|FEIS Home Page|
SPECIES: Ephedra nevadensis
|Nevada jointfir on the rim of the Grand Canyon. Photo
courtesy Dennis Woodland, Andrews University.
Nevada jointfir occurs in the West, from southeastern Oregon south to Baja California Norte, Mexico, and east to eastern Utah and Arizona [27,31,32,48,50].
|Distribution of Nevada jointfir in the United States. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, July 6] .|
In California, common associates of Nevada jointfir in singleleaf pinyon-California juniper/western juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus californica/J. occidentalis) woodland include California sagebrush (Artemisia californica), rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), green ephedra (E. viridis), desert almond (Prunus fasciculata), peach thorn (Lycium cooperi), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), and Mojave yucca (Y. schidigera) . In desert chaparral communities, Nevada jointfir commonly occurs with chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), red shank (A. sparsifolium), jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), California juniper, and Mojave yucca . Other common associates are mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus spp.), saltbush (Atriplex spp.), creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), and prickly-pear (Opuntia spp.) [13,66].
In Nevada, Nevada jointfir may codominate with Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis) , spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), spiny menodora (Menodora spinescens), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), or eastern Mojave buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum) [26,52]. In Utah, it may codominate with winterfat, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), or galleta (Pleuraphis jamesii) . Nevada jointfir is particularly common as a community dominant in the transition zone between the Mojave and Great Basin deserts .West and others  classify Nevada jointfir as a plant community dominant in Nevada.
|Cone-bearing stem. Photo ©2004, James M. Andre.|
Nevada jointfir is a native erect, spreading shrub that reaches 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) tall [9,50,59,77]. It is essentially aphyllous with jointed [1,9,9,50,50,77], evergreen stems . The thick, woody roots can grow to 6.5 feet (2 m) deep [41,83], and may spread laterally and produce clones .
Ephedra spp. are gymnosperms. Stamens bear 1 to 8 pollen sacs, and 1 to 2 ovules are exposed at the tips of small, scaly cones. After pollination, these ovules develop directly into seed . The male cones are 0.16 to 0.3 inch (4-8 mm) long, while female cones are 0.2 to 0.4 inch (5-11 mm) long. Seeds are 0.16 to 0.35 inch (4-9 mm) long  and occur singly or in pairs [16,73].
A study of replicated photographs in Arizona estimates that Ephedra spp. can survive over 100 years (80-95% of 3 different populations survived from the late 1800s to 1994) ; however, the study did not specifically document the longevity of Nevada jointfir.RAUNKIAER  LIFE FORM:
Breeding system: Nevada jointfir is primarily dioecious with small cones [17,66].
Pollination: Ephedra pollen is wind-distributed .
Seed production: Nevada jointfir produces large quantities of small seeds at erratic intervals [16,58,76].
Seed dispersal: Seeds are dispersed by small mammals and deposited in shallowly buried caches .
Seed banking: No information is available on this topic.
Germination: Germination requires 21 days prechill at 37 to 41 oF (3-5 oC), with germination most successful at 68 oF (20 oC). Average germination under these conditions ranges from 80%-100%. Other effective germination temperatures are 41, 50, 59 oF (5, 10, 15 oC) constant and 68/77 oF (20/25 oC) alternating [9,87].
After 15 years of warehouse storage, germination rates of Nevada jointfir seeds did not decrease appreciably; rates remained above 85% . Nevada jointfir germination rates were >85% during the1st 10 years of storage in an open, unheated, uncooled warehouse, with rates only decreasing to 77% after 25 years of storage . In another study, however, seed storage for 12 months at room temperature substantially reduced germination (from 65%-75% to 15%-20%) .
Seedling establishment/growth: No information is available on this topic.
Asexual regeneration: Manning and Groeneveld  describe a Nevada jointfir community in California in which clones are produced from lateral roots. Others describe crown sprouting of Nevada jointfir in response to herbicides .SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
|Baja California||3,900-4,200 feet (1,190-1,280 m) |
|Great Basin||2,790-7,050 feet (850-2,150 m) |
|California||<3,600 feet (1,100 m) |
|Nevada||2,500-6,000 feet (760-1,830 m) [12,32]|
|Utah||4,000-6,000 feet (1,220-1,830 m) |
Nevada jointfir is commonly found on ridgetops as well as upper and lower slope positions. It also grows well in floodplain areas. Nevada jointfir is associated with shallow, rocky soils (to 2 feet (0.6 m) deep) , often limestone-derived . Nevada jointfir has a high saline tolerance  and is common on the margins of salt deserts . However, it has no tolerance for acidity . Nevada jointfir is drought tolerant  and requires approximately 7 inches (178 mm) annual precipitation .SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Fire regimes: Most plant communities in which Nevada jointfir commonly occurs historically experienced stand-replacement fire regimes. Sagebrush types historically had fire intervals from 20 to 70 years, while other desert shrub types and desert grassland communities had fire intervals of <35 to <100 years . Fires may not carry on some Nevada jointfir sites due to insufficient fuels. Periods of above normal precipitation can contribute to increased stand flammability by promoting the growth of annuals . Pinyon-juniper communities are subject to a mixed-severity fire regime, with fire intervals <35 years or 400+ years [21,24,35,54]. On less productive sites with discontinuous grass cover, fires are less frequent and small. On sites where grass cover is more continuous, fires are likely more frequent and extensive. Stage of stand development also contributes to fire susceptibility and severity. Young open stands may have sufficient understory fuel to carry fire, but as stands mature this cover becomes sparse. The trees may remain too widely spaced to carry crown fire, except under extreme conditions .
Some sagebrush and desert shrub ecosystems are experiencing changes in fire regime, particularly in response to invasion by annual grasses such as red brome (Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens) and cheatgrass (B. tectorum). Cheatgrass expansion has dramatically changed fire regimes and plant communities over vast areas of western rangelands by creating an environment where fires are easily ignited, spread rapidly, cover large areas, and occur frequently . Cheatgrass promotes frequent fires by increasing the biomass and horizontal continuity of fine fuels that persist during the summer lightning season and by allowing fire to spread across landscapes where fire was previously restricted to isolated patches [37,69,85].
Fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems in which Nevada jointfir occurs are summarized below. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|California chaparral||Adenostoma and/or Arctostaphylos spp.||< 35 to < 100 |
|basin big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata||12-43 |
|mountain big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana||15-40 [4,14,46]|
|Wyoming big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis||10-70 (40**) [75,86]|
|coastal sagebrush||Artemisia californica||< 35 to < 100|
|saltbush-greasewood||Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus||< 35 to < 100|
|desert grasslands||Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica||5-100|
|grama-galleta steppe||Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii||< 35 to < 100 |
|cheatgrass||Bromus tectorum||< 10 [56,80]|
|curlleaf mountain-mahogany*||Cercocarpus ledifolius||13-1,000 [5,63]|
|mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub||Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii||< 35 to < 100|
|blackbrush||Coleogyne ramosissima||< 35 to < 100|
|western juniper||Juniperus occidentalis||20-70|
|Rocky Mountain juniper||Juniperus scopulorum||< 35|
|creosotebush||Larrea tridentata||< 35 to < 100|
|pinyon-juniper||Pinus-Juniperus spp.||< 35 |
|Mexican pinyon||Pinus cembroides||20-70 [49,71]|
|Colorado pinyon||Pinus edulis||10-400+ [21,24,35,54]|
|galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe||Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea||< 35 to < 100 |
|mesquite||Prosopis glandulosa||< 35 to < 100 [44,54]|
Nevada jointfir seeds provide food for small mammals and birds .
Palatability/nutritional value: Nevada jointfir has been rated as fair forage for domestic sheep, cattle, goats and horses; it also provides fair forage for pronghorn, mule deer, small nongame birds, and upland game birds [18,30,61]. It has been rated poor forage for elk and waterfowl, but good for small mammals . Tests of Nevada jointfir in pregnant domestic sheep showed no maternal or embryo/fetal toxicity .
Specific nutrient content varies according to plant part, phenological development, and site characteristics. Nutrient composition for Nevada jointfir sampled in Nevada is as follows .
-------- Date sampled ---------
|Feb. 11||March 17||April 4||May 21||June 19||July 29||Sept. 24||Dec. 31|
|-------------------percent dry weight-------------------|
|-------------- ppm --------------|
The National Academy of Sciences lists the following values for Nevada jointfir samples (% dry matter): calcium 5.81%, magnesium 1.28%, and phosphorus 0.50% .
Cover value: Nevada jointfir provides good cover for small mammals; fair cover for pronghorn, small nongame birds, and upland game birds; and poor cover for game animals and waterfowl .VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Nevada jointfir is easily propagated in
the nursery or greenhouse, but root and shoot systems of the seedlings are
fragile and easily damaged during transplanting . A study of
transplanted Nevada jointfir found heavy mortality, with only 10% of plants
surviving after 6 years and none surviving to 12 years . Other efforts have resulted in
successful transplanting of container stock,
with 67% survival after 5 years on irrigated plots and 100% survival on nonirrigated plots .
Seedlings are drought tolerant and
generally establish well after fall or winter plantings .
Native Americans used Nevada jointfir as a tea to treat stomach and kidney ailments [8,17].
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Atrazine may be effective in controlling Nevada jointfir, though some plants can survive through crown sprouting. Irrigation may increase control by atrazine .
1. Ackerman, T. L.; Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J. E. 1980. Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada. In: Nevada desert ecology. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 4. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. 
2. Ackerman, Thomas L. 1979. Germination and survival of perennial plant species in the Mojave Desert. The Southwestern Naturalist. 24(3): 399-408. 
3. Ackerman, Thomas L.; Bamberg, Sam A. 1974. Phenological studies in the Mojave Desert at Rock Valley (Nevada Test Site). In: Lieth, Helmut, ed. Phenology and seasonality modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag: 215-226. (Ecological studies; Analysis and synthesis, volume 8). 
4. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. 
5. Arno, Stephen F.; Wilson, Andrew E. 1986. Dating past fires in curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 241-243. 
6. Bates, Patricia A. 1983. Prescribed burning blackbrush for deer habitat improvement. Cal-Neva Wildlife Transactions. [Volume unknown]: 174-182. 
7. Beale, Donald M.; Smith, Arthur D. 1970. Forage use, water consumption, and productivity of pronghorn antelope in western Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(3): 570-582. 
8. Bean, Lowell John; Saubel, Katherine Siva. 1972. Telmalpakh: Chauilla Indian knowledge and usage of plants. Banning, CA: Malki Museum. 225 p. 
9. Belcher, Earl. 1985. Handbook on seeds of browse--shrubs and forbs. Technical Publication R8-TP8. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 246 p. In cooperation with: Association of Official Seed Analysts. 
10. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
11. Bowers, Janice E.; Webb, Robert H.; Rondeau, Renee J. 1995. Longevity, recruitment and mortality of desert plants in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science. 6(4): 551-564. 
12. Bradley, W. G. 1965. A study of the blackbrush plant community of the Desert Game Range. Transactions, Desert Bighorn Council. 11: 56-61. 
13. Brotherson, Jack D.; Masslich, William J. 1985. Vegetation patterns in relation to slope position in the Castle Cliffs area of southern Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist. 45(3): 535-541. 
14. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. 
15. Clary, Raimond F., Jr.; Slayback, Robert D. 1985. Revegetation in the Mojave Desert using native woody plants. In: Rieger, John P.; Steele, Bobbie A., eds. Proceedings of the native plant revegetation symposium; 1984 November 15; San Diego, CA. San Diego, CA: California Native Plant Society: 42-47. 
16. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L. 1972. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 1. New York: Hafner Publishing Company, Inc. 270 p. 
17. Dayton, William A. 1931. Important western browse plants. Misc. Publ. 101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 214 p. 
18. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
20. Flora of North America Association. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2: Pteridophytes and gymnosperms, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://hua.huh.harvard.edu/FNA/ [2004, May 27]. 
21. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. 
22. Gabbert, W. D.; Schultz, B. W.; Angerer, J. P.; Ostler, W. K. 1995. Plant succession on disturbed sites in four plant associations in the northern Mojave Desert. In: Roundy, Bruce A.; McArthur, E. Durant; Haley, Jennifer S.; Mann, David K., compilers. Proceedings: wildland shrub and arid land restoration symposium; 1993 October 19-21; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-315. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 183-188. 
23. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
24. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; [and others]. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. 
25. Green, Lisle R.; Sharp, Lee A.; Cook, C. Wayne; Harris, Lorin E. 1951. Utilization of winter range forage by sheep. Journal of Range Management. 4: 233-241. 
26. Hansen, D. J.; Ostler, W. K.; Hall, D. B. 1999. The transition from Mojave Desert to Great Basin Desert on the Nevada Test Site. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 148-158. 
27. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. 
28. Humphrey, L. David; Schupp, Eugene W. 1999. Temporal patterns of seedling emergence and early survival of Great Basin perennial plant species. The Great Basin Naturalist. 59(1): 35-49. 
29. Hunter, Richard; Wallace, A.; Romney, E. M. 1978. Persistent atrazine toxicity in Mohave Desert shrub communities. Journal of Range Management. 31(3): 199-203. 
30. Hutchings, Selar S. 1954. Managing winter sheep range for greater profit. Farmers' Bulletin No. 2067. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. 
31. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. 
32. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 3 volumes]. Dissertation. 
33. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. 
34. Keeler, Richard F. 1989. Investigation of maternal and embryo/fetal toxicity of Ephedra nevadensis in sheep and cattle. Journal of Range Management. 42(1): 31-35. 
35. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. 
36. Kitchen, Stanley G.; McArthur, E. Durant; Jorgensen, Gary L. 1999. Species richness and community structure along a Great Basin elevational gradient. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 59-65. 
37. Knick, Steven T.; Rotenberry, John T. 1997. Landscape characteristics of disturbed shrubsteppe habitats in southwestern Idaho (U.S.A.). Landscape Ecology. 12: 287-297. 
38. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. 
39. Kufeld, Roland C.; Wallmo, O. C.; Feddema, Charles. 1973. Foods of the Rocky Mountain mule deer. Res. Pap. RM-111. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 31 p. 
40. Luke, Forrest; Monsen, Stephen B. 1984. Methods and costs for establishing shrubs on mined lands in southwestern Wyoming. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 286-291. 
41. Manning, Sara J.; Groeneveld, David P. 1990. Shrub rooting characteristics and water acquisition on xeric sites in the western Great Basin. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Romney, Evan M.; Smith, Stanley D.; Tueller, Paul T., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology and management; 1989 April 5-7; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-276. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 238-244. 
42. McArthur, E. Durant; Young, Stanford A. 1999. Development of native seed supplies to support restoration of pinyon-juniper sites. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard, compilers. Proceedings: ecology and management of pinyon-juniper communities within the Interior West: Sustaining and restoring a diverse ecosystem; 1997 September 15-18; Provo, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-9. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 327-330. 
43. McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1982. Effects of wildfire on a Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology. 63(1): 246-248. 
44. McPherson, Guy R. 1995. The role of fire in the desert grasslands. In: McClaran, Mitchel P.; Van Devender, Thomas R., eds. The desert grassland. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press: 130-151. 
45. Meyer, Susan E. 2002. Ephedra L. ephedra or Mormon-tea. In: Bonner, Franklin T., tech. coord. Woody plant seed manual, [Online]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Producer). Available: http://wpsm.net/Ephedra.pdf [2004, March 29]. 
46. Miller, Richard F.; Rose, Jeffery A. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 55(1): 37-45. 
47. Minnich, Richard A. 1999. Vegetation, fire regimes, and forest dynamics. In: Miller, P. R.; McBride, J. R., eds. Oxidant air pollution impacts in the montane forests of southern California: a case study of the San Bernardino Mountains. Ecological Studies: Analysis and Synthesis. Vol. 134. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-80. 
48. Minnich, Richard A.; Franco-Vizcaino, Ernesto. 1997. Protecting vegetation and fire regimes in the Sierra San Pedro Martir of Baja California. Fremontia. 25(3): 13-21. 
49. Moir, William H. 1982. A fire history of the High Chisos, Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 27(1): 87-98. 
50. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. 
51. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. 
52. Ostler, W. K.; Hansen, D. J.; Hall, D. B. 1999. The classification of shrublands on the Nevada Test Site. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 137-147. 
53. Ott, Jeffrey E.; McArthur, E. Durant; Sanderson, Stewart C. 2001. Plant community dynamics of burned and unburned sagebrush and pinyon-juniper vegetation in west-central Utah. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Fairbanks, Daniel J., compilers. Shrubland ecosystem genetics and biodiversity: proceedings; 2000 June 13-15; Provo, UT. Proc. RMRS-P-21. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 177-191. 
54. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. 
55. Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Frischknecht, Neil C.; McArthur, E. Durant. 1992. Long-term survival of 20 selected plant accessions in a Rush Valley, Utah, planting. Res. Note INT-403. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 7 p. 
56. Peters, Erin F.; Bunting, Stephen C. 1994. Fire conditions pre- and postoccurrence of annual grasses on the Snake River Plain. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 31-36. 
57. Phillips, Ralph L.; McDougald, Neil K.; Sullins, James. 1996. Plant preference of sheep grazing in the Mojave Desert. Rangelands. 18(4): 141-144. 
58. Plummer, A. Perry; Christensen, Donald R.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1968. Restoring big-game range in Utah. Publ. No. 68-3. Ephraim, UT: Utah Division of Fish and Game. 183 p. 
59. Rainier Seeds, Inc. 2003. Catalog, [Online]. Davenport, WA: Rainer Seeds, Inc., (Producer). Available: http://www.rainerseeds.com [2003, February 14]. 
60. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
61. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. 
62. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. 
63. Schultz, Brad W. 1987. Ecology of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) in western and central Nevada: population structure and dynamics. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 111 p. Thesis. 
64. Shaw, Nancy; Monsen, Stephen B. 1984. Nursery propagation and outplanting of bareroot chenopod seedlings. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 251-260. 
65. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. 
66. Stanton, Frank. 1974. Wildlife guidelines for range fire rehabilitation. Tech. Note 6712. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 90 p. 
67. Stevens, Richard; Jorgensen, Kent R. 1994. Rangeland species germination through 25 and up to 40 years of warehouse storage. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 257-265. 
68. Stevens, Richard; Jorgensen, Kent R.; Davis, James N. 1981. Viability of seed from thirty-two shrub and forb species through fifteen years of warehouse storage. The Great Basin Naturalist. 41(3): 274-277. 
69. Stewart, George; Hull, A.C. 1949. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)--an ecologic intruder in southern Idaho. Ecology. 30(1): 58-74. 
70. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. 
71. Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Brown, Peter M. 1992. Fire history in a Mexican oak-pine woodland and adjacent montane conifer gallery forest in southeastern Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and others], technical coordinators. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico: Proceedings; 1992 April 27-30; Sierra Vista, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-218. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 165-173. 
72. Turner, Frederick B.; Randall, David C. 1987. The phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nevada. Journal of Arid Environments. 13: 119-128. 
73. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. 
74. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resource Conservation Service. 2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer). Available: https://plants.usda.gov/. 
75. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. 
76. Wallace, A.; Romney, E. M. 1972. Radioecology and ecophysiology of desert plants at the Nevada Test Site. Rep. TID-25954. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Office of Information Services. 439 p. 
77. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
78. West, Neil E.; Hassan, M. A. 1985. Recovery of sagebrush-grass vegetation following wildfire. Journal of Range Management. 38(2): 131-134. 
79. West, Neil E.; Tausch, Robin J.; Tueller, Paul T. 1998. A management-oriented classification of pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Great Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-12. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 42 p. 
80. Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. The American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308. 
81. Wilkin, Donovan C. 1985. Predicting utilization of forage species and diet on Great Basin desert winter range. Journal of Environmental Systems. 15(1): 93-102. 
82. Wright, Henry A. 1980. The role and use of fire in the semidesert grass-shrub type. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-85. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. 
83. Yoder, Carolyn K.; Nowak, Robert S. 1999. Soil moisture extraction by evergreen and drought-deciduous shrubs in the Mojave Desert during wet and dry years. Journal of Arid Environments. 42(2): 81-96. 
84. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1973. Downy brome--intruder in the plant succession of big sagebrush communities in the Great Basin. Journal of Range Management. 26(6): 410-415. 
85. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1978. Population dynamics after wildfires in sagebrush grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 283-289. 
86. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. 
87. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A.; Kay, Burgess L. 1977. Ephedra seed germination. Agronomy Journal. 69: 209-211.