Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Diervilla lonicera. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
On 5 July 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS
to: northern bush honeysuckle. Images were also added.
Diervilla diervilla (L.) MacM.
NRCS PLANT CODE:
northern bush honeysuckle
The scientific name of northern bush honeysuckle is Diervilla lonicera
Mill. It is a member of the honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae). There
are no accepted subspecies. A variety with hairy leaf undersides occurs
in Ontario, northern Wisconsin, and northern Minnesota: D. l. var.
hypomalaca Fern. [13,15].
Northern bush honeysuckle is closely related to southern bush honeysuckle (D.
sessilifolia), from which it may not be specifically distinct .
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
Northern bush honeysuckle occurs from Newfoundland west to Saskatchewan;
south to Nova Scotia, New England, Delaware; and in the mountains to Virginia,
North Carolina, and Tennessee; and west to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and
|Distribution of northern bush honeysuckle. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database.
National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, July 5] .
FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES19 Aspen - birch
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
CT DE IL IN IA KY ME MD MA MI
MN NH NJ NY NC OH PA RI TN VT
VA WV WI MB NB NF NS ON PE PQ
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS:
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest
K099 Maple - basswood forest
K102 Beech - maple forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest
K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest
K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest
SAF COVER TYPES:
1 Jack pine
5 Balsam fir
12 Black spruce
14 Northern pin oak
15 Red pine
17 Pin cherry
18 Paper birch
20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple
22 White pine - hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
24 Hemlock - yellow birch
25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
26 Sugar maple - basswood
27 Sugar maple
37 Northern white-cedar
39 Black ash - American elm - red maple
51 White pine - chestnut oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
55 Northern red oak
59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
60 Beech - sugar maple
107 White spruce
108 Red maple
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES:
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
Northern bush honeysuckle is not named as an understory dominant or indicator in
published classifications. It is found in a variety of cover types and
has a number of plant associates. The most widely distributed shrub
associates of northern bush honeysuckle include beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta),
alternate-leaf dogwood (Cornus alternifolia), speckled alder (Alnus
rugosa), American green alder (A. viridis ssp. crispa), checkerberry
wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.).
Herbaceous associates include wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum
canadense), bigleaf aster (Aster macrophyllus), and wild sarsaparilla
(Aralia nudicaulis). Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is often
associated with northern bush honeysuckle in the understory of some cover types;
northern bush honeysuckle is also found on bracken fern-dominated grasslands in
northeastern Wisconsin [23,27,35,42,48].
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Northern bush honeysuckle provides winter browse for moose, and winter and summer
browse for white-tailed deer . Leaves and twigs are eaten by
woodland caribou, but northern bush honeysuckle is not an important component of
the woodland caribou diet .
Sharp-tailed grouse consume the vegetative buds. Northern bush honeysuckle
provides brood cover for sharp-tailed grouse in Wisconsin .
Northern bush honeysuckle is preferred by white-tailed deer in late summer .
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
OTHER USES AND VALUES:
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Seed-tree cuts or clearcuts in red pine (Pinus resinosa) communities
often result in a dense growth of shrubs, including northern bush honeysuckle.
Northern bush honeysuckle increased in density following logging in a balsam fir
(Abies balsamea)-paper birch (Betula papyrifera) stand near Duluth,
Minnesota . Leaving more of the canopy when logging reduces the
amount of shrub growth .
Northern bush honeysuckle competes with lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium
angustifolium) after fire-pruning of lowbush blueberry fields .
Northern bush honeysuckle is susceptible to foliar sprays of 2,4-D .
Northern bush honeysuckle is probably resistant to browsing; on Isle Royale,
Michigan, it was found in higher densities in control plots than in
moose exclosures .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Northern bush honeysuckle is a native, deciduous small shrub that usually grows
from 2 to 4 feet (0.6-1.2 m) tall . The branches run close to the
ground, ascending slightly. The fruit is a dry, woody, dehiscent
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM:
Asexual: Northern bush honeysuckle reproduces from rhizomes, forming
widely-scattered clumps or patches [3,40,44].
Sexual: Northern bush honeysuckle is insect pollinated. Its most important
pollinators in Michigan are bumblebees. It is self-incompatible;
successful seed set requires pollination by insects that have travelled
from another clonal patch, which is usually some distance away [40,44].
Northern bush honeysuckle is common on exposed, rocky sites and on dry to mesic,
well-drained soils [15,22]. In northern Michigan, it is found in open,
sandy thickets, woodlands, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) plains .
It is best developed on dry, infertile soils in cool climates .
In the Adirondack Mountains of New York, northern bush honeysuckle is found from
elevations of 100 feet (30 m) to 4,050 feet (1,234 m) .
Northern bush honeysuckle is relatively insensitive to differences in light
intensity . Its abundance in jack pine communities usually remains
relatively constant for a long time but declines in older (approximately
80 years of age) stands . In jack pine-balsam fir community types,
northern bush honeysuckle is most common on sites that have been cleared and/or
burned within the past 30 to 50 years [31,40].
The peak flowering season for northern bush honeysuckle is from early June to
early July, but flowers have opened as late as August in Michigan
[15,40]. The fruit matures and releases seeds in September .
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
Northern bush honeysuckle sprouts from the rhizomes following top-kill by fire.
Regeneration depends on initiation of growth from dormant buds on
protected stem portions and rhizomes .
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find Fire Regimes".
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY:
Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Cool surface fires top-kill northern bush honeysuckle .
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Northern bush honeysuckle rapidly regenerates after fire, though no sexual
structures are produced the first postfire growing season . Seeds of
northern bush honeysuckle were found only on old burns in Petersham,
Massachusetts, which suggested a possible period of heavy fruit
production approximately 13 years after fire [5,25].
Northern bush honeysuckle abundance is usually unchanged by fire; abundance in
postfire communities is dependent on northern bush honeysuckle prefire density
and the response of its competitors [3,20]. Northern bush honeysuckle increased
slightly in cover (from 1 to 2.2 percent) after a prescribed fire in a
jack pine community in Minnesota . In a Minnesota jack pine stand
where both logging and prescribed fire were conducted, northern bush honeysuckle
frequency decreased the first postfire year but returned to prefire
levels by the second growing season. Its frequency declined slightly in
the fourth year . Following prescribed fire in a red pine-white pine
(Pinus strobus) community in Ontario, northern bush honeysuckle increased in stem
number but not frequency, with an overall increase in biomass .
After wildfire in jack pine types in northern Minnesota,
northern bush honeysuckle regenerated better on sites that had burned in summer
as compared to sites that had experienced a spring wildfire .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and
eastern white pine stand in Michigan provides information on prescribed
fire and postfire response of plant community species, including northern bush honeysuckle,
that was not available when this species review was written.
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Loomis and others  measured the moisture content of a number of
upper Midwest understory shrubs and herbs, including northern bush honeysuckle;
this information can be used for a number of fire management
SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
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