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SPECIES: Ephedra nevadensis



Nevada jointfir on the rim of the Grand Canyon. Photo
courtesy Dennis Woodland, Andrews University.
Anderson, Michelle D. 2004. Ephedra nevadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

Revisions: On 6 July 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS
from: Nevada ephedra
to: Nevada jointfir. The map was also added.





Nevada jointfir
gray ephedra
Nevada ephedra
Mormon tea

The scientific name of Nevada jointfir is Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. (Ephedraceae) [20,27,31,32,33,77].


No special status



SPECIES: Ephedra nevadensis

Nevada jointfir occurs in the West, from southeastern Oregon south to Baja California Norte, Mexico, and east to eastern Utah and Arizona [27,31,32,48,50].

Distribution of Nevada jointfir in the United States. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, July 6] [74].

FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES40 Desert grasslands

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)


4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau

K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K033 Chaparral
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K039 Blackbrush
K040 Saltbush-greasewood
K041 Creosote bush
K042 Creosote bush-bur sage
K043 Paloverde-cactus shrub
K044 Creosote bush-tarbush
K053 Grama-galleta steppe
K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe

220 Rocky Mountain juniper
238 Western juniper
239 Pinyon-juniper
242 Mesquite

105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
206 Chamise chaparral
210 Bitterbrush
211 Creosote bush scrub
212 Blackbush
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
414 Salt desert shrub
415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany
416 True mountain-mahogany
417 Littleleaf mountain-mahogany
501 Saltbush-greasewood
502 Grama-galleta
503 Arizona chaparral
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
505 Grama-tobosa shrub
506 Creosotebush-bursage
507 Palo verde-cactus
508 Creosotebush-tarbush

Nevada jointfir grows abundantly at the edge of the salt desert zone [9], but is also common in a variety of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), desert shrub, and pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) communities [13,47,66]. It generally grows as scattered plants or in small clumps but also occurs in isolated, large, pure stands [66].

In California, common associates of Nevada jointfir in singleleaf pinyon-California juniper/western juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus californica/J. occidentalis) woodland include California sagebrush (Artemisia californica), rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), green ephedra (E. viridis), desert almond (Prunus fasciculata), peach thorn (Lycium cooperi), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), and Mojave yucca (Y. schidigera) [47]. In desert chaparral communities, Nevada jointfir commonly occurs with chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), red shank (A. sparsifolium), jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), California juniper, and  Mojave yucca [48]. Other common associates are mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus spp.), saltbush (Atriplex spp.), creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), and prickly-pear (Opuntia spp.) [13,66].

In Nevada, Nevada jointfir may codominate with Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis) [79], spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), spiny menodora (Menodora spinescens), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), or eastern Mojave buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum) [26,52]. In Utah, it may codominate with winterfat, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), or galleta (Pleuraphis jamesii) [36]. Nevada jointfir is particularly common as a community dominant in the transition zone between the Mojave and Great Basin deserts [26].

West and others [79]  classify Nevada jointfir as a plant community dominant in Nevada.


SPECIES: Ephedra nevadensis


Cone-bearing stem. Photo ©2004, James M. Andre.

The following description of Nevada jointfir provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [32,33,77]).

Nevada jointfir is a native erect, spreading shrub that reaches 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) tall [9,50,59,77]. It is essentially aphyllous with jointed [1,9,9,50,50,77], evergreen stems [83]. The thick, woody roots can grow to 6.5 feet (2 m) deep [41,83], and may spread laterally and produce clones [41].

Ephedra spp. are gymnosperms. Stamens bear 1 to 8 pollen sacs, and 1 to 2 ovules are exposed at the tips of small, scaly cones. After pollination, these ovules develop directly into seed [50]. The male cones are 0.16 to 0.3 inch (4-8 mm) long, while female cones are 0.2 to 0.4 inch (5-11 mm) long. Seeds are 0.16 to 0.35 inch (4-9 mm) long [77] and occur singly or in pairs [16,73].

A study of replicated photographs in Arizona estimates that Ephedra spp. can survive over 100 years (80-95% of 3 different populations survived from the late 1800s to 1994) [11]; however, the study did not specifically document the longevity of Nevada jointfir.


Nevada jointfir regenerates vegetatively [41] and by seed [77].

Breeding system: Nevada jointfir is primarily dioecious with small cones [17,66].

Pollination: Ephedra pollen is wind-distributed [50].

Seed production: Nevada jointfir produces large quantities of small seeds at erratic intervals [16,58,76].

Seed dispersal: Seeds are dispersed by small mammals and deposited in shallowly buried caches [45].

Seed banking: No information is available on this topic.

Germination: Germination requires 21 days prechill at 37 to 41 oF (3-5  oC), with germination most successful at 68  oF (20  oC). Average germination under these conditions ranges from  80%-100%. Other effective germination temperatures are 41, 50, 59  oF (5, 10, 15  oC) constant and 68/77  oF (20/25  oC) alternating [9,87].

After 15 years of warehouse storage, germination rates of Nevada jointfir seeds did not decrease appreciably; rates remained above 85% [68]. Nevada jointfir germination rates were >85% during the1st 10 years of storage in an open, unheated, uncooled warehouse, with rates only decreasing to 77% after 25 years of storage [67]. In another study, however, seed storage for 12 months at room temperature substantially reduced germination (from 65%-75% to 15%-20%) [87].

Seedling establishment/growth: No information is available on this topic.

Asexual regeneration: Manning and Groeneveld [41] describe a Nevada jointfir community in California in which clones are produced from lateral roots. Others describe crown sprouting of Nevada jointfir in response to herbicides [29].

Nevada jointfir grows at elevations ranging from 2,000 to 7,000 feet (610-2,150 m) elevation [59,77], most commonly on dry slopes and hills below 4,430 feet (1,350 m) [9]. The following table lists elevation ranges for some areas within Nevada jointfir's range:

Baja California 3,900-4,200 feet (1,190-1,280 m) [48]
Great Basin 2,790-7,050 feet (850-2,150 m) [77]
California <3,600 feet (1,100 m) [27]
Nevada 2,500-6,000 feet (760-1,830 m) [12,32]
Utah 4,000-6,000 feet (1,220-1,830 m) [18]

Nevada jointfir is commonly found on ridgetops as well as upper and lower slope positions. It also grows well in floodplain areas. Nevada jointfir is associated with shallow, rocky soils (to 2 feet (0.6 m) deep) [13], often limestone-derived [26]. Nevada jointfir has a high saline tolerance [59] and is common on the margins of salt deserts [9]. However, it has no tolerance for acidity [59]. Nevada jointfir is drought tolerant [28] and requires approximately 7 inches (178 mm) annual precipitation [59].

Nevada jointfir occurs in recently disturbed (6-12 years post-disturbance) and undisturbed desert communities [22,53].

In a southern Nevada study, Nevada jointfir seeds germinated between October and March [2]. Seedlings emerge February through June [28].

Nevada jointfir leafs out in early to late spring and in September after summer rains [1,3]. It forms buds in early spring, and cones open from March through May [1,3,9,41,72], though lack of available soil moisture may inhibit cone production [3]. Seed matures in early summer [1,3,9,72]. Nevada jointfir is physiologically inactive during hot summer months [1,3].


SPECIES: Ephedra nevadensis
Fire adaptations: Nevada jointfir generally sprouts after fire damages aboveground vegetation [76,78,84]. However, severe fires may kill shallowly buried regenerative structures [43,82].

Fire regimes: Most plant communities in which Nevada jointfir commonly occurs historically experienced stand-replacement fire regimes. Sagebrush types historically had fire intervals from 20 to 70 years, while other desert shrub types and desert grassland communities had fire intervals of <35 to <100 years [54]. Fires may not carry on some Nevada jointfir sites due to insufficient fuels. Periods of above normal precipitation can contribute to increased stand flammability by promoting the growth of annuals [43]. Pinyon-juniper communities are subject to a mixed-severity fire regime, with fire intervals <35 years or 400+ years [21,24,35,54]. On less productive sites with discontinuous grass cover, fires are less frequent and small. On sites where grass cover is more continuous, fires are likely more frequent and extensive. Stage of stand development also contributes to fire susceptibility and severity. Young open stands may have sufficient understory fuel to carry fire, but as stands mature this cover becomes sparse. The trees may remain too widely spaced to carry crown fire, except under extreme conditions [54].

Some sagebrush and desert shrub ecosystems are experiencing changes in fire regime, particularly in response to invasion by annual grasses such as red brome (Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens) and cheatgrass (B. tectorum). Cheatgrass expansion has dramatically changed fire regimes and plant communities over vast areas of western rangelands by creating an environment where fires are easily ignited, spread rapidly, cover large areas, and occur frequently [85]. Cheatgrass promotes frequent fires by increasing the biomass and horizontal continuity of fine fuels that persist during the summer lightning season and by allowing fire to spread across landscapes where fire was previously restricted to isolated patches [37,69,85].

Fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems in which Nevada jointfir occurs are summarized below. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
California chaparral Adenostoma and/or Arctostaphylos spp. < 35 to < 100 [54]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [62]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [4,14,46]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (40**) [75,86]
coastal sagebrush Artemisia californica < 35 to < 100
saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus < 35 to < 100
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica 5-100
grama-galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii < 35 to < 100 [54]
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum < 10 [56,80]
curlleaf mountain-mahogany* Cercocarpus ledifolius 13-1,000 [5,63]
mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii < 35 to < 100
blackbrush Coleogyne ramosissima < 35 to < 100
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70
Rocky Mountain juniper Juniperus scopulorum < 35
creosotebush Larrea tridentata < 35 to < 100
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. < 35 [54]
Mexican pinyon Pinus cembroides 20-70 [49,71]
Colorado pinyon Pinus edulis 10-400+ [21,24,35,54]
galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea < 35 to < 100 [54]
mesquite Prosopis glandulosa < 35 to < 100 [44,54]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review

Small shrub, adventitious bud/root crown
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


SPECIES: Ephedra nevadensis
Nevada jointfir is top-killed by fire [43,78]. Underground regenerative structures commonly survive when aboveground vegetation is consumed by fire [78]. When subject to severe fire, however, Nevada jointfir may be killed [66,82].

Following a June wildfire, unburned transects in an Arizona study had approximately 40 Nevada jointfir plants per hectare, while adjacent burned transects had 0 plants at postfire year 1 and only 5 plants/ha at postfire year 2. Total Nevada jointfir mortality was 76%; 84% of plants were top-killed with 9% sprouting after fire [43].

Nevada jointfir may increase after fire due to sprouting [6,78]. Following a wildfire in California (30 years), Nevada jointfir increased from 5% to 11% of plant cover [6]. To date (2004), no information is available on methods of postfire seed dispersal and seedling establishment for Nevada jointfir. More research on postfire regeneration strategies is needed.

No additional information is available on this topic.

No information is available on this topic.


SPECIES: Ephedra nevadensis
Mule deer [39], bighorn sheep [12], and pronghorn browse Nevada jointfir, especially in spring and late summer when new growth is available [7]. It is browsed by domestic livestock also [25,57,81]. Nevada jointfir is important winter range browse for domestic cattle, sheep, goats, and mule deer, with up to 50% of stems utilized in some localities [17,61,73]. Its value as winter forage is due to the large number of twigs produced and the relative abundance of this species on winter range [17]. Nevada jointfir is browsed to a lesser extent in the other seasons [17,61,73].

Nevada jointfir seeds provide food for small mammals and birds [45].

Palatability/nutritional value: Nevada jointfir has been rated as fair forage for domestic sheep, cattle, goats and horses; it also provides fair forage for pronghorn, mule deer, small nongame birds, and upland game birds [18,30,61]. It has been rated poor forage for elk and waterfowl, but good for small mammals [18]. Tests of Nevada jointfir in pregnant domestic sheep showed no maternal or embryo/fetal toxicity [34].

Specific nutrient content varies according to plant part, phenological development, and site characteristics. Nutrient composition for Nevada jointfir sampled in Nevada is as follows [76].


-------- Date sampled ---------

Feb. 11 March 17 April 4 May 21 June 19 July 29 Sept. 24 Dec. 31
-------------------percent dry weight-------------------
P 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.07
Na 0.003 0.007 0.012 0.007 0.006 0.008 0.007 0.009
K 0.25 0.31 0.86 1.80 2.26 1.45 0.91 0.61
Ca 2.43 2.21 2.65 1.02 1.41 1.72 2.37 2.37
Mg 0.18 0.30 0.34 0.17 0.20 0.18 0.21 0.19
Si 0.04 0.07 0.12 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.11
-------------- ppm --------------
Zn 23 19 17 20 21 24 22 27
Cu 14 10 5 20 14 12 19 14
Fe 101 142 143 186 161 248 240 121
Mn 77 136 149 13 17 26 38 47
B 14 12 22 18 12 9 10 16
Al 82 134 167 145 149 184 188 152
Sr 82 97 67 50 66 91 96 52
Be 45 24 30 11 12 13 18 33

The National Academy of Sciences lists the following values for Nevada jointfir samples (% dry matter): calcium 5.81%, magnesium 1.28%, and phosphorus 0.50% [51].

Cover value: Nevada jointfir provides good cover for small mammals; fair cover for pronghorn, small nongame birds, and upland game birds; and poor cover for game animals and waterfowl [18].

Nevada jointfir is useful for erosion control [59], and seedlings have been successfully planted onto reclaimed strip mines, with survival ranging from 12 to 94% [40,64]. Nevada jointfir seeds are commercially available [42,59]. For enhanced seed germination, a 24 hour soak at 86  oF (30  oC) is recommended prior to prechill [9]. For additional information on germination of Nevada jointfir, see Botanical and Ecological Characteristics.

Nevada jointfir is easily propagated in the nursery or greenhouse, but root and shoot systems of the seedlings are fragile and easily damaged during transplanting [64]. A study of transplanted Nevada jointfir found heavy mortality, with only 10% of plants surviving after 6 years and  none surviving to 12 years [55]. Other efforts have resulted in successful transplanting of container stock, with 67% survival after 5 years on irrigated plots and 100% survival on nonirrigated plots [15]. Seedlings are drought tolerant and generally establish well after fall or winter plantings [58].

Native Americans used Nevada jointfir as a tea to treat stomach and kidney ailments [8,17].

Atrazine may be effective in controlling Nevada jointfir, though some plants can survive through crown sprouting. Irrigation may increase control by atrazine [29].

Ephedra nevadensis: References

1. Ackerman, T. L.; Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J. E. 1980. Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada. In: Nevada desert ecology. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 4. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. [3197]

2. Ackerman, Thomas L. 1979. Germination and survival of perennial plant species in the Mojave Desert. The Southwestern Naturalist. 24(3): 399-408. [12219]

3. Ackerman, Thomas L.; Bamberg, Sam A. 1974. Phenological studies in the Mojave Desert at Rock Valley (Nevada Test Site). In: Lieth, Helmut, ed. Phenology and seasonality modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag: 215-226. (Ecological studies; Analysis and synthesis, volume 8). [21506]

4. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]

5. Arno, Stephen F.; Wilson, Andrew E. 1986. Dating past fires in curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 241-243. [350]

6. Bates, Patricia A. 1983. Prescribed burning blackbrush for deer habitat improvement. Cal-Neva Wildlife Transactions. [Volume unknown]: 174-182. [4458]

7. Beale, Donald M.; Smith, Arthur D. 1970. Forage use, water consumption, and productivity of pronghorn antelope in western Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(3): 570-582. [6911]

8. Bean, Lowell John; Saubel, Katherine Siva. 1972. Telmalpakh: Chauilla Indian knowledge and usage of plants. Banning, CA: Malki Museum. 225 p. [35898]

9. Belcher, Earl. 1985. Handbook on seeds of browse--shrubs and forbs. Technical Publication R8-TP8. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 246 p. In cooperation with: Association of Official Seed Analysts. [43463]

10. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

11. Bowers, Janice E.; Webb, Robert H.; Rondeau, Renee J. 1995. Longevity, recruitment and mortality of desert plants in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science. 6(4): 551-564. [42371]

12. Bradley, W. G. 1965. A study of the blackbrush plant community of the Desert Game Range. Transactions, Desert Bighorn Council. 11: 56-61. [4380]

13. Brotherson, Jack D.; Masslich, William J. 1985. Vegetation patterns in relation to slope position in the Castle Cliffs area of southern Utah. The Great Basin Naturalist. 45(3): 535-541. [528]

14. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. [565]

15. Clary, Raimond F., Jr.; Slayback, Robert D. 1985. Revegetation in the Mojave Desert using native woody plants. In: Rieger, John P.; Steele, Bobbie A., eds. Proceedings of the native plant revegetation symposium; 1984 November 15; San Diego, CA. San Diego, CA: California Native Plant Society: 42-47. [3343]

16. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L. 1972. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 1. New York: Hafner Publishing Company, Inc. 270 p. [717]

17. Dayton, William A. 1931. Important western browse plants. Misc. Publ. 101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 214 p. [768]

18. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

20. Flora of North America Association. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2: Pteridophytes and gymnosperms, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: [2004, May 27]. [36990]

21. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. [37590]

22. Gabbert, W. D.; Schultz, B. W.; Angerer, J. P.; Ostler, W. K. 1995. Plant succession on disturbed sites in four plant associations in the northern Mojave Desert. In: Roundy, Bruce A.; McArthur, E. Durant; Haley, Jennifer S.; Mann, David K., compilers. Proceedings: wildland shrub and arid land restoration symposium; 1993 October 19-21; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-315. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 183-188. [24846]

23. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

24. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; [and others]. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. [26188]

25. Green, Lisle R.; Sharp, Lee A.; Cook, C. Wayne; Harris, Lorin E. 1951. Utilization of winter range forage by sheep. Journal of Range Management. 4: 233-241. [7891]

26. Hansen, D. J.; Ostler, W. K.; Hall, D. B. 1999. The transition from Mojave Desert to Great Basin Desert on the Nevada Test Site. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 148-158. [36076]

27. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]

28. Humphrey, L. David; Schupp, Eugene W. 1999. Temporal patterns of seedling emergence and early survival of Great Basin perennial plant species. The Great Basin Naturalist. 59(1): 35-49. [29654]

29. Hunter, Richard; Wallace, A.; Romney, E. M. 1978. Persistent atrazine toxicity in Mohave Desert shrub communities. Journal of Range Management. 31(3): 199-203. [21507]

30. Hutchings, Selar S. 1954. Managing winter sheep range for greater profit. Farmers' Bulletin No. 2067. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [23306]

31. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]

32. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 3 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

33. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]

34. Keeler, Richard F. 1989. Investigation of maternal and embryo/fetal toxicity of Ephedra nevadensis in sheep and cattle. Journal of Range Management. 42(1): 31-35. [6461]

35. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. [4395]

36. Kitchen, Stanley G.; McArthur, E. Durant; Jorgensen, Gary L. 1999. Species richness and community structure along a Great Basin elevational gradient. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 59-65. [36063]

37. Knick, Steven T.; Rotenberry, John T. 1997. Landscape characteristics of disturbed shrubsteppe habitats in southwestern Idaho (U.S.A.). Landscape Ecology. 12: 287-297. [43168]

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39. Kufeld, Roland C.; Wallmo, O. C.; Feddema, Charles. 1973. Foods of the Rocky Mountain mule deer. Res. Pap. RM-111. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 31 p. [1387]

40. Luke, Forrest; Monsen, Stephen B. 1984. Methods and costs for establishing shrubs on mined lands in southwestern Wyoming. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 286-291. [1485]

41. Manning, Sara J.; Groeneveld, David P. 1990. Shrub rooting characteristics and water acquisition on xeric sites in the western Great Basin. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Romney, Evan M.; Smith, Stanley D.; Tueller, Paul T., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology and management; 1989 April 5-7; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-276. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 238-244. [12856]

42. McArthur, E. Durant; Young, Stanford A. 1999. Development of native seed supplies to support restoration of pinyon-juniper sites. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard, compilers. Proceedings: ecology and management of pinyon-juniper communities within the Interior West: Sustaining and restoring a diverse ecosystem; 1997 September 15-18; Provo, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-9. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 327-330. [30591]

43. McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1982. Effects of wildfire on a Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology. 63(1): 246-248. [1619]

44. McPherson, Guy R. 1995. The role of fire in the desert grasslands. In: McClaran, Mitchel P.; Van Devender, Thomas R., eds. The desert grassland. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press: 130-151. [26576]

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