Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Diervilla lonicera


SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Diervilla lonicera. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : DIELON SYNONYMS : Diervilla diervilla (L.) MacM. SCS PLANT CODE : DILO COMMON NAMES : bush-honeysuckle dwarf bush-honeysuckle herbe bleue TAXONOMY : The accepted scientific name for bush-honeysuckle is Diervilla lonicera Mill. It is a member of the honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae). There are no accepted subspecies. A variety with hairy leaf undersides occurs in Ontario, northern Wisconsin, and northern Minnesota: D. l. var. hypomalaca Fern. [13,15]. Bush-honeysuckle is closely related to southern bush-honeysuckle (D. sessifolia), from which it may not be specifically distinct [36]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Bush-honeysuckle occurs from Newfoundland west to Saskatchewan; south to Nova Scotia, New England, Delaware; and in the mountains to Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee; and west to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa [13,15,36]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine STATES : CT DE IL IN IA KY ME MD MA MI MN NH NJ NY NC OH PA RI TN VT VA WV WI MB NB NF NS ON PE PQ SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : NO-ENTRY KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K099 Maple - basswood forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 5 Balsam fir 12 Black spruce 14 Northern pin oak 15 Red pine 16 Aspen 17 Pin cherry 18 Paper birch 20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 24 Hemlock - yellow birch 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 37 Northern white-cedar 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 55 Northern red oak 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 107 White spruce 108 Red maple SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Bush-honeysuckle is not named as an understory dominant or indicator in published classifications. It is found in a variety of cover types and has a number of plant associates. The most widely distributed shrub associates of bush-honeysuckle include beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta), alternate-leaf dogwood (Cornus alternifolia), speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), American green alder (A. viridis ssp. crispa), checkerberry wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). Herbaceous associates include wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense), bigleaf aster (Aster macrophyllus), and wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis). Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is often associated with bush-honeysuckle in the understory of some cover types; bush-honeysuckle is also found on bracken fern-dominated grasslands in northeastern Wisconsin [23,27,35,42,48].


SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Bush-honeysuckle provides winter browse for moose, and winter and summer browse for white-tailed deer [18]. Leaves and twigs are eaten by woodland caribou, but bush-honeysuckle is not an important component of the woodland caribou diet [10]. Sharp-tailed grouse consume the vegetative buds. Bush-honeysuckle provides brood cover for sharp-tailed grouse in Wisconsin [16]. PALATABILITY : Bush-honeysuckle is preferred by white-tailed deer in late summer [18]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : NO-ENTRY OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Seed-tree cuts or clearcuts in red pine (Pinus resinosa) communities often result in a dense growth of shrubs, including bush-honeysuckle. Bush-honeysuckle increased in density following logging in a balsam fir (Abies balsamea)-paper birch (Betula papyrifera) stand near Duluth, Minnesota [34]. Leaving more of the canopy when logging reduces the amount of shrub growth [12]. Bush-honeysuckle competes with lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) after fire-pruning of lowbush blueberry fields [17]. Bush-honeysuckle is susceptible to foliar sprays of 2,4-D [6]. Bush-honeysuckle is probably resistant to browsing; on Isle Royale, Michigan, it was found in higher densities in control plots than in moose exclosures [38].


SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Bush-honeysuckle is a native, deciduous small shrub that usually grows from 2 to 4 feet (0.6-1.2 m) tall [15]. The branches run close to the ground, ascending slightly. The fruit is a dry, woody, dehiscent capsule [8]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Chamaephyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Asexual: Bush-honeysuckle reproduces from rhizomes, forming widely-scattered clumps or patches [3,40,44]. Sexual: Bush-honeysuckle is insect pollinated. Its most important pollinators in Michigan are bumblebees. It is self-incompatible; successful seed set requires pollination by insects that have travelled from another clonal patch, which is usually some distance away [40,44]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Bush-honeysuckle is common on exposed, rocky sites and on dry to mesic, well-drained soils [15,22]. In northern Michigan, it is found in open, sandy thickets, woodlands, and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) plains [40]. It is best developed on dry, infertile soils in cool climates [7]. In the Adirondack Mountains of New York, bush-honeysuckle is found from elevations of 100 feet (30 m) to 4,050 feet (1,234 m) [22]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative seral species Bush-honeysuckle is relatively insensitive to differences in light intensity [3]. Its abundance in jack pine communities usually remains relatively constant for a long time but declines in older (approximately 80 years of age) stands [3]. In jack pine-balsam fir community types, bush-honeysuckle is most common on sites that have been cleared and/or burned within the past 30 to 50 years [31,40]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The peak flowering season for bush-honeysuckle is from early June to early July, but flowers have opened as late as August in Michigan [15,40]. The fruit matures and releases seeds in September [8].


SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Bush-honeysuckle sprouts from the rhizomes following top-kill by fire. Regeneration depends on initiation of growth from dormant buds on protected stem portions and rhizomes [9]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Cool surface fires top-kill bush-honeysuckle [9]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Bush-honeysuckle rapidly regenerates after fire, though no sexual structures are produced the first postfire growing season [9]. Seeds of bush-honeysuckle were found only on old burns in Petersham, Massachusetts, which suggested a possible period of heavy fruit production approximately 13 years after fire [5,25]. Bush-honeysuckle abundance is usually unchanged by fire; abundance in postfire communities is dependent on bush-honeysuckle prefire density and the response of its competitors [3,20]. Bush-honeysuckle increased slightly in cover (from 1 to 2.2 percent) after a prescribed fire in a jack pine community in Minnesota [2]. In a Minnesota jack pine stand where both logging and prescribed fire were conducted, bush-honeysuckle frequency decreased the first postfire year but returned to prefire levels by the second growing season. Its frequency declined slightly in the fourth year [1]. Following prescribed fire in a red pine-white pine (Pinus strobus) community in Ontario, bush-honeysuckle increased in stem number but not frequency, with an overall increase in biomass [30]. After wildfire in jack pine types in northern Minnesota, bush-honeysuckle regenerated better on sites that had burned in summer as compared to sites that had experienced a spring wildfire [33]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and eastern white pine stand in Michigan provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including bush-honeysuckle, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Loomis and others [26] measured the moisture content of a number of upper Midwest understory shrubs and herbs, including bush-honeysuckle; this information can be used for a number of fire management considerations.


SPECIES: Diervilla lonicera
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