extensive thickets above timberline [17].  It also forms
extensive thickets in treeless bogs, and at treeline in northern Alaska
[35].  In arctic tundra it grows on river banks, islands, river
terraces, and on rolling uplands [4].

Tealeaf willow is a component of stable, shrub-dominated tundra
communities [3,4].  It is intolerant of shade, and uncommon in climax
boreal forests, unless they remain relatively open.  Foote [12] reported
tealeaf willow occurring in early successional stages following
wildfire in black spruce forests.  It veached its greatest abundance
about 30 years after fire, but thereafter declined as it!was overtopped
by urees; by 56 years(after fire, it`was absent.  Alojg the Chena River
in interior Alaska, tealeaf`willow was not found in suc#essional
terrace cOmmunities but grew only as scAttered individuals in climax
black spruce-sphagnum moss stands [29].  These climax stands provided
favorable sites for ve`leaf willow because they were relative?y open
and wet dwe to extensive Permafrost.

Tealeaf willow catkins appear in the early spring before the leaves
are fully expanded [35].  In Amaska, floWering generally occurs in May
and June$ and seeds generally mature in late May, June, !nd Kuly [7,31].
Seeds are dispersed soon0after ripening; dispersal occurs later with
increasing lapitude and elevation.  For example, seeds are dispersed
from late May to early June in the Fairbanks area but are not dispersed
until early August along the Meade River [7].


SPECIES: Salix pulchra
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Tealeaf willow is a fire-adapted species. Most plants sprout from the root crown following top-kill by fire [10,37]. Viereck and Schandelmeier [36] reported that even old, decadent willows sprout prolifically immediately after fire. The sprouting ability of willows is apparently more vigorous and prolific than that of birches or alders [36]. Tealeaf willow's abundant, wind-dispersed seeds colonize burned areas [30]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2 off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2


SPECIES: Salix pulchra
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Severe fires in white and black spruce forests where tealeaf willow grows as scattered individuals can kill willows by completely removing soil organic layers and charring the roots [39]. Less severe fires only top-kill plants. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Tealeaf willow sprouts from the root crown following most fires. Sprouts develop more rapidly than seedlings do and probably reach over 20 inches (50 cm) in height by the end of the first growing season [37]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Tealeaf willow is common on recent burns in lowland black spruce forests in interior Alaska. One 11-year-old burn had about 4,700 tealeaf, Alaska, and grayleaf willow stems per acre (11,600/ha), and lesser amounts of spruce and poplar [37]. Sampling numerous burns in lowland black spruce types in interior Alaska, Foote [12] observed that tealeaf willow averaged 295 stems per acre (728/ha) on 1- to 5-year-old burns, and 771 stems per acre (1,905/ha) on 5- to 30-year-old burns. Its density probably increases or remains constant for up to 30 years after a forest fire, but thereafter declines as young trees overtop it [12]. Since tealeaf willow seeds are dispersed in the summer and remain viable for only about one week, the season of a fire determines if it will establish during the first or subsequent postfire years [30,36]. Fire severity affects the mode of tealeaf willow postfire recovery. Following light fires it recovers quickly, sending up new shoots from undamaged root crowns. Few if any seedlings establish following this type of burn because organic soil layers, which prevent seedling establishment, are only partially consumed [32]. Following severe fires, however, the primary mode of recovery is seedling establishment. Severe fires that burn deep into organic soils kill willows but expose mineral soils, which provide excellent seedbeds. Nine years after a wildfire in a black spruce woodland in interior Alaska, tealeaf willow cover reached 24 percent on scarified firelines within the burn, due to rapid seedling establishment. In the main burn the 6-to 8-inch-thick (15-20 cm) organic layer was only partially burned. Here, tealeaf willow reestablished by sprouting, and cover after 9 years was only 3 percent [32]. Cover in nearby unburned areas was 2 percent. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire can be used to rejuvenate decadent willows.


SPECIES: Salix pulchra
REFERENCES : 1. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences. 279 p. [6167] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Bliss, L. C. 1988. Arctic tundra and polar desert biome. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 1-32. [13877] 4. Bliss, L. C.; Cantlon, J. E. 1957. Succession on river alluvium in northern Alaska. American Midland Naturalist. 58(2): 452-469. [14931] 5. Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1976. Catkin bearing plants of British Columbia. Occas. Pap. No. 18. Victoria, BC: The British Columbia Provincial Museum. 176 p. [6170] 6. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 746-750. [5412] 7. Densmore, Roseann; Zasada, John. 1983. Seed dispersal and dormancy patterns in northern willows: ecological and evolutionary significance. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 3207-3216. [5027] 8. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows of the Rocky Mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. [6000] 9. Dyrness, C. T.; Grigal, D. F. 1979. Vegetation-soil relationships along a spruce forest transect in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 2644-2656. [12488] 10. Dyrness, C. T.; Norum, Rodney A. 1983. The effects of experimental fires on black spruce forest floors in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 879-893. [7299] 11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 12. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. [7080] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D. 1986. Autecological characteristics of selected species that compete with conifers in British Columbia: a literature review. Land Management Report No. 33. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Information Services Branch. 180 p. [1055] 15. Hanson, Herbert C. 1953. 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Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 21. McCluskey, D. Cal; Brown, Jack; Bornholdt, Dave; [and others]. 1983. Willow planting for riparian habitat improvement. Tech. Note 363. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 21 p. [6408] 22. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702] 23. Peek, J. M. 1974. A review of moose food habits studies in North America. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 195-215. [7420] 24. Platts, William S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; [and others]. 1987. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 177 p. [6171] 25. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 26. Risenhoover, Kenneth L. 1989. Composition and quality of moose winter diets in interior Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 568-577. [14930] 27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 28. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 29. Viereck, Leslie A. 1970. Forest succession and soil development adjacent to the Chena River in interior Alaska. Arctic and Alpine Research. 2(1): 1-26. [12466] 30. Viereck, Leslie A. 1973. Wildfire in the taiga of Alaska. Quaternary Research. 3: 465-495. [7247] 31. Viereck, Leslie A. 1979. Characteristics of treeline plant communities in Alaska. Holarctic Ecology. 2: 228-238. [8251] 32. Viereck, Leslie A. 1982. Effects of fire and firelines on active layer thickness and soil temperatures in interior Alaska. In: Proceedings, 4th Canadian permafrost conference; 1981 March 2-6; Calgary, AB. The Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume. Ottawa, ON: National Research Council of Canada: 123-135. [7303] 33. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T. 1979. Ecological effects of the Wickersham Dome Fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-90. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 71 p. [6392] 34. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Batten, A. R.; Wenzlick, K. J. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 278 p. [2431] 35. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884] 36. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Mangement, Alaska State Office. 124 p. [7075] 37. Wolff, Jerry O.; Zasada, John C. 1979. Moose habitat and forest succession on the Tanana river floodplain and Yukon-Tanana upland. In: Proceedings, North American Moose Conference and Workshop No 15; [Date of conference unknown]; Kenai, AK. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher unknown]. 213-244. [6860] 38. Wright, Stoney. 1989. Advances in plant material and revegetation technology in Alaska. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No. RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. 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