Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION :
Tirmenstein, D. A. 1990. Mahonia nervosa. In: Fire Effects Information
System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/mahner/all.html .
On 03 March 2016, the scientific and common names of this species were changed
from: Berberis nervosa, dwarf Oregon-grape
to: Mahonia nervosa, Cascade barberry.
Berberis nervosa Pursh.
Berberis nervosa Pursh. var. mendocinesis J. B. Roof [102,103]
NRCS PLANT CODE :
COMMON NAMES :
The scientific name of Cascade barberry is Mahonia nervosa (Pursh.) Nutt
LIFE FORM :
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS :
OTHER STATUS :
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION :
Cascade barberry occurs west of the Cascade Ranges and the Sierra
Nevada from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to
central California .
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES22 Western white pine
FRES23 Fir - spruce
FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce
FRES28 Western hardwoods
CA ID OR WA BC
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :
K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K006 Redwood forest
K007 Red fir forest
K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest
K026 Oregon oakwoods
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K030 California oakwoods
SAF COVER TYPES :
207 Red fir
211 White fir
213 Grand fir
215 Western white pine
221 Red alder
224 Western hemlock
225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce
226 Coastal true fir - hemlock
227 Western redcedar - western hemlock
228 Western redcedar
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock
231 Port-Orford cedar
233 Oregon white oak
234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone
244 Pacific ponderosa - Douglas-fir
246 California black oak
247 Jeffrey pine
249 Canyon live oak
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES :
Cascade barberry is an understory dominant in montane to submontane
coniferous and mixed evergreen forests of the Pacific Northwest.
Oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor), Alaska huckleberry (Vaccinium
alaskaense), salal (Gaultheria shallon), pachistima (Pachistima
myrsinites), western sword fern (Polystichum munitum), Pacific
rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum), Sadler oak (Quercus
sadleriana), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), deerfoot vanillaleaf (Achyls
triphylla), Oregon oxalis (Oxalis oregana), and vine maple (Acer
circinatum) occur as codominants within the forest understory. Dwarf
Oregon-grape is listed as an indicator or dominant in the following
Forest types of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex 
The tanoak series of the Siskiyou region of southwest Oregon (Part 2) 
Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province 
Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone:
Gifford Pinchot National Forest 
Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington 
Understory development in Pseudotsuga forests: multiple paths of
Forest succession on alluvial landforms of the MacKenzie River Valley,
Plant communities in the old-growth forests of north coastal Oregon 
Forest ecosystems of Mount Rainier National Park 
Mixed evergreen forest .
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE :
In many parts of the Pacific Northwest, Douglas-fir-western
hemlock/Cascade barberry and western hemlock/Cascade barberry-salal
habitat types provide important big game wintering areas [43,85].
Stands often offer good structural diversity and remain relatively
snow-free . However, where dense shrub thickets develop, big game
use may be limited . Western hemlock/Cascade barberry-Oregon
oxalis and western hemlock/Cascade barberry-deerfoot vanillaleaf types
serve as big game summer range .
Browse: In some areas, Cascade barberry is browsed by black-tailed
deer [12,87]. In other locations it is seldom used . Harcombe 
reported moderate use of Cascade barberry by Roosevelt elk during
winter but not in the spring or summer . Various small mammals feed
extensively on the foliage. It is, for example, an extremely important
dietary component of the white-footed vole in the Coast Ranges of Oregon
. Cascade barberry comprised 32 percent of the vole's diet in
February but declined to 17 percent by June. The value of dwarf
Oregon-grape browse to domestic livestock is apparently low in most
locations. Utilization by domestic sheep in the Cascade Ranges in
Washington may reach 6.8 to 23.7 percent . The fruits are readily
eaten by many small birds  and mammals. In some areas, black-tailed
deer also eat the fruits . The nectar of several species within the
genus Berberis is favored by the Anna's hummingbird .
Cascade barberry browse is relatively low in palatability to most big
game species and domestic livestock [49,67]. The fruit is palatable to
a wide range of birds and mammals.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE :
Browse: The nutrient content of Cascade barberry browse has been
documented as follows :
average percent by weight -
N P Mg Ca Na K
stem .44 .10 .05 .29 .0040 .51
foliage .85 .12 .09 .24 .0020 .87
Nutrient content of fruit is listed below [70,94]:
nutrient content per gram dry weight
kjoule cal. protein carbo. ash lipid Ca Fe Mg Zn
x 1,000 (g) (g) (g) (g) (mg) (mg) (mg) (mg)
15.86 3.79 0.18 0.71 0.04 0.08 1.91 0.03 0.85 0.05
carbo. fat ash N P K Ca Mg Na
(percent dry weight)
78.0 1.70 7.40 1.60 0.50 2.70 0.20 0.30 0
COVER VALUE :
Cascade barberry presumably provides cover for small birds and
mammals. The diverse structure of western hemlock/dwarf
Oregon-grape-salal types provides good big game hiding cover .
Pacific silver fir/Cascade barberry and western hemlock/dwarf
Oregon-grape-Oregon oxalis communities offer good thermal cover for deer
and elk [41,43].
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES :
Cascade barberry can be easily propagated from seed and from rhizome
or stem cuttings [15,75,80]. However, plants may be slow to establish
. Detailed information on propagation techniques is available
OTHER USES AND VALUES :
Cascade barberry fruits are tart but edible . Native peoples of
the Pacific Northwest traditionally ate the fruits and made medicinal
teas from the boiled roots [35,70]. Dyes for baskets were also obtained
from the roots .
Cascade barberry is a popular ornamental. It is well suited for shady
locations and is widely planted in gardens throughout the Pacific
Northwest. Its attractive foliage and short stature make it a
particularly effective border plant . Although it multiplies well
under cultivation, it does not form dense thickets. Foliage often turns
a striking reddish-purple in winter after exposure to cold temperatures
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Timber harvest: Cascade barberry commonly persists on cutover sites
[54,58]. In many parts of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest, it
assumes prominence in brushfields made up of such species as salal,
bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), blackberries and raspberries (Rubus
spp.), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), huckleberries (Vaccinium
spp.), and willows (Salix spp.) [43,54]. Brushfield species may compete
with conifer regeneration in some locations .
Biomass: The green weight of Cascade barberry has been estimated at
130 pounds per acre (145 kg/ha) in certain western hemlock types of
Grazing: Grazing by domestic sheep apparently has little effect on
Cascade barberry .
Chemical control: Percent frequency following herbicide applications
combined with mechanical treatment or fire in central coastal Oregon was
as follows :
glyphosate spray and burn spray and crush
pretreatment 13 13 9
posttreatment -- 3 --
The effects of various herbicides on Berberis spp. have been considered
in detail .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
Cascade barberry is a low-growing rhizomatous evergreen shrub which
typically reaches 4 to 24 inches in height [28,69]. On exceptional
sites, plants may grow to 7 feet (2.1 m) . The simple stems are
ascending to erect and generally occur in loose colonies of several
stems [69,46,71]. Compound leaves are borne in terminal tufts [66,69].
Coarsely serrate to spinose, ovate to lance-ovate or acute leaflets
occur in groups of 7 to 21 [46,69,95]. Leaflets are dark green, thick,
and leathery [71,95]. Yellow flowers are borne in erect clusters or
racemes up to 8 inches (21 cm) in length [66,69,71]. The fruit is a
large, dark blue, globose berry with grayish or whitish bloom
[28,69,71,95]. Berries are 0.3 to 0.4 inch (8-10 mm) in diameter, occur
in clusters , and contain a number of black seeds .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :
REGENERATION PROCESSES :
Cascade barberry can reproduce from seed or by vegetative means.
Seed: Seed of most Oregon-grapes exhibit internal dormancy and require
cold stratification for germination. However, in certain laboratory
tests, Cascade barberry seed did not germinate after 90 days of cold
stratification . Results of other studies indicate that seed will
germinate if sown immediately or if stratified and planted in the spring
. Maximum germination capacity in laboratory tests was estimated at
77 percent . Under natural conditions, seeds of most species within
the genus germinate during the spring . The role of sexual
reproduction on disturbed sites is poorly known .
Vegetative regeneration: Cascade barberry is rhizomatous  and
gradually expands laterally in the absence of disturbance. Layering has
also been reported . Plants generally sprout from rhizomes or
"creeping rootstocks" after aboveground portions of the plant are
destroyed [47,74,87,91]. Vegetative regeneration appears to be the
dominant mode of regeneration after fire or other disturbances .
SITE CHARACTERISTICS :
Cascade barberry occurs across a wide range of habitats in submontane
to montane forests of the Pacific Northwest [35,54]. It is a
characteristic shrub of spruce-fir forests  but also occurs in
northern coastal coniferous forests and in redwood, mixed evergreen, and
bottomland forests [30,69,78]. In Pacific silver fir communities, dwarf
Oregon-grape is generally restricted to warm, dry sites. In old-growth
Douglas-fir stands of northwestern Oregon, it reaches greatest abundance
on relatively dry sites . This shrub occurs on dry to fairly moist
sites in western hemlock types but reaches greatest abundance on warmer
sites [42,85]. Cascade barberry is also common in the warmer
Port-Orford-cedar communities .
Cascade barberry commonly grows as scattered, or abundant, individuals
but can dominate the understory of semiopen forests . It frequently
forms "lush carpets" in open meadows bordering coniferous stands 
and commonly persists in coastal brushfields created by timber harvest
[33,43,51]. Cascade barberry grows well in sun or shade [54,87].
Plant associates: Common overstory associates in addition to those
mentioned above include Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), Sitka spruce
(Picea sitchensis), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora)
[2,31,42,74,84,89]. In spruce-fir forests, dwarf Oregon grape grows
with understory species such as twinflower, rhododendron (Rhododendron
spp.), and queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora). Beargrass
(Xerophyllum tenax) occurs on drier sites . Common associates in
Douglas-fir or western hemlock forests include oceanspray, trailing
blackberry (Rubus ursinus), red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium),
Alaska huckleberry, salal, Pacific rhododendron, vine maple, broadleaf
starflower (Trientalis latifolia), and mosses such as Kindbergia oregana
[21,32,44,54,67]. Old-growth stands are often characterized by a
depauperate understory . In redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)
communities, western sword fern, salal, Oregon oxalis, and redwood violet
(Viola sempervirens) are common associates .
Soils: Cascade barberry grows well on a variety of soil types 
including coarse, shallow rocky soils, coarse alluvium, or glacial
outwash . Soils are well drained to poorly drained, and dry to
fresh [28,54,70]. Soils are derived from a wide range of parent
material including basalt and metavolcanics, sandstone, siltstone,
diorite, and gabbro [3,7,44,90]. Good growth has been reported on
acidic to moderately alkaline or even somewhat saline soils .
Climate: Cascade barberry grows in maritime to submaritime climates.
Growing seasons are fairly long . Some sites experience summer
Elevation: Cascade barberry grows at low to middle elevations
[35,90]. In California, it is restricted to sites below 6,000 feet
(1,829 m) .
SUCCESSIONAL STATUS :
Cascade barberry is an important component of both seral and climax
communities of the Pacific Northwest. It occurs in recent clearcuts as
well as in stands 300 to 600 years or older [20,82]. It is a woody
survivor or residual colonizer, generally increasing dramatically after
low intensity disturbances such as light fires [32,91]. It commonly
persists on cutover  or lightly burned sites. Residual survivors
sprouted soon after the eruption of Mount St. Helens  and were
particularly evident in protected microsites such as near the bases or
rootwads of trees. The intensity of disturbance, and of fires in
particular, exerts a great influence on Cascade barberry [33,58]. In
many areas, it codominates a site soon after light-severity disturbance
but may decline in early seral stages when it is overtopped by rapidly
growing conifer seedlings [33,49].
Annuals and weedy invaders commonly dominate early seral stages where
disturbance has been intense . Fireweed and wood groundsel (Senecio
sylvaticus) assume dominance during the first 1 to 3 years on many
intensely disturbed sites . Perennials such as Cascade barberry
may not become prominent on intensely burned sites until midsuccessional
stages. In some areas, 30 to 40 years or more may be required before
maximum abundance of Cascade barberry is reached . It does not
attain maximum cover until later seral stages in many western
redcedar-western hemlock-Douglas-fir forests of thge Cascade Ranges of
Oregon and Washington [18,49].
Cascade barberry can assume importance in shrub-dominated stages which
develop 4 to 5 years after disturbance in western hemlock forests of the
Pacific Northwest , and can achieve peak abundance within 5 to 10
years after fire in many parts of this region . In the central
Oregon Coast Ranges, is exhibits rapid regrowth and shares understory
dominance in 7- to 50-year-old forests .
Cascade barberry is tolerant of shade and can complete its life cycle
even in dense forests of the Pacific Northwest . In the Coast
Ranges of central Oregon, it dominates many old-growth western
hemlock-western redcedar forest understories . It is also an
important component of many climatic or topoedaphic climax western
hemlock communities [4,38,39]. Many seral Douglas-fir/dwarf
Oregon-grape communities ultimately give rise to climax western hemlock
types [38,39] as Douglas-fir declines late in succession . Late
seral Douglas-fir/vine maple-Cascade barberry communities become
climax western hemlock-Pacific rhododendron-Cascade barberry
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT :
Plants flower in early to late spring. Fruit ripens during July and
August . Generalized flowering and fruiting dates are as follows
location flowering fruit ripe
Northwest March-June --
CA April-June --
OR (300 ft [91 m]) early April mid-August
OR (3,250 ft [991 m]) mid-May late August
w OR, sw WA March-June --
WA May September
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS :
Cascade barberry persists in closed forest stands with
long fire-free intervals. However, as a residual survivor, it is also
well-adapted to a regime of "relatively frequent surface fires" such as
those common in certain Douglas-fir-western hemlock/Cascade barberry
types of Oregon . Fire intervals in Douglas-fir-western hemlock
forest inhabited by Cascade barberry commonly range from 137 to 320
years [1,71]. Fire intervals in other forest types occupied by dwarf
Oregon-grape have been estimated as follows in Desolation Peaks,
ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir 52 years
lodgepole pine-Douglas-fir 76 years
Douglas-fir-grand fir 93 years
Douglas-fir-Pacific silver fir 108 years
Fire can produce gaps in old-growth redwood forests which are conducive
to Cascade barberry growth .
Cascade barberry commonly sprouts and grows vigorously after fire .
Reestablishment through seed may occur, although vegetative regeneration
is the dominant mode of postfire establishment .
FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find Fire Regimes".
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT :
Cascade barberry is moderately damaged by light- to moderate-severity
fires . Underground regenerative structures often survive even if
aboveground portions are consumed by fire [74,91].
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT :
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE :
Cascade barberry often sprouts from underground rhizomes after
aboveground portions of the plant are killed [74,91]. However, response
varies with fire intensity, severity [33,58], and season. Atzet and
Wheeler  noted sprouts after light-severity fires but did not observe
sprouting after moderate-severity fires. Seedling establishment after
fire has not been documented  and may be insignificant.
Postfire recovery: Postfire reestablishment and growth of dwarf
Oregon-grape is often rapid . In western Washington, sprouts are
commonly observed soon after fire . Under some circumstances cover
may equal or exceed that of prefire levels within several years .
Cascade barberry cover 9 years after slash burning near Oakridge,
Oregon, surpassed that of adjacent unburned plots .
Cascade barberry abundance may not peak until mid- to late seral
stages, particularly after hot fires . Recovery can be slow after
moderate to hot fires that damage or kill portions of underground
rhizomes. Few Cascade barberry were present by the third growing
season after a moderate fire in coastal British Columbia .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE :
Recovery of Cascade barberry after July, 1970 wildfires in North
Cascades National Park was as follows :
1971 1972 1974
freq. cover freq. cover freq. cover
site 1 44 -- 40 .1 32 .6
site 2 82.6 1.6 82.6 2.3 82.6 3.4
site 3 90.3 .16 83.9 2.2 83.9 4.9.
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Timber harvest: Cascade barberry commonly exhibits dramatic
reductions soon after timber harvest and subsequent slash fires in
western hemlock-western redcedar-Douglas-fir forests of the Cascade
Ranges, but then often undergoes a dramatic recovery . In some
areas, Cascade barberry cover has tripled during the first 5 years
after logging and slash fires . However, initial recovery may be
fairly slow on some sites . Posttreatment cover is presumably
related to a number of factors including fire intensity and severity,
season of fire, and site characteristics. Cascade barberry commonly
reaches greatest abundance during secondary succession . Abundance
peaked at 30 to 40 years after clearcutting, broadcast burning, and
planting in western hemlock-Douglas-fir forests of the western Cascades
. Posttreatment recovery was as follows :
years since treatment
2 5 10 15 20 30 40 undisturbed old growth
1.88 5.04 4.22 9.48 6.98 22.18 20.97 11.52
Posttreatment response of Cascade barberry has been documented in a
number of other studies [7,16,17,27,79,91].
Fuels: Many Cascade barberry communities are characterized by low to
medium fuel levels .
Prescribed fire: Prescribed fire in Pacific rhododendron-dwarf
Oregon-grape communities can greatly increase herb and shrub production
FIRE CASE STUDY
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION :
Tirmenstein, D. A., compiler. 1990. Cascade barberry response to clearcutting and
spring or fall burning in a Douglas-fir-western redcedar-western hemlock
forest, western British Columbia. In: Mahonia nervosa. In: Fire Effects
Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
Lafferty, R. R. 1972. Regeneration and plant succession as related to fire
intensity on clear-cut logged areas in coastal cedar-hemlock type: an interim
report. Internal Report BC-33. Victoria, BC: Department of the Environment,
Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre. Unpublished report
on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain
Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 129 p. .
SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION :
Plot 6 - May 22, 1969/high
Plot 7 - September 9, 1968/moderate
STUDY LOCATION :
The study site was located approximately 33 miles (53 km) east of
Vancouver and 14 miles (22 km) north of Mission City, British Columbia.
PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY :
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) dominated the overstory, with
scattered western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and western white pine (Pinus
monticola) on the south and west aspects, and western hemlock (Tsuga
heterophylla) and western redcedar on the north and east aspects. Dwarf
Oregon-grape (Mahonia nervosa), red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa),
willow (Salix spp.), mountain ash (Sorbus sitchensis), vine maple (Acer
circinatum), alder (Alnus spp.), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), red
and ovalleaf huckleberry (Vaccinium parviflorum, V. ovalifolium),
thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), trailing blackberry (R. ursinus),
salal (Gaultheria shallon), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium),
twinflower (Linnaea borealis), deer fern (Blechum spicant), and mosses
were common in the preburn community.
TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE :
SITE DESCRIPTION :
Elevation - 500 feet (152 m).
Parent materials - bedrock was composed of quartz diorite and diorite,
overlain with glacial till, outwash, and minor
lacustrine and aeolian deposits.
Soils - mixture of colluvium, loess, and ablation till; loamy with mixed
Climate - marine and cool. no distinct dry season.
average of 203 frost-frees days per year.
FIRE DESCRIPTION :
rate of spread residence time total fuel
(ft/min) (minutes) loading (g/m sq)
Plot 6 22 85 15,840
Plot 7 15 50 30,308
(cal/m sq x 1,000)
Plot 6 22,709
Plot 7 45,799
initial duff residual duff % duff reduction
wt. (g/m sq) wt. (g/m sq) by weight
Plot 6 6,700 3,750 44
Plot 7 10,000 6,710 33
avg. initial avg. initial fuel consumed
fuel loading (g/m sq x1,000)
(g/m sq x1,000) (g/m sq x1,000)
Plot 6 8.322 15.022 3.058
Plot 7 20.321 30.308 7.946
cal/m sq x 1,000,000
Plot 6 22.709 x 10
Plot 7 45.799 x 10
% moisture content of slash prior to ignition
fine medium large
(.04-2.5 in) (.43-3.9 in) (4.0 in or >)
(.01-1.0 cm) (1.1-10 cm) (10.1 cm or >)
Plot 6 12.5 6.6 40.3
Plot 7 17.4 16.3 21.4
% moisture content of organic fuel components prior to ignition
Plot 6 21.8 102.7 120.8
Plot 7 11.8 146.1 197.8
FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES :
Cascade barberry recovery was as follows:
Plot 6 -
1968 1969 1970 1971
% freq. 49.0 11.4 -- 1.1
% canopy cover 6.9 1.1 -- ---
Plot 7 -
1969 1970 1971
(postfire) (postfire) (postfire)
% freq. 6.8 6.8 6.8
% cover 0.3 0.2 0.6
On plot 7, Cascade barberry had not regained vigor within 3 years
FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS :
Cascade barberry and others shrubs are more likely to dominate early
seral stages after fires of low intensity. Damage or destruction of
underground regenerative structures is more probable after severe fires
and can result in a slow recovery. Shrubs in general are less severely
harmed by fires in early spring or late fall when carbohydrate reserves
are still concentrated in the roots than by fires occurring during
SPECIES: Mahonia nervosa
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history of Desolation Peak, Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest
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National Park Service Complex. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65:
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silver fir zone: Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-130a.
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communities in the central Coast Range of western Oregon. Corvallis, OR:
Oregon State University. 173 p. Thesis. 
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forests. In: Bartlett, E. T.; Betters, David R., eds.
Overstory-understory relationships in Western forests. Western Regional
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understory vegetation in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. Res.
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and burning in the western Cascades of Oregon. Ecology. 54(1): 57-69.
18. Dyrness, C. T.; Franklin, J. F.; Moir, W. H. 1974. A preliminary
classification of forest communities in the central portion of the
western Cascades in Oregon. Bulletin No. 4. Seattle, WA: University of
Washington, Ecosystem Analysis Studies, Coniferous Forest Biome. 123 p.
19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
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