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SPECIES:  Salix monticola
Park willow catkins and leaves. Image by Liz Makings, SEINet.

Introductory

SPECIES: Salix monticola
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Esser, L. 1992. Salix monticola. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/salmot/all.html [].
ABBREVIATION: SALMOT SYNONYMS: Salix padophylla Rydb. Salix pseudomonticola var. padophylla (Rydb.) Ball. NRCS PLANT CODE: SAMO2 COMMON NAMES: park willow cherry willow mountain willow serviceberry willow white willow TAXONOMY: The scientific name of park willow is Salix monticola Bebb ex. Coult. There are no infrataxa. Hybridization and introgression with Barclay's willow (S. barclayi), Missouri River willow (S. eriocephala), and blueberry willow (S. myrtillifolia) may occur [15,18,27,34]. LIFE FORM: Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix monticola
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Park willow occurs in the middle and southern Rocky Mountain region from Wyoming to New Mexico [3,15,35].
Distribution of park willow. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC. [2018, August 24] [35].

ECOSYSTEMS: 
   FRES20  Douglas-fir
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES22  Western white pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce
   FRES26  Lodgepole pine
   FRES44  Alpine


STATES: 
     AZ  CO  ID  NM  WY


BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS: 
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   15  Black Hills Uplift


KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS: 
   K008  Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest
   K011  Western ponderosa forest
   K012  Douglas-fir forest
   K013  Cedar - hemlock - pine forest
   K017  Black Hills pine forest
   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest
   K052  Alpine meadows and barren


SAF COVER TYPES: 
   201  White spruce
   202  White spruce - paper birch
   203  Balsam poplar
   204  Black spruce
   206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
   208  Whitebark pine
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   215  Western white pine
   216  Blue spruce
   217  Aspen
   218  Lodgepole pine
   235  Cottonwood - willow
   251  White spruce - aspen
   252  Paper birch
   253  Black spruce - white spruce
   254  Black spruce -  paper birch
Park willow along the west fork of the Colorado River. Image by Liz Makings, SEINet.
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: 
Park willow is a common thicket-forming shrub of streambanks and
moist slopes in the arctic and forested regions of Alaska and the Yukon
[3,14].  Park willow can also be found in floodplain thickets on
rivers and grows on recent alluvial deposits characterized by exposed
mineral soil, low moisture content, and absence of permafrost [22].
Park willow is best adapted to a cool, moist northern environment
but is also found in warmer, more temperate climates.  In these more
temperate climates, park willow occurs at middle to rather high
elevations (6,000 to 10,500 feet [1,800-3,100 m]) in the mountains along
riparian zones [14,15,36].  Published classifications describing
park willow as a dominant or codominant in community types are
listed below:

Classification of the riparian vegetation of the montane and subalpine
zones in western Colorado [4].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix monticola
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Wildlife: Park willow is an important food source for moose, deer small mammals, beaver, snowshoe hares, songbirds, and game birds, including ruffed grouse and ptarmigan [14,26,37]. Park willow from Wyoming to Alaska provides browse for moose [14]. Honey bees use the pollen and nectar of park willow as a food source for brood rearing [2]. Livestock: In south-central Colorado, browse suitability ratings for park willow are listed as high for elk and cattle and moderate for deer and sheep [30]. Park willow is an important source of browse for cattle in riparian areas [33]. PALATABILITY: Most willows are palatable to livestock and big game [2]. Palatability of willows increases as the growing season advances [25]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE: Park willow characteristically produces dense thickets along streams and rivers, which provide thermal and hiding cover for elk, deer, and moose. Branches are used by beavers in the construction of dams and lodges [26]. Park willow also provides shade and cover for fish [26]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Park willow is useful in stabilizing streambanks and providing erosion control on severely disturbed sites [14]. Park willow is an important invader of sites disturbed by man or natural phenomena because of its ability to produce roots and root crown shoots, which provide for quick recovery [41]. A study was conducted at Sheep Creek near Fort Collins, Colorado, a typical western headwater stream. By the late 1940's, the riparian zone bordering Sheep Creek was practically denuded of vegetation. Three exclosures were built to improve fisheries habitat. Limited grazing was allowed in the exclosures for 7 of the 30 years the exclosures existed. Park willow cover averaged eight and a half times greater in the ungrazed exclosures than in adjacent grazed areas [33]. Park willow was unable to reach its maximum height on streambanks that had been grazed even though grazing pressure in the Sheep Creek Allotment had been reduced by two-thirds over a time span of 50 years. It is apparent that some rest from grazing is needed so healthy stands of willow can establish in riparian zones [33]. The utilization of willows for riparian habitat improvement is widespread because they are easy to obtain, inexpensive, usually locally acclimated, and provide a good benefit/cost ratio [26]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Willow establishment along riparian zones is an effective management tool that yields positive benefits to a number of fish and wildlife species, as well as providing necessary protection to the stream environment [26]. Heavy livestock utilization of riparian areas can lead to severe degradation unless managed properly [33].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix monticola
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Park willow is a native, erect shrub 3 to 12 feet (1.5-4 m) tall, and usually forming dense clumps [3,5]. The trunk of park willow is smooth or slightly cracked. The wood is fine-grained and soft and has no sapwood-heartwood line [8]. Park willow has a remarkable characteristic of plasticity; its growth form adapts readily to a wide variety of habitats [14]. Branching habit and foliage characteristics vary greatly depending on site conditions [14]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Sexual reproduction: Park willow is dioecious. The fruit is contained in a dehiscent capsule that releases many seeds that are then dispersed by wind or water. Optimum seed production occurs between 2 and 10 years [14]. The flowers of park willow are mostly, but not exclusively, insect-pollinated. Bees are the chief pollinating agents [10,14]. The seeds of park willow are short-lived and germinate immediately on moist mineral substrates with high relative humidity and in full sunlight [14]. Germination is inhibited on sites with a continuous cover of tree litter [7,14]. Seed germination occurs over a broad temperature range, from 41 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit (5-25 deg C). This appears to be a compensatory mechanism because of the short seed life [7,41]. This adaptation to a wide range of temperatures is particularly important in interior Alaska, where surface soil temperatures may vary over a relatively wide range [41]. Vegetative reproduction: Park willow sprouts readily from the root crown or basal stem [14,32]. It will root from stem cuttings or root fragments on moist to wet sites. Park willow will sprout vigorously following cutting regardless of cutting season, but vigor is more pronounced if cutting occurs during the dormant season [7,14]. Mountain willow exhibits early growth from both seed and sprout; but vegetative reproduction of willow was six times greater than willow growing from seed on a 6-year-old burn in Alaska [14]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: In Alaska and northern Canada, park willow is found in wet areas such as heaths, riverbeds, and streams [3]. In interior Alaska, park willow occurs in glacial drift and on river floodplains that are nutrient-rich [14]. The best growth occurs in moist, alluvial bottomlands, but park willow can be found growing on a variety of substrates. In the Intermountain region, park willow is best represented in riparian communities within the middle-to upper-elevation forest of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and in the forest-alpine transition zone above the limit of contiguous forests, dominated by whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) [21]. Soils: Park willow is usually found on moist sandy or gravelly soils but is adaptable to a wide variety of soils [37]. It will tolerate moderately alkaline soils but does poorly in extremely acidic of alkaline conditions. The general pH range for willows is 5.5 to 7.5 [14]. Growth of park willow is severely reduced when water levels are maintained at or above the root collar for extended periods [14]. Park willow is also shade intolerant and grows best in full sunlight [14,37]. Plant associates: Park willow is commonly associated with Booth willow (Salix boothii), Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana), Drummond willow (Salix drummondiana), alder (Alnus spp.), river birch (Betula occidentalis), lichens (Cladonia spp.), bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), beaked sedge (Carex rostrata), water sedge (Carex aquatilis), rush (Juncus spp.), bluegrass (Poa spp.), and mosses (Polytrichum spp.) [4,16,29]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Park willow occurs in initial to early seral plant communities along river systems of interior Alaska. Park willow is a pioneer species that becomes established after disturbances such as fire, logging or recent alluvial deposits resulting from floodplain processes [39]. Park willow has low shade tolerance and therefore loses dominance on sites that are heavily forested or succeeded by more shade-tolerant species [14]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Park willow flowers in May, before the leaves appear, through July [34]. The fruit ripens soon after flowering, followed by seed dispersal in early to midsummer [14,41].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix monticola
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Park willow is a fire-tolerant shrub that sprouts readily from from the root and root crown after being top-killed by fire [19,23]. It produces numerous, minute seeds that are dispersed by wind, and which are important in colonizing recently burned areas [23]. Willows that invade by seeding-in have a slower growth rate than those that sprout from the root crown after fire [14]. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix monticola
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Park willow is a fire-tolerant shrub that has a rapid postfire regeneration period [30]. It will sprout readily from the root or root crown after being top-killed by fire. Frequent fires can eventually deplete carbohydrate levels below minimums necessary for growth and reflowering and eliminate park willow [19]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Park willow is frequently found in early successional stage plant communities after fires because of its ability to sprout vigorously from the root-crown or roots [39]. Park willow seeds need a nutrient-rich mineral seedbed to germinate. The chance of mountain willow establishing after a fire lessens as available mineral soil seedbeds become occupied by faster growing herbaceous species and mosses [7]. Park willow is greatly favored by fire in most habitats and it can become the dominant cover in areas that have a history of frequent natural fire [14]. Fire is not favored in lowland spruce stands in Alaska because of the prevalent green understory, mainly willows [32]. Fire severity affects the mode of willow postfire recovery. Following light-severity fires most willows recover quickly, sending up new shoots from undamaged root crowns. Few if any seedlings establish following this type of fire because the partially consumed organic soil layers comprise an unfavorable seedbed. Following severe fire, however, the primary mode of recovery is seedling establishment. Severe fires that burn into organic soils kill willows, but expose mineral soils which provide excellent seedbeds [41]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Prescribed fire is widely used as a wildlife management tool to rejuvenate decadent willow stands and stimulate sprouting [14]. Early seral communities created by fire can increase the carrying capacity of winter range for moose in interior Alaska [40]. Fires increase the amount of browse available for herbivores because browse species such as willow proliferate in early postfire succession [19]. Recurring fires within some parts of the boreal forest have allowed aspen and willow to replace coniferous forests [32]. The tendency of willows to expand quickly following fires and other disturbances and to form dense thickets inhibits natural regeneration of conifers. Prescribed burning can reduce initial competition from willow in areas to be planted with cultivated species [14].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix monticola
REFERENCES: 1. Anderson, E. William; Bedell, Thomas E. 1987. Northwest common-name check list of plants. Special Report 786. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 45 p. [2950] 2. Argus, George W. 1957. The willows of Wyoming. University of Wyoming Publications. 21(1). Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Publications in Science. 63 p. [4962] 3. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Publications in Botany, No. 2. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences. 279 p. [6167] 4. Baker, William L. 1989. Classification of the riparian vegetation of the montane and subalpine zones in western Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist. 49(2): 214-228. [7985] 5. Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1976. Catkin bearing plants of British Columbia. Occas. Pap. No. 18. Victoria, BC: The British Columbia Provincial Museum. 176 p. [6170] 6. Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Johnson, Frederic D. 1985. Field guide to the willows of east-central Idaho. Bulletin Number 39. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho; College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences; Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 82 p. [6175] 7. Densmore, Roseann; Zasada, John. 1983. Seed dispersal and dormancy patterns in northern willows: ecological and evolutionary significance. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 3207-3216. [5027] 8. Dorn, Robert D. 1970. The willows of Montana. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Department of Botany and Microbiology. 18 p. [6176] 9. Dorn, Robert D. 1975. A systematic study of Salix section Cordatae in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany. 53: 1491-1522. [5339] 10. Dorn, Robert D. 1976. A synopsis of American Salix. Canadian Journal of Botany. 54: 2769-2789. [4457] 11. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows of the Rocky Mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. [6000] 12. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D.; Mather, J. 1990. Autecology of common plants in British Columbia: A literature review. Economic and Regional Development Agreement FRDA Rep. 158. Victoria, BC: Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre; British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 272 p. [18033] 15. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166] 16. Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.; Ellis, James E.; Swift, David M. 1981. Composition and quality of elk winter diets in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management. 45(1): 156-171. [7421] 17. Holmgren, Arthur H.; Reveal, James L. 1966. Checklist of the vascular plants of the Intermountain Region. Res. Pap. INT-32. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 160 p. [1184] 18. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 19. Kramp, Betty A.; Patton, David R.; Brady, Ward W. 1983. The effects of fire on wildlife habitat and species. RUN WILD: Wildlife/ habitat relationships. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region, Wildlife Unit Technical Report. 29 p. [152] 20. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 21. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1986. Plants of west-central Montana--identification and ecology: annotated checklist. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-217. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [2955] 22. LeResche, R. E.; Bishop, R. H.; Coady, J. W. 1974. Distribution and habitats of moose in Alaska. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 143-178. [15190] 23. Lutz, H. J. 1956. Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of Alaska. Tech. Bull. No. 1133. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 121 p. [7653] 24. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 25. Machida, Steven. 1979. Differential use of willow species by moose in Alaska. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. 97 p. Thesis. [15098] 26. McCluskey, D. Cal; Brown, Jack; Bornholdt, Dave; [and others]. 1983. Willow planting for riparian habitat improvement. Tech. Note 363. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 21 p. [6408] 27. Nickerson, Mona F.; Brink, Glen E.; Feddema, Charles, compilers. 1977. Principal range plants of the central and southern Rocky Mountains: names and symbols. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-20. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 121 p. [1752] 28. Olson, R. A.; Gerhart, W. A. 1982. A physical and biological characterization of riparian habitat and its importance to wildlife in Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Department. 188 p. [6755] 29. Padgett, Wayne G.; Youngblood, Andrew P.; Winward, Alma H. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. R4-Ecol-89-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 191 p. [11360] 30. Powell, David C. 1988. Aspen community types of the Pike and San Isabel National Forests in south-central Colorado. R2-ECOL-88-01. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 254 p. [15285] 31. Ferguson, Dennis E.; Boyd, Raymond J. 1988. Bracken fern inhibition of conifer regeneration in northern Idaho. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 11 p. [2834] 32. McCune, Bruce. 1982. Site, history and forest dynamics in the Bitterroot canyons, Montana. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. 166 p. Thesis. [7232] 33. Schulz, Terri Tucker; Leininger, Wayne C. 1990. Differences in riparian vegetation structure between grazed areas and exclosures. Journal of Range Management. 43(4): 295-299. [11836] 34. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804] 35. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer). Available: https://plants.usda.gov/. [34262] 36. Weldon, Lyle W. 1956. A study of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. seedlings in relation to chemical control. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. 36 p. M.S. thesis. [55] 37. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 38. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884] 39. Wolff, Jerry O. 1976. Utilization of hardwood browse by moose on the Tanana flood plain of interior Alaska. Res. Note PNW-267. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 7 p. [16870] 40. Wolff, Jerry O. 1978. Burning and browsing effects on willow growth in interior Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(1): 135-140. [3500] 41. Zasada, J. C.; Viereck, L. A. 1975. The effect of temperature and stratification on germination on selected members of Salicaceae in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 5(2): 333-337. [6989]

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