|FEIS Home Page|
SPECIES: Juniperus communis
|Common juniper in a lodegepole pine forest in Yellowstone National Park. Photo © 2012 Jean Pawek, used with permission.|
Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Juniperus communis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/juncom/all.html .
Errata: The following correction was made on 3 October 2017: "Younger leaves tend to be more needlelike whereas mature leaves are scalelike " was changed to: "Unlike most junipers, whose leaves turn scalelike at maturity, common juniper leaves remain needlelike throughout the shrub's life ".
mountain common juniper
old field common juniper
The currently accepted scientific name of common juniper is Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) [45,47,54,67,132,135,136,]. A number of varieties have been described. Commonly recognized North American varieties include:
Juniperus communis var. communis
Juniperus communis var. charlottensis R.P. Adams 
Juniperus communis var. depressa Pursh [33,47,67,103,132,136,137]
Juniperus communis var. megistocarpa Fern & St. John [67,108,132]
Juniperus communis var. montana Ait. [67,132]
No special status
Common juniper is possibly the most widely distributed tree in the world . This circumboreal species occurs across North America, Europe, northern Asia and Japan [78,88]. Common juniper is almost completely circumpolar within the exception of a gap in the Bering Sea region . It is widespread in North America beyond the northern limit of trees, occurring from western Alaska and British Columbia to Newfoundland, Greenland, and Iceland [78,88]. Common juniper extends southward through New England to the Carolinas and westward through northeastern Illinois, Indiana, northern Ohio, Minnesota, and Nebraska to the western mountains of Washington, California, Arizona, and New Mexico [47,56,78,88].
Juniperus communis var. depressa northeastern North America, Idaho, Montana, the Great Plains, and Great Basin; found up to the low arctic in eastern North America
Juniperus communis var. montana high-northern latitudes, circumboreal 
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES26 Lodgepole pine
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES37 Mountain meadows
FRES38 Plains grasslands
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
K001 Spruce-cedar-hemlock forest
K002 Cedar-hemlock-Douglas-fir forest
K005 Mixed conifer forest
K008 Lodgepole pine-subalpine forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest
K015 Western spruce-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K019 Arizona pine forest
K020 Spruce-fir-Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce-fir forest
K022 Great Basin pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K052 Alpine meadows and barren
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K063 Foothills prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest
K097 Southeastern spruce-fir forest
K098 Northern floodplain forest
K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest
1 Jack pine
12 Black spruce
13 Black spruce-tamarack
14 Northern pin oak
15 Red pine
18 Paper birch
19 Gray birch-red maple
35 Paper birch-red spruce-balsam fir
45 Pitch pine
107 White spruce
110 Black oak
111 South Florida slash pine
201 White spruce
202 White spruce-paper birch
204 Black spruce
206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir
208 Whitebark pine
209 Bristlecone pine
210 Interior Douglas-fir
211 White fir
216 Blue spruce
218 Lodgepole pine
219 Limber pine
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
229 Pacific Douglas-fir
230 Douglas-fir-western hemlock
237 Interior ponderosa pine
243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir
245 Pacific ponderosa pine
248 Knobcone pine
249 Canyon live oak
251 White spruce-aspen
252 Paper birch
253 Black spruce-white spruce
254 Black spruce-paper birch
256 California mixed subalpine
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
216 Montane meadows
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
401 Basin big sagebrush
410 Alpine rangeland
411 Aspen woodland
902 Alpine herb
904 Black spruce-lichen
912 Low scrub shrub birch-ericaceous
916 Sedge-shrub tundra
920 White spruce-paper birch
Common juniper is an indicator in a number of forest and shrubland habitat types and community types. It grows as an understory dominant with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), limber pine (P. flexilis), white fir (Abies concolor), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), white spruce (P. glauca), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), blue spruce (Picea pungens), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), or Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata).
Common associates in northern Utah include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), gooseberry currant (Ribes montigenum), Oregon-grape (Mahonia repens), hairy telegraphplant (Heterotheca villosa), timber milkvetch (Astragalus miser), silvery lupine (Lupinus argenteus), Thurber fescue (Festuca thurberi), elk sedge (Carex geyeri), and bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides) [84,90]. Common juniper is listed as a codominant indicator species in the following classifications:
Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national
Forest vegetation on National Forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain Regions: habitat and community types 
Forest vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming: a habitat type classification 
Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico 
The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification 
Preliminary forest habitat types of the Uinta Mountains, UT 
Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest 
Forest vegetation of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests in central Colorado: a habitat type classification 
Forest vegetation of the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: a habitat type classification 
Forest vegetation of the Routt National Forest in northwest Colorado: a habitat type classification 
Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: a habitat type classification 
Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National Forests: a preliminary habitat type classification 
Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona 
Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest 
Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah 
Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region 
Aspen community types of Utah 
A forest habitat type classification of southern Arizona and its relationship to forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico 
Forest habitat types of Montana 
Forest habitat types of central Idaho 
Coniferous forest habitat types of central and southern Utah 
Aspen community types on the Bridger-Teton National Forest in western Wyoming 
Classification and gradient analysis of forest vegetation of Cape Enrage, Bic Park, Quebec 
The wood of common juniper is fine grained, durable, and reddish with white sapwood . This wood currently has no commercial value.
Wild ungulates generally eat only trace amounts of common juniper. Deer and mountain goats browse common juniper to at least a limited extent in some areas including Wyoming and Montana [10,35,41,43,55,93,95,111,134]. Levels of use are typically greatest during the winter or early spring. Common juniper can be important winter mule deer food during some years in parts of the Black Hills [29,43,95,99]. It is also used consistently through the winter months by white-tailed deer in the Swan Valley of Montana [92,93]. Caribou have been observed feeding on common juniper after fire . Moose feed on common juniper "sparingly" in northern Michigan . It also receives some light summer use by mountain goats in Montana . In northern Canada, barren-ground caribou browse "fairly often" on common juniper where lichen growth is poor . Hares browse common juniper in parts of Ontario where use may range from low to high .
Domestic livestock rarely utilize common juniper. The foliage may be poisonous to domestic goats, although livestock in parts of Europe have reportedly been fed sprays of common juniper with no ill effects .
Cones of most junipers are eaten by many species of birds and mammals. Numerous animals, including the American robin and black-capped chickadee, feed on the cones of common juniper whenever they are available. American robins frequently consume large numbers of cones during the spring and fall . In eastern Ontario, cones provide food for cedar and Bohemian waxwings . Wild turkeys also feed on cones of common juniper .
CO MT ND SD UT WY Cattle poor poor poor ---- poor poor Sheep poor poor poor ---- poor poor Horses poor poor poor ---- poor poor Pronghorn ---- ---- poor ---- poor poor Elk ---- poor ---- ---- fair poor Mule deer poor fair fair ---- fair good White-tailed deer ---- poor poor low-med ---- fair Small mammals ---- ---- fair ---- good good Small nongame birds---- ---- good ---- good poor Upland game birds ---- ---- good ---- good fair Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- ---- poor good
Oct. 1 Jan. 2 April 1 July 1 ------ ------ ------- ------ Moisture (%) 50.27 43.48 43.81 66.13 Carotene (?g/g) 56.63 16.30 52.08 57.88 Ash (%) 1.41 1.65 2.00 1.38 Crude fat (%) 6.07 7.51 7.16 4.12 Crude fiber (%) 11.28 15.50 12.70 9.51 Crude protein (%) 4.22 3.30 2.85 3.53 N-free extract (%) 26.75 28.56 31.49 15.35 Phosphorus (%) 0.087 0.081 0.12 0.07 Calcium (%) 0.36 0.85 0.67 0.25 Iron (ppm)* 94.97 91.02 92.68 40.49 Manganese (ppm)* 43.62 58.82 80.19 45.98 *parts per million
Foliar nutrient levels are as follows :
% oven-dry weight N 0.91 P 0.12 K 0.42 Ca 1.20 Mg 0.17
ppm Al 119 B 15 Cu 3.3 Fe 142 Mn 253 Mo 7.2 Zn 17In Canada, nutrient value of common juniper cones was as follows :
Dry Crude Crude Crude matter (%) protein (%) fat(%) fiber 72.2 3.7 14.3 22.1
The shade and cover value of common juniper tends to be greatest for birds and small mammals. It provides especially good nesting cover for Merriam's wild turkeys in the Black Hills of South Dakota [59,110]. In New Jersey, it provides winter roosts for short-eared owls . In the Northwest Territories, common juniper branches are used in woodrat nests .
The cover value of common juniper for wildlife species has been rated as follows :
CO MT ND UT WY Pronghorn ---- ---- ---- poor poor Elk ---- ---- ---- poor fair Mule deer ---- poor good fair fair White-tailed deer ---- poor good ---- fair Small mammals fair ---- ---- good good Small nongame birds fair ---- good good good Upland game birds ---- ---- ---- good good Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- poor poor
Common juniper has low value for short-term rehabilitation projects but moderate to high value for long-term rehabilitation projects. It is useful in preventing soil erosion . Houle and Babeux  report that common juniper has potential for restoration in the Canadian arctic and subarctic.
Dietz and others  attempted to reestablish common juniper on old burns and on open ponderosa pine sites in the Black Hills. Best results were obtained with bareroot stock planted during late April. Attempts at hand seeding under greenhouse conditions were largely unsuccessful.
Common juniper was used by Native Americans of the Great Basin as a blood tonic . Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest used tonics made from the branches to treat colds, flu, arthritis, muscle aches, and kidney problems . Cones were used by the southern Kwakiutl of British Columbia for treating stomach ailments and wood or bark was used to treat respiratory problems . The Interior Salish used cones to make medicines for a variety of ailments . Eurasians made tonics from common juniper for kidney and stomach ailments, and rheumatism [88,130]. Common juniper contains a volatile oil, terpinen-4-ol, which is known to increase kidney action . Common juniper extract, which can be fatal in even fairly small amounts, was used to make gin and as a meat preservative .
Common juniper generally appears to increase in response to grazing [19,102]. Butler  observed highest relative common juniper cover in stands heavily grazed by cattle in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) draws of the North Dakota badlands as follows:
|Common juniper needles and cones. Creative Commons photo by Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy, © 2012.|
Common juniper is a native, evergreen shrub or columnar tree [78,136]. Throughout most of North America, common juniper most often grows as a low, decumbent mat-forming shrub reaching up to 4.9 feet (1.5 m) in height and 7.6 to 13.1 feet (2-4 m) across [47,123]. In parts of New England common juniper occasionally grows up to 25 feet (7.6 m) in height, and a treelike growth form is reportedly common in Europe . Height at maturity can range from 2 to 50 feet (0.6-15.3 m) . At polar limits, common juniper grows as a dwarf shrub in forest tundra .
The bark of common juniper is thin, shreddy or scaly, often exfoliating into thin strips [56,123]. Twigs tend to be yellowish or green when young but turn brown and harden with age [47,123]. Leaves are simple, stiff and arranged in whorls of 3 [56,123]. Unlike most junipers, whose leaves turn scalelike at maturity, common juniper leaves remain needlelike throughout the shrub's life .
Juniperus communis var. depressa - rarely greater than 3 feet (1 m) tall
Juniperus communis var. montana A- low, trailing, mat-forming shrub, stems freely branched, usually less than 3 feet (0.9 m) tall
Individuals can live for more than 170 years .
Common juniper is typically dioecious but occasionally monoecious . Seed usually matures during the second growing season [56,123,126,136], although there have been some reports of cones maturing within only one season .
Common juniper produces large cone crops at irregular intervals . Cones are ovoid to ellipsoid  and contain 1 to 3 seeds [56,128]. Germination rates for common juniper seed are relatively poor and defective seed may also be relatively common. Pack  reported that up to 60% of common juniper seeds examined were defective. In northwestern Quebec, the majority of seeds produced by "older" plants (94.8%) were non-viable. A majority of seeds produced by "younger" plants (80%) were viable. Approximately 40 to 60% of "older" plants were sterile . Under harsh conditions, female plants may decrease reproductive efforts and less viable seed is produced .
Germination and seedling establishment of common juniper is "difficult" [31,60]. Ideal germination conditions are moist, compact soil with sufficient oxygen diffusion . Germination has been reported to range from 7 to 75%, depending on the specific treatment and seed source .
Juniper seeds have a semipermeable and thick seedcoat with a dormant embryo . Common juniper seed requires a period of warm temperatures followed by a period of cold temperatures lasting approximately 7 months . Generally the germination rate of seeds that are not afterripened is only around 1% . High temperatures, alternating temperatures, freezing and thawing, removal of the seedcoat, or the application of hydrogen peroxide, dilute acids, carbon dioxide, or light had little influence on the germination of juniper seeds.
Steele and Geier-Hayes  report that common juniper seed is dispersed by animals and not stored in the soil. However, Major and Pyott  report that common juniper seed persists in cropped soils in California. Seeds of common juniper are dispersed by gravity, water, birds, or mammals. Digestive processes apparently do not harm most juniper seeds and may actually enhance germination [8,37]. Birds are the most important dispersal agents of common juniper . More than 60 to 85% of common junipers present in the sand dune region surrounding Lake Michigan are believed to have originated from bird-disseminated seed. Birds also contribute to the spread of common juniper into old fields of New England . Rosen  reports that domestic sheep may also serve as a dispersal agent since junipers are often associated with sheep driveways. Strong winter winds can push seeds across frozen snow cover .
Increases observed in seedling numbers during certain periods are the result of favorable conditions for establishment. Establishment is more likely in open spaces between older shrubs and may be favored by grazing .
Common juniper does not sprout after foliage is removed. However, adventitious root development can occur when branches come in contact with the ground become buried. In the subarctic, plants are often buried at least partially, and production of adventitious roots may aid in water and nutrient intake. A higher proportion of common juniper cuttings from northern populations rooted as compared with southern cuttings. Cuttings from female shrubs may exhibit better rooting potential than cuttings from male plants .
Common juniper can grow on a wide range of sites. It grows on dry, open, rocky, wooded hillsides, sand terraces, maritime escarpments, and on exposed slopes and plateaus throughout its range [18,31,47,50,123]. Common juniper grows along dunes or on dune heath in coastal areas of the Northeast and inland along the Great Lakes [23,101]. It has spread into abandoned fields and pastures in New England  and the upper Midwest during the past century. In the southeast it is found on isolated mountains .
This species grows on a variety of soil types including acidic and calcareous sands, loams, or marls . It is tolerant of ultramafic soils . In much of Europe common juniper is restricted to well-aerated soils somewhat deficient in both nitrogen and phosphorus. Growth on different soil types is rated as follows :
gravel: fair to poor organics: fair to poor sand: fair to good acidic: fair sandy-loam: good saline: fair to poor loam: good sodic: poor clay loam: fair to poor sodic-saline: poor clay: fair to poor dense clay: poorThe following elevational ranges have been reported for common juniper [54,136]:
Common juniper is intolerant of shade and is usually found in open environments . Common juniper is often regarded as a colonizing plant but reaches maximum abundance on harsh, stressed environments in which competition is lacking [31,107]. Common juniper occurs as an important understory species in a number of climax communities within the southern Rocky Mountains including some Douglas-fir, subalpine fir, limber pine, Engelmann spruce, and blue spruce stands [6,91,122]. Common juniper becomes prominent in many high-elevation spruce-fir forests in Colorado as much as 100 years or more after fire or other disturbance . In the boreal forest of eastern Canada, however, common juniper begins to decline after approximately 70 years after disturbance. On harsh open sites, it can persist for much longer which creates patchy habitats .
Common juniper is described as a seral species in common juniper/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) communities of the southwestern Yukon where it is ultimately replaced by spruce (Picea spp.) and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) . In Arizona and Colorado, common juniper is prominent in seral stands with Oregon-grape  and in the northern Rocky Mountains, it occurs in late seral stands in Douglas-fir/ninebark (Physocarpos malvaceus) and Douglas-fir/Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum) habitat types . It is prominent in old-field or "early settlement" communities of New England, but it "disappears" from areas maintained in timber [39,40]. In pitch pine (Pinus rigida) communities of New England, common juniper replaces initial colonizers such as lichens, blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and grasses, and is in turn, replaced later in succession by pitch pine . In black spruce communities of northern Saskatchewan, common juniper is most prevalent in secondary successional stages occurring from 11 to 30 years after disturbance . In Michigan, common juniper is a colonizer on dune blowouts .
Common juniper begins leader elongation in the spring. "Flowering" or cone development dates vary somewhat according to geographic location, but cone development generally occurs from April through June [47,56,66]. Generalized cone development dates by state are as follows :
State Beginning End of cone cone development development Montana April May North Dakota April May Wyoming April MayStrobili form during June or July, and these structures fuse, generally during the 2nd year, to produce a berrylike cone . Cones ripens from August through October of the 2nd or, more rarely, 3rd year. Cones generally remain on the plant for at least 2 years , with dispersal occurring in August of the second season . In the Canadian subarctic, cones are initiated in autumn and open the following year when pollination occurs. Male strobili are shed while the female cones are enlarging and fertilization occurs during the 2nd year. Seeds mature during the 3rd year .
Common juniper is generally described as "susceptible" to fire [25,59]. It is described as being "not equipped with fire-surviving regeneration properties" . Foliage is resinous and very flammable . The degree of damage received increases with progressively greater fire severity. In eastern Canada, older common juniper often survive fires of low severity. Some fire regimes allow common juniper to survive several fires .
Where common juniper is killed by fire, some seeds may survive in the soil on-site and germinate when conditions become favorable. Other seed is brought to the site by bird  or, less commonly, mammal dispersers. These factors contribute to slow postfire reestablishment on many sites.
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". Also see the FEIS Species Reviews on these dominant tree species:
species fire return interval interior ponderosa pine 2-45 years (P. ponderosa var. scopulorum) Rocky Mountain juniper ( J. scopulorum) lodgepole pine 25-300 years (P. contorta) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)
Common juniper is generally killed or seriously damaged by fire [24,25]. Patchy fires may allow individual plants to survive in protected areas such as on rocky cliffs. More rarely, portions of a lightly-burned plant may survive. The amount of damage this species incurs increases with increasing fire severity .
In the boreal forest of Quebec, at least 37% of common junipers survived fire. Although the dominant fire regime here is crown fires or "important surface fires covering large areas," common juniper often survives on sites made up of exposed bedrock or where protected by lakes and island complexes. Survival can occur if fire affects only part of an area or where fires are of low intensity. In some cases, fires of low intensity "can allow sections of the plant to survive and reproduce vegetatively" .
In a Scottish study, common juniper was killed by 1,472 oF (800 oC) heat treatment when heath was burned. Plants made only "feeble regrowth" when burned at 1,112 oF (600 oC). However, following treatment at 752 oF (400 oC), new shoots were produced .
Common juniper does not sprout after disturbance. Surviving individuals serve as sources of seed for adjacent areas. Postfire regeneration is more frequent in proximity to existing populations of common junipers . Regrowth can generally take place after fire if some of the basal branches remain alive , which only occurs in fires of low severity or where spread is patchy.
Common juniper also reestablishes after fire through off-site seed dispersed by birds or mammals. Poor seed dispersal from existing stands along with low germination rates can explain why some favorable sites are not readily occupied by common juniper .
It is possible that seed protected by overlying soil can survive at least some fires. After low-severity fires, some seed may germinate. However, Mallik and Gimingham  observed that high temperatures did not increase germination in common juniper seed and little seed germinated after fire.
Following "light" (less than 50% litter reduction) fires in forested areas of western Montana, burned sites often exhibit minimal shrub damage and have at least some surviving common juniper . Common juniper averaged 6.7% cover 3 years after a light burn in Montana . Laboratory heating experiments on common juniper plants from Scottish heath showed that growth could take place after heating only if some of the basal green branches remain alive :
effect of temperature* on vegetative regrowth after heating 400oC 600oC 800oC mean # sprouts per plant 3 months after treatment 5 4 0 height of veg. regrowth (cm) 17 months after treatment 8 6 0 oven-dry biomass per plant of veg. regrowth (grams) 3 0.8 0 17 months after treatment *"temperature maintained for about 2 minutes"Most fires kill common juniper , leading to the slow postfire recovery typical of this species. In northern Canada, common juniper is generally absent from burned areas, but may grow in small refugia within burned areas .
Postfire recovery of common juniper is generally slow. The following table gives the density and frequency of occurrence for common juniper in stands of different ages in 2 Colorado forest types :
-------------------------------------------------- Stand Spruce Freq. Stand Lodgepole Freq. age -fir age density after density after fire fire -------------------------------------------------- 1 --- --- 1 --- --- 2 --- --- 2 --- --- 8 --- --- 8 --- --- 8 0.2 20 8 --- --- 18 0.2 20 18 0.2 20 74 2.7 70 18 0.8 20 200 0.2 8 18 0.4 20 280 0.6 40 45 0.8 40 290 0.4 20 85 2.0 100 85 0.8 60 108 0.6 60 115 0.4 40 190 1.4 60 248 0.8 20 251 1.3 30 257 3.4 85 -------------------------------------------------For further information on prescribed fire use and common juniper's response to fire, see Fire Case Studies.
The following Research Project Summaries provide information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant community species including common juniper:
In a north-central Colorado study of fire behavior in quaking aspen stands, common juniper patches burned more intensely and released more heat than adjacent herbaceous areas. A caloric analysis of 5 foliage samples yielded an average low heat content of 5064 kcal/kg. Common juniper fuels tended to be deeper and heavier than herbaceous fuels and flames were longer and deeper in common juniper patches. Fire removed almost all litter, standing herbs, and common juniper foliage, leaving only bare branches. The moisture of green common juniper foliage averaged 112% of oven dry weight on 2 burns . Fuel loading for common juniper can be estimated as follows:
branch load (kg/m2) = .000191* crown height above duff (cm) ** 2.135 foliage load (kg) = 6.456* crown volume (m3) ** 1.93In xeric red pine (Pinus resinosa) communities of northern Canada, an understory of low sweet blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), lichen, and common juniper creates a low and discontinuous fuel load. Fires in these communities tend to have an irregular pattern of intensity that is largely dependent on the distribution of fine fuels. Intense crown fires are unlikely here .
Tirmenstein, D. 1999., compiler. Common juniper effect on fire behavior in a quaking aspen community on Colorado's Front Range. In: Juniperus communis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ ].
Smith, Jane K.; Laven, Richard D.; Omi, Philip N. 1985. Vegetation changes in aspen stands resulting from prescribed burning in recreation areas of the Front Range of Colorado. Final Report. Contract Nos. RM-80-112-GR and RM-81-162-GR (EC-367): Eisenhower Consortium for Western Environmental Forestry Research. 53 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. .
Smith, Jane Kapler; Laven, Richard D.; Omi, Philip N. 1993. Microplot sampling of fire behavior on Populus tremuloides stands in north-central Colorado. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 3(2): 85-94. .
Miner's Road and Swamp Creek sites were located in north-central Colorado.
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) communities were characterized by an understory of herbaceous vegetation and common juniper (Juniperus communis). Common herbaceous species included western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), sedges (Carex spp.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis, strawberry (Fragaria ovalis), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale), Letterman needlegrass (Achnatherum lettermanii), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and mountain thermopsis (Thermopsis divaricarpa).
Herbaceous vegetation was cured. Quaking aspen leaves had fallen.
Weather conditions were described as follows:
site dry bulb relative wind wind 10-hr fuel (oC) humidity speed direction moisture (%) (km/hr) (%) MR1 12 25 10 SE 10.5 MR2 11 33 4 SE 10.5 MR3 13 23 7 W 10.6 SC2 17 15 3 SW 9.6Common juniper clumps covered 20 to 22% of the area on each study site. Preburn fuels measured on 1 m2 plots covered only with common juniper were as follows :
MR1-2 MR3 fuel depth (cm) 32(+/-7) 46(+/-10) duff load (kg/m2) 3.52(+/-1.13) 3.01(+/-1.28) fine fuel load (kg/m2)* 1.01(+/-0.53) 1.54(+/-0.54) down woody fuels (kg/m2) 1.06(+/-1.53) 1.88(+/-2.82) *mainly common juniper foliage
Site Name (abbreviation) Burn Date Ignition time Miner's Road 1 (MR1) October 19, 1981 14:35 MST Miner's Road 2 (MR2) October 19, 1981 15:27 MST Miner's Road 3 (MR3) November 4, 1981 12:00 MST Swamp Creek (SC2) November 17, 1981 13:00 MST
Burn severity varied by plot.
site % of sample median estimated % plots burned fraction of site burned burned MR1 67 0.55 37 MR2 60 0.30 18 MR3 100 0.99 99 SC2 100 0.90 90Less than one half of MR1 and MR2 burned. Nearly all of MR3 and SC2 burned.
Fire behavior was more severe in juniper clumps than in herbaceous vegetation. Fire behavior measured over the entire burns, with both common juniper and herbaceous cover, was as follows:
min. max. estimated mean Fire behavior rate of spread (m/min) 0.4 4.0 1.3 flame length (cm) 10.2 152.4 43.4 flaming zone depth (cm) 5.1 152.44 42.4 total heat release(kcal/m2) 1491 19544 6326 Fire behavior measured only in common juniper clumps was as follows:
average MR1-2 MR3 flame length* 86 62 flaming zone depth* 45 44 total heat release* 8300(+/-4326) 14021(+/-3420) *significantly greater than on plots with herbaceous cover
Juniper was killed by fire.
Flames were longer in juniper than in herbaceous cover and more fuel was consumed on juniper plots. Burned out juniper plots produced more aspen suckers than corresponding herbaceous plots. More heat may have penetrated the soil in juniper areas. Irradiance increases were especially noticeable in areas were juniper clumps had burned.
1. Achuff, Peter L. 1989. Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks. Natural Areas Journal. 9(1): 12-26. 
2. Adams, Robert P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola & J. virginiana of the southeastern U.S.: multivariate analyses of morphology & terpenoids. Taxon. 35(1): 61-75. 
3. Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Classification of the forest vegetation of Wyoming. Res. Note RM-466. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. 
4. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Forest vegetation on National Forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain Regions: habitat and community types. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-162. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p. 
5. Alexander, Robert R.; Hoffman, George R.; Wirsing, John M. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-271. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 39 p. 
6. Alexander, Robert R.; Ronco, Frank, Jr. 1987. Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Note RM-469. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. 
7. Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1977. Northwest trees. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 222 p. 
8. Balda, Russell P. 1987. Avian impacts on pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 525-533. 
9. Barkman, J. J. 1985. Geographical variation in associations of juniper scrub in the central European plain. Vegetatio. 59: 67-71. 
10. Beetle, Alan A. 1962. Range survey in Teton County, Wyoming: Part 2. Utilization and condition classes. Bull. 400. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 38 p. 
11. Bergeron, Yves; Brisson, Jacques. 1990. Fire regime in red pine stands at the northern limit of the species range. Ecology. 71(4): 1352-1364. 
12. Bergerud, A. T. 1969. The caribou have returned. Ecology. 50: 940-941. 
13. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
14. Betancourt, Julio L.; Davis, Owen K. 1984. Packrat middens from Cayon de Chelly, northeastern Arizona: paleoecological and archaeological implications. Quaternary Research. 21: 56-64. 
15. Blinn, Charles R.; Buckner, Edward R. 1989. Normal foliar nutrient levels in North American forest trees: A summary. Station Bulletin 590-1989. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. 27 p. 
16. Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. [n.d.]. Some effects of fire on vegetation and wildlife in ponderosa pine forests of the southern Black Hills. Final Report. Contracts CX-1200-9-B034, CX-1200-0-B018, CX-1200-1-B022; Grant No. RM-80-105 GR. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 58 p. 
17. Bosakowski, Thomas. 1986. Short-eared owl winter roosting strategies. American Birds. 40(2): 237-240. 
18. Breitung, August J. 1954. A botanical survey of the Cypress Hills. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 68: 55-92. 
19. Butler, Jack Lee. 1983. Grazing and topographic influences on selected green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) communities in the North Dakota Badlands. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 130 p. Thesis. 
20. Catling, Paul M.; Brownell, Vivian R. 1998. Importance of fire in alvar ecosystems--evidence from the Burnt Lands, eastern Ontario. The Canadian Field Naturalist. 112(4): 661-667. 
21. Clagg, Harry B. 1975. Fire ecology in high-elevation forests in Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 137 p. Thesis. 
22. Cooper, William S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and its development. II. Botanical Gazette. 55(2): 115-140. 
23. Cowles, Henry Chandler. 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Botanical Gazette. 27(4): 361-391. 
24. Crane, M. F.; Fischer, William C. 1986. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-218. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 85 p. 
25. Crane, Marilyn F. 1982. Fire ecology of forest habitat types. In: Lotan, James E., ed. Fire--its field effects: Proceedings of the symposium; 1982 October 19-21; Jackson, WY. Missoula, MT: The Intermountain Fire Council; Pierre, SD: The Rocky Mountain Fire Council: 13-27. 
26. de Vos, Antoon. 1964. Food utilization of snowshoe hares on Mantioulin Island, Ontario. Journal of Forestry. 62: 238-244. 
27. Decker, Scott R.; Pekins, Peter J.; Mautz, William W. 1991. Nutritional evaluation of winter foods of wild turkeys. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 69(8): 2128-2132. 
28. Despain, Don G. 1973. Vegetation of the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, in relation to substrate and climate. Ecological Monographs. 43(3): 329-355. 
29. Dietz, Donald R.; Nagy, Julius G. 1976. Mule deer nutrition and plant utilization. In: Workman; Low, eds. Mule deer decline in the West: A symposium; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. [Logan], UT: College of Natural Resources, Utah Agriculture Experiment Station: 71-78. 
30. Dietz, Donald R.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Messner, Harold E.; McEwen, Lowell C. 1980. Establishment, survival, and growth of selected browse species in a ponderosa pine forest. Res. Pap. RM-219. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 11 p. 
31. Diotte, Martine; Bergeron, Yves. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Journal of Biogeography. 16: 91-96. 
32. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
33. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. 
34. Douglas, George W. 1974. Montane zone vegetation of the Alsek River region, southwestern Yukon. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 2505-2532. 
35. Dusek, Gary L. 1975. Range relations of mule deer and cattle in prairie habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management. 39(3): 605-616. 
36. Dye, A. J.; Moir, W. H. 1977. Spruce-fir forest at its southern distribution in the Rocky Mountains, New Mexico. The American Midland Naturalist. 97(1): 133-146. 
37. Emerson, Fred W. 1932. The tension zone between the grama grass and pinyon-juniper associations in northeastern New Mexico. Ecology. 13: 247-258. 
38. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
39. Filip, Stanley M.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Trees and shrubs of the Bartlett Experimental Forest, Carroll County, New Hampshire. Res. Pap. NE-211. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 20 p. 
40. Foster, D. R.; Zebryk, T.; Schoonmaker, P.; Lezberg, A. 1992. Post-settlement history of human land-use and vegetation dynamics of a Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) woodlot in central New England. Journal of Ecology. 80: 773-786. 
41. Frischknecht, Neil C. 1975. Ecology of the sagebrush community as influenced by some natural and man-caused perturbations. In: Stutz, Howard C., ed. Wildland shrubs: Proceedings--symposium and workshop; 1975 November 5-7; Provo, UT. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 162. 
42. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
43. Gastler, George F.; Moxon, Alvin L.; McKean, William T. 1951. Composition of some plants eaten by deer in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 15(4): 352-357. 
44. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. 
45. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. 
46. Granstrom, Anders. 1982. Seed banks in five boreal forest stands originating between 1810 and 1963. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 1815-1821. 
47. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. 
48. Hall, Marion T. 1961. Notes on cultivated junipers. Butler University Botanical Studies. 14: 73-90. 
49. Hansen, Paul L.; Hoffman, George R. 1988. The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-157. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 68 p. 
50. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. 
51. Henderson, Jan A.; Mauk, Ronald L.; Anderson, Donald L.; [and others]. 1977. Preliminary forest habitat types of the Uinta Mountains, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Department of Forestry and Outdoor Recreation. 94 p. 
52. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. 
53. Hess, Karl; Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests in central Colorado: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-266. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. 
54. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. 
55. Hill, Ralph R. 1946. Palatability ratings of Black Hills plants for white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management. 10(1): 47-54. 
56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. 
57. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1976. Forest vegetation of the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-170. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 38 p. 
58. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1980. Forest vegetation of the Routt National Forest in northwestern Colorado: a habitat classification. Res. Pap. RM-221. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 41 p. 
59. Hoffman, George R.; Alexander, Robert R. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-276. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. 
60. Hofmann, J. V. 1917. Natural reproduction from seed stored in the forest floor. Journal of Agricultural Research. 11(1): 1-26. 
61. Holmgren, Arthur H.; Reveal, James L. 1966. Checklist of the vascular plants of the Intermountain Region. Res. Pap. INT-32. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 160 p. 
62. Hopkins, Rick B.; Cassel, J. Frank; Bjugstad, Ardell J. 1986. Relationships between breeding birds and vegetation in four woodland types of the Little Missouri National Grasslands. Res. Pap. RM-270. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. 
63. Houle, Gilles; Babeux, Patrice. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 72: 493-498. 
64. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. 
65. Hustich, Ilmari. 1953. The boreal limits of conifers. Arctic. 6: 149-162. 
66. Johnsen, Thomas N., Jr.; Alexander, Robert A. 1974. Juniperus L. juniper. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 460-469. 
67. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. 
68. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. 
69. Kelsall, John P. 1957. Continued barren-ground caribou studies. Wildlife Management Bulletin Series 1: No. 12. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, National Parks Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service. 148 p. 
70. Kessell, Stephen R.; Potter, Meredith W. 1980. A quantitative succession model for nine Montana forest communities. Environmental Management. 4(3): 227-240. 
71. Komarkova, Vera. 1986. Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests. Final Report Contract No. 28-K2-234. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 270 p. 
72. Komarkova, Vera; Alexander, Robert R.; Johnston, Barry C. 1988. Forest vegetation of the Gunnison and parts of the Uncompahgre National Forests: a preliminary habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-163. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 65 p. 
73. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
74. Larson, Milo; Moir, W. H. 1987. Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona. 2d ed. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region. 90 p. 
75. Lee, Lyndon C.; Pfister, Robert D. 1978. A training manual for Montana forest habitat types. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 142 p. 
76. Lillybridge, Terry R.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Williams, Clinton K.; Smith, Bradley G. 1995. Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-359. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 335 p. In cooperation with: Pacific Northwest Region, Wenatchee National Forest. 
77. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of the United States trees. Volume 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1146. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 320 p. 
78. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. 
79. Mackie, Richard J.; Lonner, Terry N. 1977. Evaluation and effectiveness of the key browse survey method. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings, 6th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; 1977 May 24-25; Buffalo, WY. Laramie, WY: Shrub Ecology Workshop, Society for Range Management & The Wildlife Society: 9-24. 
80. Major, J.; Pyott, W. T. 1966. Buried, viable seeds in two California bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora. Vegetatio. 13: 254-282. 
81. Mallik, A. U. 1995. Conversion of temperate forests into heaths: role of ecosystem disturbance and ericaceous plants. Environmental Management. 19(5): 675-684. 
82. Mallik, A. U.; Gimingham, C. H. 1983. Regeneration of heathland plants following burning. Vegetatio. 53: 45-58. 
83. Marion, Christine; Houle, Gilles. 1996. No differential consequences of reproduction according to sex in Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany. 83(4): 480-488. 
84. Mauk, Ronald L.; Henderson, Jan A. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-170. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 89 p. 
85. Millar, Constance I.; Marshall, Kimberly A. 1991. Allozyme variation of Port-Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana): implications for genetic conservation. Forest Science. 37(4): 1060-1077. 
86. Moir, William H.; Ludwig, John A. 1979. A classification of spruce-fir and mixed conifer habitat types of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Pap. RM-207. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p. 
87. Moore, Barrington. 1917. Some factors influencing the reproduction of red spruce, balsam fir, and white pine. Journal of Forestry. 15(7): 827-853. 
88. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. 
89. Mueggler, Walter F. 1988. Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-250. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 135 p. 
90. Mueggler, Walter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 1986. Aspen community types of Utah. Res. Pap. INT-362. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 69 p. 
91. Muldavin, Esteban H.; DeVelice, Robert L. 1987. A forest habitat type classification of southern Arizona and its relationship to forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. In: Aldon, Earl F.; Gonzales Vicente, Carlos E.; Moir, William H., technical coordinators. Strategies for classification and management of native vegetation for food production in arid zones: Proceedings; 1987 October 12-16; Tucson, AZ. Gen, Tech. Rep. RM-150. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 24-31. 
92. Mundinger, John D. 1978. Population ecology and habitat relationships of white-tailed deer in coniferous forest habitat of northwestern Montana. Montana deer studies: Job progress report 1977-1978. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Fish and Game. 74 p. 
93. Mundinger, John G. 1979. Population ecology and habitat relationships of white-tailed deer in coniferous forest habitat of northwestern Montana. Montana deer studies: Job progress report 1978-1979. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Fish and Game. 65 p. 
94. Murie, Adolph. 1934. The moose of Isle Royale. Miscellaneous Publication No. 25. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 56 p. 
95. Novak, Clyle A. 1959. Browse utilization in the Black Hills during the winter of 1958-1959. Job Completion Report. Project 74-R. Job No. D-7.1-1. Pierre, SD: South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. 4 p. 
96. Olson, Jerry S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern Lake Michigan sand dunes. Botanical Gazette. 119(3): 125-170. 
97. Pack, Dean A. 1921. After-ripening and germination of Juniperus seeds. Botanical Gazette. 71: 32-60. 
98. Pase, Charles P. 1958. Herbage production and composition under immature ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills. Journal of Range Management. 11: 238-243. 
99. Pase, Charles P.; Hurd, Richard M. 1958. Understory vegetation as related to basal area, crown cover and litter produced by immature ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills. In: Proceedings, annual meeting of the Society of American Foresters; 1957 November 10-13; Syracuse, NY. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 156-158. 
100. Pfister, Robert D.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Arno, Stephen F.; Presby, Richard C. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p. 
101. Phillips, Frank J. 1910. The dissemination of junipers by birds. Forestry Quarterly. [Volume unknown]: 60-73. 
102. Potter, Loren D.; Krenetsky, John C. 1967. Plant succession with released grazing on New Mexico range lands. Journal of Range Management. 20: 145-151. 
103. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. 
104. Ralston, Robert Dean. 1960. The structure and ecology of the north slope juniper stands of the Little Missouri Badlands. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah. 85 p. Thesis. 
105. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
106. Reed, Clyde F. 1952. Contributions toward a flora of Nevada: No. 41. Chenopodiaceae of Nevada. Contributions toward a flora of Nevada. Vol. 1: Pinaceae-Cupressaceae. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 96 p. 
107. Rejmanek, Marcel; Rosen, Ejvind. 1988. The effect of colonizing shrubs Juniperus communis and Potentilla fructicosa on species richness in the grasslands of Stora Alvaret, Oland (Sweden). Acta phytogeographica suecica. 76: 67-72. 
108. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. 
109. Rosen, E. 1988. Development and seedling establishment within a Juniperus communis stand on Oland, Sweden. Acta Botanica Nerlandica. 37(2): 193-201. 
110. Rumble, Mark A.; Hodorff, Robert A. 1993. Nesting ecology of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57(4): 789-801. 
111. Saunders, Jack K., Jr. 1955. Food habits and range use of the Rocky Mountain goat in the Crazy Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 19(4): 429-437. 
112. Scotter, George W.; Simmons, Norman M. 1974. Range extensions for the bushy-tailed wood rat in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 88: 489-490. 
113. Scotter, George Wilby. 1964. Effects of forest fires on the winter range of barren-ground caribou in northern Saskatchewan. Wildlife Management Bulletin, Series 1, No. 18. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, National Parks Branch, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources. 111 p. 
114. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. 
115. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. 
116. Smith, Jane K.; Laven, Richard D.; Omi, Philip N. 1985. Vegetation changes in aspen stands resulting from prescribed burning in recreation areas of the Front Range of Colorado. Final Report. Contract Nos. RM-80-112-GR and RM-81-162-GR (EC-367): Eisenhower Consortium for Western Environmental Forestry Research. 53 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
117. Smith, Jane Kapler; Laven, Richard D.; Omi, Philip N. 1993. Microplot sampling of fire behavior on Populus tremuloides stands in north-central Colorado. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 3(2): 85-94. 
118. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. 
119. South Carolina Heritage Trust. (May, 2000) South Carolina species of concern, [Online]. Available: http://ocelot.tnc.org/nhp/us/sc/ [2000, June 23]. 
120. Stark, N.; Steele, R. 1977. Nutrient content of forest shrubs following burning. American Journal of Botany. 64(10): 1218-1224. 
121. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1995. Major Douglas-fir habitat types of central Idaho: a summary of succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-331. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 23 p. 
122. Steele, Robert; Pfister, Robert D.; Ryker, Russell A.; Kittams, Jay A. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-114. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 138 p. 
123. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. 
124. Stephenson, Stephen N. 1983. Maxton Plains, prairie refugia of Drummond Island, Cheppewa County, Michigan. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo, MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 56-60. 
125. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. 
126. Stiles, Edmund W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the eastern deciduous forest. The American Naturalist. 116(5): 670-688. 
127. Thilenius, John F. 1972. Classification of deer habitat in the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Res. Pap. RM-91. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 28 p. 
128. Tueller, Paul T.; Clark, James E. 1975. Autecology of pinyon-juniper species of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau. In: The pinyon-juniper ecosystem: a symposium; 1975 May; Logan, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station: 27-40. 
129. Turner, Nancy Chapman; Bell, Marcus A. M. 1973. The ethnobotany of the southern Kwakiutl Indians of British Columbia. Economic Botany. 27: 257-310. 
130. Turner, Nancy J. 1988. Ethnobotany of coniferous trees in Thompson and Lillooet Interior Salish of British Columbia. Economic Botany. 42(2): 177-194. 
131. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. 
132. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2014. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: https://plants.usda.gov /. 
133. Virginia Natural Heritage Program. (1999, April) Virginia's rare plants and animals, [Online]. Available: www.stae.va.us/ [2000, May 2]. 
134. Wallmo, Olof C.; Regelin, Wayne L.; Reichert, Donald W. 1972. Forage use by mule deer relative to logging in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management. 36: 1025-1033. 
135. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Nowot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. 
136. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
137. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. 
138. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Mauk, Ronald L. 1985. Coniferous forest habitat types of central and southern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 89 p. 
139. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Mueggler, Walter F. 1981. Aspen community types on the Bridger-Teton National Forest in western Wyoming. Res. Pap. INT-272. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 34 p. 
140. Zoladeski, C. A. 1988. Classification and gradient analysis of forest vegetation of Cape Enrage, Bic Park, Quebec. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 115(1): 9-18.