Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page

Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Lycium berlandieri
Berlandier's wolfberry in Saguaro National Park. Wikimedia Commons image By Katja Schulz.



SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Lycium berlandieri. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: []. Revisions: Images were added on 2 August 2018. ABBREVIATION: LYCBER SYNONYMS: Lycium berlandieri forma parviflorum (Gray) Hitchc. Lycium berlandieri var. brevilobum Hitchc. [41] NRCS PLANT CODE: LYBE COMMON NAMES: Berlandier's wolfberry desert thorn wolfberry TAXONOMY: The scientific name of Berlandier's wolfberry is Lycium berlandieri Dunal. (Solanaceae) [23,31,41]. Infrataxa are: Lycium berlandieri var. berlandieri Lycium berlandieri var. parviflorum (Gray) Terrac. [23,31]. Lycium berlandieri var. longistylum C.L. Hitchc. [41] LIFE FORM: Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Berlandier's wolfberry ranges from Arizona to Texas and south into Mexico [23,31,41].  Lycium berlandieri var. berlandieri is common in southern Texas and is distributed from southern and western Texas to central Mexico.  Lycium b. var. parviflorum is more common in the Trans-Pecos than the typical variety and is distributed from Arizona to western Texas and south to northern Mexico [31].  Lycium b. f. parviflorum occurs in Arizona and Mexico, L. b. var. longistylum is from southern Arizona, and L. b. var. brevilobum occurs in Texas and Mexico [41].
Distribution of Berlandier's wolfberry in the United States. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, August 2] [38].

   FRES28  Western hardwoods
   FRES30  Desert shrub
   FRES32  Texas savanna
   FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES40  Desert grasslands


    7  Lower Basin and Range
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains

   K027  Mesquite bosque
   K040  Saltbush - greasewood
   K041  Creosotebush
   K042  Creosotebush - bursage
   K043  Paloverde - cactus shrub
   K044  Creosotebush - tarbush
   K045  Ceniza shrub
   K053  Grama - galleta steppe
   K054  Grama - tobosa prairie
   K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe
   K059  Trans-Pecos shrub savanna
   K060  Mesquite savanna
   K061  Mesquite - acacia savanna
   K062  Mesquite - live oak savanna
   K065  Grama - buffalograss
   K076  Blackland prairie
   K077  Bluestem - sacahuista prairie

    68  Mesquite
   235  Cottonwood - willow
   241  Western live oak
   242  Mesquite


Berlandier's wolfberry occurs in many habitats but usually does not attain
dominance.  It is characteristic of Sonoran or Chihuahuan desert scrub
vegetation and is associated in those regions with ocotillo (Fouquieria
splendens), saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), range ratany (Krameria
parvifolia), ironwood (Olneya tesota), jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis),
false-mesquite (Calliandra eriophylla), brittle bush (Encelia farinosa),
leatherstem (Jatropha cardiophylla), feather dalea (Dalea formosa),
yucca (Yucca spp.), agave (Agave spp.), prickly pear and cholla (Opuntia
spp.), and catclaw (Acacia spp.) [3,10,30,35,37].  In the Chihuahuan
Desert, Berlandier's wolfberry may also occur in alkali sacaton
(Sporobolus airoides) grasslands on deep calcareous alluvial deposits
near arroyos and in intermontane habitats along the margins of honey
mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) communities [20].

In southern Texas Berlandier's wolfberry is associated with hackberry
(Celtis spp.), prickly pear, catclaw, bluewood (Condalia obovata), Texas
persimmon (Diospyros texana), lotebush (Zizyphus obtusifolia),
whitebrush (Aloysia lycioides), agrito (Mahonia trifoliolata), desert
yaupon (Schaefferia cuneifolia), curlymesquite (Hilaria belangeri),
tobosa (Hilaria mutica), grama (Bouteloua spp.), and dropseed
(Sporobolus spp.) [8,24,28].  Mesquite-hackberry (Celtis
spp.)-Berlandier's wolfberry communities are most common on smaller
drainages within sandy areas where soil textures are sandy loams, and
along edges of saline waterways near the coast [28].

Berlandier's wolfberry also occurs in openings in riparian or arroyo
margin woodlands dominated by Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii),
Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), green ash (Fraxinus
pennsylvanica), Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii), and saltcedar
(Tamarix chinensis) [29,30].


SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Berlandier's wolfberry fruits are important food for birds and some rodents [39].  Livestock may browse Berlandier's wolfberry foliage [23,31]; however, it was available on southern Texas plains but was not reported in cattle diets [11].  Black-tailed jackrabbit winter diets in southern Texas consisted of 3 percent Berlandier's wolfberry [40]. In southern Arizona Gambel's quail were closely tied to habitats characterized by mesquite (Prosopis spp.), netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), falsemesquite, and Berlandier's wolfberry along sandy washes or around stock tanks.  There was an average of 60 Berlandier's wolfberry plants per 0.4 hectare plot in areas most used.  Gambel's quail used Berlandier's wolfberry for cover, roosting and feeding sites, and for raising broods.  These habitats were also important for introduced masked bobwhites when preferred habitat was limited.  There was an average of 83 Berlandier's wolfberry plants per 0.4 hectare plot in scaled quail habitat found in adjacent grasslands dominated by low grasses, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and Berlandier's wolfberry. Scaled quail used Berlandier's wolfberry for hiding cover and preferred plants 1.7 to 5.0 feet (0.5-1.5 m) tall for loafing cover [16]. PALATABILITY: NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE: NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Specific information regarding the use of Berlandier's wolfberry for rehabilitating disturbed sites is not available in the literature. Wolfberries (Lycium spp.), however, have been used to rehabilitate abandoned farmlands in Sonoran Desert lowlands and on disturbed sites near Red Rock, Arizona.  The sites were restored by establishing berms on the contour and then seeding with wolfberry and other desert shrubs [22]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: Historically, Native Americans have eaten Berlandier's wolfberry berries and have used the plant for a wide variety of medicinal purposes [23,31]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Berlandier's wolfberry had a frequency of 0.4 percent on sites protected from livestock grazing for 50 years at the Desert Laboratory near Tucson, Arizona.  It was not present on unprotected sites, but the differences were not significant [3]. Woody species such as Berlandier's wolfberry often invade grasslands and reduce the amount of valuable forage.  Fall aerial applications of picloram, 2,4,5-T, or a mixture of the two were relatively ineffective for control of Berlandier's wolfberry in southern Texas [5].  However, aerial applications of tebuthiuron were effective in killing all Berlandier's wolfberry plants within 1 year on a 130-acre (52-hectare) study plot on the Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico [14].


SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Berlandier's wolfberry is a spiny shrub up to 7 feet (2 m) tall with few, spreading branches.  The axillary flowers are bell-shaped and are borne singly or in clusters.  The fruit is a red juicy berry with 8 to 30 seeds [41].  Berlandier's wolfberry sheds its leaves and becomes dormant during drought but quickly refoliates when conditions are more favorable [23].  Berlandier's wolfberry is long-lived, with an average life span of about 90 years [35].  Individuals of at least 72 years of age have been observed at the Desert Laboratory near Tucson, Arizona [15]. The roots of wolfberry species are tough and fibrous.  Root systems are relatively extensive in comparison with the aerial portions, often extending 25 to 30 feet (7.5-9.0 m) from the plant [39]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Berlandier's wolfberry regenerates from cuttings, root suckering, and layering [41].  It may also sprout from the base when damaged [41]. Berlandier's wolfberry seeds are dispersed by birds and other animals [27]. Good seed crops are produced by wolfberry species almost every year. After extraction, seeds should by dried and stored in sealed containers at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C), or stratified in moist sand. Stratified seeds of other wolfberry species maintain good viability for 6 months.  Dormancy in wolfberry seeds is variable.  Some wolfberries germinate well without pretreatment, while germination of others was improved by stratification.  Seeds can be sown in the fall as soon as the fruits ripen, or stratified seed can be sown in the spring and covered lightly with about 0.25-inch (0.64-cm) of soil.  Two-year-old seedlings may be outplanted [34].   SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Berlandier's wolfberry is found on flats, along washes or arroyos, on dry, gravelly to sandy hills and bajadas, and on rocky slopes [6,23,31,30]. It also grows on or around saline flats or playas in the Chihuahuan Desert, but is not restricted to such sites [19,28].  Berlandier's wolfberry is generally found at elevations up to 3,000 feet (900 m) in Arizona and Texas [23,41] but occurs from 2,100 to 4,600 feet (636-1,400 m) elevation in the Trans-Pecos region [31]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: On the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas, succession may proceed from grassland or savanna to closed canopy shrublands or woodlands.  Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) generally invades the grasslands or savanna initially, and may act as a nurse tree for the establishment of other woody species.  Mesquite and the nursed plants form discrete clusters. Berlandier's wolfberry establishes in these clusters about 45 to 52 years after initial establishment of mesquite.  The clusters eventually become continuous and form a closed canopy [1,2].  Berlandier's wolfberry is found in mesic mesquite-hackberry shrublands that are considered climax associations on certain sites in southern Texas [28]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Berlandier's wolfberry flowers from March to September in Arizona [23] and from February to October in the Trans-Pecos region [31].  It flowered in October after fall rains in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas [42].


SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Berlandier's wolfberry sprouts from the root crown following fire [17,26], but it may take many years to regain its former density on a burned site [33].  Its sprouting ability is most likely dependent on fire severity. Wolfberry species seedling establishment was noted after a fire at a Sonoran Desert site.  The seeds may have survived the fire in the soil or on burned plants, or may have been dispersed from adjacent unburned areas [33].  Large clumps of woody species in southern Texas chaparral communities do not burn completely.  Fire-caused mortality in clumps not mechanically treated was greatest on the windward side.  Recurring fires may have eliminated individual plants and small clumps but allowed larger clumps to survive [7]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY:    Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Severe fires may kill Berlandier's wolfberry but low- to moderate-severity fires probably only consume its aerial portions.  Many small Berlandier's wolfberry plants were "completely destroyed" by a fire in savanna vegetation in southern Texas [7]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Berlandier's wolfberry frequency was significantly (p<.01) reduced following a fall prescribed fire at the Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge in southern Texas.  Prefire frequency was 15 percent while frequency in postfire year 1 was 4 percent.  Postfire canopy cover was 83 percent less than prefire cover.  The area was dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), huisache (Acacia farnesiana), and seacoast bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium var. littoralis) and had been pretreated with shredding, chopping, or scalping 2 years earlier to produce fuel sufficient for a uniform burn.  There was significantly (p<.05) less brush cover on pretreated than on untreated sites. Berlandier's wolfberry had the following percent canopy cover in postfire year 1 under the different treatments [7]: Treatment                    Burned             Unburned __________________________________________________________ Control                       0.1                  0.5 Shredded                     Trace                 0.2 Chopped                      Trace                 0.1 Scalped                      Trace                 0.2   Brush canopy reduction, including that of Berlandier's wolfberry, was greatest at this site when treated plots were burned in the fall or winter of 2 successive years, rather than once [8]. On the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) pastures have been invaded by woody species such as mesquite (Prosopis spp.), blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula), twisted acacia (A. tortuosa), Berlandier's wolfberry, and others.  Two cool-season prescribed fires were applied to a buffelgrass pasture, one in February 1977 and one in February 1979, to control woody species invasion.  Both fires reduced brush species to ground level.  However, the suppression of growth was short-lived and canopy diameters (including that of Berlandier's wolfberry) had recovered to prefire levels by the end of the first growing season following the initial fire.  Mortality was insignificant even after the second fire.  The fires did allow a cumulative increase in forage production of buffelgrass for up to three postfire growing seasons [17,18]. The Research Project Summary Ibarra-F and others 1996 provides information on mortality of Berlandier's wolfberry after prescribed fires in buffelgrass pastures in Sonora, Mexico. Wolfberry species sprouted rapidly after controlled June fires in Sonoran desert scrub vegetation near Phoenix, Arizona.  The well-developed wolfberry root systems escaped damage from the fire, allowing them to capitalize on increased water and nitrogen availability in the postfire environment.  Wolfberries had established their former density and cover by 35 postfire months.  Wolfberry plants had similar responses in both open shrub and tree microhabitats [26]. Wolfberry species sprouted and seedlings established within 3 years following a June wildfire in a Sonoran Desert scrub community near Phoenix, Arizona.  No information was given on fire severity or intensity [33]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Box and White [8] recommended fire for controlling woody species on southern Texas savanna communities dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), huisache, and seacoast bluestem.  Fall and winter burning effectively reduced brush canopy and frequency, although fall burning was slightly more effective.  Fire was not particularly useful unless sites had been mechanically pretreated to create a uniform fuel bed. Best results are probably obtained by waiting a sufficiently long time following mechanical treatment for crushed woody fuel to dry and a crop of herbaceous species to mature among the woody debris. Frequent fires in mesquite-hackberry-Berlandier's wolfberry communities on southern Texas plains may convert the vegetation to seacoast bluestem-brownseed paspalum (Paspalum plicatulum)-balsamscale (Elionurus tripsacoides) associations [28]. Fires are not prevalent in many desert communities due to wide spacing between shrubs and sparse ground cover [9,21].  Unusually heavy winter rains, however, may produce a cover of annual species dense enough to carry a fire when cured [21].  Many perennial desert shrubs are poorly adapted to fire [9].  Postfire recolonization by long-lived desert shrubs is very slow initially and may take hundreds of years [9,33]. Rogers and Steele [33] suggested a conservative approach when using fire to manage desert regions.


SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
FIRE CASE STUDY CITATION: Matthews, Robin F., compiler. 1994. Fire temperatures and the effect of burning on Berlandier's wolfberry on the Welder Wildlife Refuge, south Texas. In: Lycium berlandieri. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: []. REFERENCE: White, Richard S. 1969. Fire temperatures and the effect of burning on south Texas brush communities. Lubbock, TX: Texas Technological College. 74 p. Thesis.  [44]. SEASON/SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION: March/variable STUDY LOCATION: The study plot was located in Section 40, lots 7 and 8 of the Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge which is approximately 20 miles north of Corpus Christi, Texas. PREFIRE VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY: The regional vegetation of the area was described as Gulf prairies and marshes.  Plant communities in the study area were dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), huisache (Acacia farnesiana), and seacoast bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium var. littoralis).  Other woody species present included Berlandier's wolfberry (Lycium berlandieri), lotebush (Zizyphus obtusifolia), blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula), twisted acacia (A. tortuosa), agarito (Mahonia trifoliolata), Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), and hackberry (Celtis spp). TARGET SPECIES PHENOLOGICAL STATE: Berlandier's wolfberry possessed a full complement of leaves at the time of burning and 2 weeks following burning. SITE DESCRIPTION: NO-ENTRY FIRE DESCRIPTION: A prescribed fire was applied to a 10 acre (4 hectare) plot.  One portion was burned March 8, 1968; the rest was burned March 12, 1968.  The following conditions were recorded at the time of burning:                                             Date Burned Condition                            3/8/68             3/12/68 ______________________________________________________________________ Time of burning                   3:00-3:30 pm      10:00 am-4:00 pm Air temperature (deg F)                60                  55 Relative humidity (%)                  90                  45 Wind velocity (mph)                    10                20-30 Soil moisture (%)                      40                  37 Plant moisture (%)                      9                   7 Average height of flames (ft)           7                   8      In subunit 1, the fuel was evenly distributed and high in loading, and the brush was generally open.  Subunit 2 had an uneven fuel distribution, fuel loading was moderate, and brush was dense.  There was a low amount of evenly distributed fuel in subunit 3, and brush cover was open.                    FIRE EFFECTS ON TARGET SPECIES: The canopy cover of all woody species, including Berlandier's wolfberry, was reduced by burning.  Overall mortality of Berlandier's wolfberry was 8 percent.  Berlandier's wolfberry had the following percent canopy cover before and 3 months after the fire:                                     Percent Canopy Cover Subunit     Fuel load            Prefire           Postfire -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subunit 1 (3,686 lbs/acre)         trace              trace          Subunit 2 (1,932 lbs/acre)         trace                1 Subunit 3 (1,970 lbs/acre)           1                trace The extent of topkill and mortality of Berlandier's wolfberry seemed to increase with increasing fuel loads, but differences were not statistically significant (p>.10).  Overall brush mortality was significantly (p<.01) higher in subunit 1, where fuel loadings were highest.  In subunit 2, where brush cover was dense, the fire was severe enough to damage brush at the edges of clumps and significantly (p<.05) reduce overall brush cover.  In subunit 3, with low fuel loads and open cover, brush cover was not significantly (p>.10) reduced. FIRE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS: Overall, fire was an effective method for topkilling woody species but did not result in high mortality.  Low mortality may have been due to high soil moisture and relatively low air temperatures.  Under these conditions, fire would have to be applied several times over a period of years to kill many woody species.  Maximum mortality may be obtained by burning when woody plants are small and fuel quantities are high.


SPECIES: Lycium berlandieri
REFERENCES:  1.  Archer, Steve. 1989. Have southern Texas savannas been converted to        woodlands in recent history?. American Naturalist. 134(4): 545-561.        [10069]  2.  Archer, Steve; Scifres, Charles; Bassham, C. R.; Maggio, Robert. 1988.        Autogenic succession in a subtropical savanna: conversion of grassland        to thorn woodland. Ecological Monographs. 58(2): 111-127.  [10070]  3.  Blydenstein, John; Hungerford, C. Roger; Day, Gerald I.; Humphrey, R.        1957. Effect of domestic livestock exclusion on vegetation in the        Sonoran Desert. Ecology. 38(3): 522-526.  [4570]  4.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  5.  Bovey, R. W.; Baur, J. R.; Morton, H. L. 1970. Control of huisache and        associated woody species in south Texas. Journal of Range Management.        23(1): 47-50.  [10289]  6.  Bowers, Janice E.; McLaughlin, Steven P. 1987. Flora and vegetation of        the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(2): 50-94.        [495]  7.  Box, Thadis W.; Powell, Jeff; Drawe, D. Lynn. 1967. Influence of fire on        south Texas chaparral communities. Ecology. 48(6): 955-961.  [499]  8.  Box, Thadis W.; White, Richard S. 1969. Fall and winter burning of south        Texas brush ranges. Journal of Range Management. 22(6): 373-376.        [11438]  9.  Brown, David E.; Minnich, Richard A. 1986. Fire and changes in creosote        bush scrub of the western Sonoran Desert, California. American Midland        Naturalist. 116(2): 411-422.  [537] 10.  Burgess, Tony L.; Bowers, Janice E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1991. Exotic        plants at the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. Madrono. 38(2):        96-114.  [15362] 11.  Everitt, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. L.; Scott, G.; Dahl, B. E. 1981. Seasonal        food preferences of cattle on native range in the south Texas plains.        Journal of Range Management. 34(5): 384-388.  [12981] 12.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905] 13.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].        1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range        ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998] 14.  Gibbens, Robert P.; Herbel, Carlton H.; Lenz, James M. 1987. Field-scale        tebuthiuron application on brush-infested rangeland. Weed Technology. 1:        323-327.  [4577] 15.  Goldberg, Deborah E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1986. Vegetation change and        plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology.        67(3): 695-712.  [4410] 16.  Goodwin, John G., Jr.; Hungerford, C. Roger. 1977. Habitat use by native        Gambel's and scaled quail and released masked bobwhite quail in southern        Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-197. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station. 8 p.  [14970] 17.  Hamilton, Wayne T. 1980. Suppressing undesirable plants in buffelgrass        range with prescribed fire. In: White, Larry D., ed. Prescribed range        burning in the Rio Grande Plains of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium;        1979 November 7; Carrizo Springs, TX. College Station, TX: The Texas A&M        University System, Texas Agricultural Extension Service: 12-21.  [11459] 18.  Hamilton, Wayne T. 1980. Prescribed burning of improved pastures. In:        Hanselka, C. Wayne, ed. Prescribed range burning in the coastal prairie        and eastern Rio Grande Plains of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980        October 16; Kingsville, TX. College Station, TX: The Texas A&M        University System, Texas Agricultural Extension Service: 114-128.        [11456] 19.  Henrickson, James. 1974. Saline habitats and halophytic vegetation of        the Chihuahuan Desert region. In: Wauer, Roland H.; Riskind, David H.,        eds. Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the        Chihuahuan Desert region, United States and Mexico; 1974 October 17-18;        Alpine, TX. Transactions and Proceedings Series No. 3. Washington, DC:        U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 289-314.        [16063] 20.  Henrickson, James; Johnston, Marshall C. 1986. Vegetation and community        types of the Chihuahuan Desert. In: Barlow, J. C.; [and others], eds.        Chihuahuan Desert--U.S. and Mexico, II. Alpine, TX: Sul Ross State        University: 20-39.  [12979] 21.  Humphrey, Robert R. 1974. Fire in the deserts and desert grassland of        North America. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and        ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 365-400.  [14064] 22.  Jackson, Laura L.; McAuliffe, Joseph R.; Roundy, Bruce A. 1991. Desert        restoration. Restoration & Management Notes. 9(2): 71-79.  [22746] 23.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563] 24.  Kitchen, Lynn M.; Scifres, C. J.; Mutz, J. L. 1980. Susceptibility of        selected woody plants to pelleted picloram. Journal of Range Management.        33(5): 349-353.  [10287] 25.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384] 26.  Loftin, Samuel Robert. 1987. Postfire dynamics of a Sonoran Desert        ecosystem. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 97 p. Thesis.  [12296] 27.  Lonard, Robert I.; Judd, Frank W. 1993. Phytogeography of the woody        flora of the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Texas Journal of Science.        45(2): 133-147.  [22040] 28.  McLendon, Terry. 1991. Preliminary description of the vegetation of        south Texas exclusive of coastal saline zones. Texas Journal of Science.        43(1): 13-32.  [14890] 29.  Minckley, W. L.; Brown, David E. 1982. Wetlands. In: Brown, David E.,        ed.  Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and        Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 223-287.  [8898] 30.  Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa        Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28.        [12037] 31.  Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including        Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park,        TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p.  [6130] 32.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant        geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843] 33.  Rogers, Garry F.; Steele, Jeff. 1980. Sonoran Desert fire ecology. In:        Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators.        Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 15-19.  [16036] 34.  Rudolf, Paul O. 1974. Lycium L.  wolfberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed.        Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No.        450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:        522-524.  [7699] 35.  Shreve, Forrest; Hinckley, Arthur L. 1937. Thirty years of change in        desert vegetation. Ecology. 18(4): 463-478.  [4574] 36.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire        Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  [20090] 37.  Turner, Raymond M.; Brown, David E. 1982. Sonoran desertscrub. In:        Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American        Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 181-221.        [2375] 38.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Service (Producer). Available:  [34262] 39.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240] 40.  Varner, L. W.; Blankenship, L. H. 1987. Southern Texas shrubs--nutritive        value and utilization by herbivores. In: Provenza, Frederick D.;        Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers.        Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9;        Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 108-112.        [7404] 41.  Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest.        Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p.  [7707] 42.  Vora, Robin S. 1990. Plant phenology in the lower Rio Grande Valley,        Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 137-142.  [11832] 43.  Vora, Robin S.; Messerly, John F. 1990. Changes in native vegetation        following different disturbances in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas.        Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 151-158.  [11831] 44.  White, Richard S. 1969. Fire temperatures and the effect of burning on        south Texas brush communities. Lubbock, TX: Texas Technological College.        74 p. Thesis.  [20741]

FEIS Home Page