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SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1994. Chimaphila umbellata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/chiumb/all.html . Revisions : On 15 December 2014, the common name of this species was changed from: prince's-pine to: pipsissewa. ABBREVIATION : CHIUMB SYNONYMS : Pyrola umbellata L. [41,82] SCS PLANT CODE : CHUM COMMON NAMES : pipsissewa prince's-pine prince's pine waxflower wintergreen TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of pipsissewa is Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Barton [17,39,57,81,82]. Pipsissewa comprises a circumboreal complex in which several geographical varieties have been recognized . The following varieties and subspecies are accepted: Chimaphila umbellata var. umbellata (Eurasia)  Chimaphila umbellata var. occidentalis (Rydb.) Blake (western North America) [17,38,39,57,82] Chimaphila umbellata var. cisatlantica Blake (eastern North America) [17,24,63,70] Chimaphila umbellata var. acuta (Rydb.) Blake (Arizona and New Mexico) [35,44] Chimaphila umbellata subsp. domingensis (S.F. Blake) Dorr (Dominican Republic)  Chimaphila umbellata subsp. mexicana (DC.) Hulten (Mexico)  LIFE FORM : Shrub, Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : See OTHER STATUS OTHER STATUS : Chimaphila umbellata var. cisatlantica is listed as threatened in Ohio by the Natural Heritage Program . Chimaphila species are considered vulnerable in New York and may become rare, threatened, or endangered in the future if collection and/or development continues. They are protected under the 1974 New York State Wildflower Law .
SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Pipsissewa is a circumboreal species that is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. It is found from Newfoundland to Alaska south to California and Mexico, and east to New Mexico, Colorado, and South Dakota. It is also found in the eastern United States from Maine south in the mountains to Georgia and west to Minnesota [25,44,63,67,81,82]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES25 Larch FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods STATES : AK AZ CA CO CT DE GA ID IL IN IA KY ME MD MA MI MN MT NV NH NJ NM NY NC OH OR PA RI SC SD TN UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC MB NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K006 Redwood forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K019 Arizona pine forest K020 Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest K026 Oregon oakwoods K029 California mixed evergreen forest K030 California oakwoods K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K094 Conifer bog K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest K098 Northern floodplain forest K099 Maple - basswood forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest K109 Transition between K104 and K106 K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 5 Balsam fir 12 Black spruce 13 Black spruce - tamarack 14 Northern pin oak 15 Red pine 16 Aspen 17 Pin cherry 18 Paper birch 19 Gray birch - red maple 20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple 21 Eastern white pine 22 White pine - hemlock 23 Eastern hemlock 24 Hemlock - yellow birch 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 30 Red spruce - yellow birch 31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech 32 Red spruce 33 Red spruce - balsam fir 34 Red spruce - Fraser fir 35 Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir 37 Northern white-cedar 38 Tamarack 42 Bur oak 45 Pitch pine 51 White pine - chestnut oak 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 63 Cottonwood 107 White spruce 108 Red maple 110 Black oak 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 203 Balsam poplar 204 Black spruce 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 207 Red fir 208 Whitebark pine 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 212 Western larch 213 Grand fir 215 Western white pine 217 Aspen 218 Lodgepole pine 222 Black cottonwood - willow 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 231 Port-Orford-cedar 232 Redwood 233 Oregon white oak 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone 235 Cottonwood - willow 236 Bur oak 237 Interior ponderosa pine 243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer 244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir 245 Pacific ponderosa pine 246 California black oak 249 Canyon live oak 251 White spruce - aspen 252 Paper birch 253 Black spruce - white spruce 254 Black spruce - paper birch 256 California mixed subalpine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Pipsissewa is a common understory species in many habitat types throughout its range but often does not reach dominance. It is found in coniferous and mixed forests with numerous tree species. In addition to those already mentioned, pipsissewa may occur with sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea), and Brewer spruce (Picea breweriana) [6,65,79]. Several publications that list pipsissewa as a dominant understory species in the western United States follow. Description and classification of the forests of the upper Illinois River drainage of southwestern Oregon  Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province  Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province  Terrestrial vegetation of California  Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington  Plant association and management guide: Willamette National Forest  Plant associations of south Chiloquin and Klamath Ranger Districts--Winema National Forest  Vegetation and fire history of a ponderosa pine-white fir forest in Crater Lake National Park  Associated species are well described for the Northwest and include baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa), Nootka rose (R. nutkana), Greene mountain-ash (Sorbus scopulina), common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.), russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis), spiraea (Spiraea spp.), menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea), creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis), common juniper (J. communis), pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites), snowbrush ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus), Utah honeysuckle (Lonicera utahensis), currant (Ribes spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax), Oregon-grape (Mahonia repens), queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), violet (Viola spp.), strawberry (Fragaria spp.), sweet-scented bedstraw (Galium trifolium), pyrola (Pyrola spp.), oneleaf foamflower (Tiarella unifoliata), western rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera oblongifolia), pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens), and elk sedge (Carex geyeri) [1,7,14,28,37].
SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Pipsissewa is of minor importance in winter, spring, and fall diets of Roosevelt elk in the Pacific Northwest . It is a component of white-tailed deer winter diets in the Swan Valley, Montana . Mature stands of white fir (Abies concolor)-giant chinquapin (Chrysolepsis chrysophylla)/pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites)-prince's pine and Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis)-white fir-giant chinquapin/pipsissewa-long stolon sedge (Carex inops) plant associations in the Winema National Forest are critical elk calving and deer fawning habitat. They are also important for feeding and nesting sites for birds and are suitable habitats for spotted owls, goshawks, and pileated woodpeckers . White fir-Brewer spruce/pipsissewa plant associations in the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province are also excellent wildlife habitat . PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Pipsissewa is sensitive to trampling and has a low potential for recovery. It may, however, recover from very low (less than 40 passes per year) or low (75-100 passes per year) trampling intensities . OTHER USES AND VALUES : Historically, pipsissewa roots and leaves were boiled and the infusion was ingested as a treatment for tuberculosis and long-lasting colds. The leaves were also used as an astringent. Pipsissewa can also be used as an ingredient in root beer [34,40]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In a study of lodgepole pine stands in spruce (Picea engelmannii and P. glauca)/queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora) habitat types in Glacier National Park, pipsissewa displayed a significant (p<.10) decrease in frequency in response to a mountain pine beetle infestation and was more numerous on sites never infested than sites infested 80 years earlier. It was negatively correlated to overstory removal and increased light intensity, as shown by a steady decline in cover and frequency following the epidemic . Pipsissewa is a major constituent of old-growth forests in the Swan Valley, Montana. It often persists only on sheltered, unburned microsites. It is present (39% frequency) in untreated old-growth and mature stands but is absent from burned clearcuts and plantation sites (20-30 years old). Where standing trees remain to provide cover, frequency may be as high as 67 percent in stands that have been select cut without burning . At other locations pipsissewa has essentially disappeared from stands or has had a major decrease in frequency or cover following stand removal with or without subsequent burning [4,5,14,74]. In the Vancouver Forest Region of British Columbia, pipsissewa is an indicator species in several variants of biogeoclimatic units for which guidelines for site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slash burning have been developed . It is used as an indicator of good forest sites in the Winema and Fremont National Forests, Oregon. When associated with twinflower, it is an indicator of the best fir (Abies spp.) sites [32,40]. The presence of pipsissewa is used to predict natural regeneration success under partially cut stands on the Dead Indian Plateau in southwest Oregon . Pipsissewa is not a serious competitor to conifer seedlings .
SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Pipsissewa is a native evergreen low shrub or perennial rhizomatous herb. The woody stems are usually 4 to 12 inches (10-30 cm) tall and the leathery, whorled leaves are sharply serrate. The fertile stems are generally erect and may have 2 to 15 flowers. Fruits are depressed, globose capsules which often persist through the winter [25,39,57,70,72,82]. Across its range, pipsissea was show wide variation in size; in leaf blade length, number of teeth, and prominence of lower surface venation; in sepal shape; and in stigma and capsule size . RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Chamaephyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Pipsissewa reproduces both sexually and vegetatively. Flowers have been observed being pollinated by bumblebees and staphylinid beetles . Pipsissewa develops numerous, minute seeds [25,57,72]. Their dispersal mechanism has not been documented. A New Brunswick study of boreal herb reproductive biology found that pipsissewa flowered for an average of 30 days. Fruit set was low for flowers opening at the beginning of the flowering period. Eighty-three percent of buds opened and 76.5 percent survived the flowering period. Forty-seven percent of flower buds eventually developed fruit, and 45.6 percent actually matured fruit . Pipsissewa produces long rhizomes that normally grow at a fast rate. Genets are generally long-lived . Reports differ concerning the depth of pipsissewa rhizomes. In a study of the Douglas-fir forest zone in southern interior British Columbia, McLean  listed prince's pine with species that have rhizomes growing from 2 to 5 inches (5-13 cm) below the mineral soil surface. Most of those species are able to regenerate from those depths, but he stated that only pipsissewa rhizomes near the soil surface are able to produce new shoots. Stickney  reported that in the northern Rocky Mountains, pipsissewa rhizomes are confined to the duff near or above the mineral soil surface. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Pipsissewa is found in a wide variety of soils and soil moisture regimes. It most commonly occurs in mixed woods and coniferous forests [17,24,35,38,44] on dry, well-drained, rocky or sandy soils [7,18,24,26]. In coastal regions of British Columbia, pipsissewa is an indicator of dry to very dry, nutrient-poor soils in montane boreal, temperate, and cool mesothermal climates. Its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and precipitation, and increases with continentality . In Ontario, pipsissewa most often occurs on sandy or rocky soil on well-drained sites, on gravel terraces, and in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) barrens . In red pine (P. resinosa)-white pine (P. strobus) forests of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, pipsissewa is found on dry, shallow, well-drained, nutrient poor to medium loamy sand to sandy loam soils . In the nearby Boundary Waters Canoe area, pipsissewa is found on shallow, sandy soils to deep soils with a high clay content . Pipsissewa also occurs in moist or imperfectly-drained situations throughout its range. It is found on moist sites in oak ecosystems of Michigan , on moist sites in the Black Hills of South Dakota , and in lodgepole pine (P. contorta) forests in Alberta . In the Adirondack Mountains of New York, pipsissewa occurs on well- to imperfectly-drained sites, most often under pines (Pinus spp.) on outwash soils, but also on tills in mixed woods . Pipsissewa occurs in the following elevational ranges: feet meters _________________________________________________ UT 6,930-9,570 2,100-2,900  AZ 6,000-9,570 1,800-2,900  CA 1,000-9,570 300-2,900 [38,57] CO 8,000-11,500 2,400-3,500  SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Pipsissewa has been classified as moderately shade tolerant to tolerant throughout its range [26,29,42,47,50,60]. Its highest frequency or cover is probably reached at intermediate light levels, such as in relatively open conifer stands in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon . In the western Cascades, pipsissewa is significantly more frequent (p<.05) under a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) canopy than under a western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) canopy (71% vs. 4% frequency). Average cover under western hemlock is less than 1.0 percent compared to 12.5 percent under Douglas-fir. The difference may be due to less direct radiation in the western hemlock stands . Pipsissewa is present throughout succession and occurs in stands of all ages [28,29,59,64,71]. It is found in relatively young stands [1,20,45], but is probably more frequent in mid-successional stages and mature forests [3,5,21,29]. Pipsissewa is a common understory component in many old-growth and climax forests of the Pacific Northwest [20,27,30,42]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Pipsissewa flowers from June to August throughout its range [17,24,25,31,57].
SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Pipsissewa is a fire-sensitive species that is very susceptible to damage and often shows a strong decline following fire [33,52,71,78]. Survival probably depends to a great extent on damage to rhizomes, so it depends on depth of rhizomes, fire severity, and consumption of duff [68,78]. Loss of the long-lived evergreen leaves may also reduce survival. Postfire vegetative recovery depends primarily on the survival of scattered individuals in undisturbed microsites . POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous low woody plant, rhizome in organic mantle Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Pipsissewa has a moderate to high probability of being killed by fire [40,76]. Low-severity fires that do not consume the organic mantle may only top-kill it. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Postfire response of pipsissewa is variable and is probably most dependent on fire severity and the uniformity of the burn. Some studies have reported pipsissewa surviving fire. In mixed western hemlock-Douglas-fir-western redcedar (Thuja plicata) stands in North Cascades National Park, Washington, pipsissewa was considered a residual species following a July wildfire. Its frequency in postfire years 1, 2, and 3 was 65.3, 52.1, and 52.1 percent, respectively . Pipsissewa appeared to survive on moderately burned sites following the Waterfalls Canyon Fire in Grand Teton National Park in July, 1974, but was eliminated from severely burned sites. The prefire vegetation was spruce-fir with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis). Pipsissewa had the following percent frequency and cover as measured in 1975 : Frequency Cover ______________________________________________ Unburned sites 52 5 Sites burned in 1932 2 trace Moderately burned sites 17 1 Severely burned sites 0 0 In the northern Rocky Mountains, slow recovery after fire has been reported. Pipsissewa was eliminated from initial postfire communities by a severe wildfire in western larch (Larix occidentalis)-Douglas-fir stands on the Flathead National Forest, Montana . In western larch-fir (Abies grandis and A. lasiocarpa) stands on the Flathead and Lolo National Forests, Montana, pipsissewa had not recovered by postfire year 9 following logging and broadcast burning . Pipsissewa was also absent 10 months after a late-summer wildfire in lodgepole pine stands in the Chamberlain Basin, Idaho. It was found on adjacent unburned sites and was present on burned sites 5 years after the fire, but had less biomass production than on unburned sites . Variable responses to fire have been reported for pipsissewa in Minnesota. It survived the Little Sioux Wildfire in May, 1971, in mixed conifer-hardwood stands in northeastern Minnesota. Number of individuals (on seventy 0.605 sq m plots) and aboveground average dry weight per individual pipsissewa were measured at the end of each growing season for the first 5 postfire years : 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 ________________________________________________________________ No. of individuals 15 no data 57 30 7 Ave. dry wt. (g) .07 no data .33 .29 .46 Pipsissewa responded more slowly after wildfires in second-growth mixed conifer-hardwood forests in northeastern Minnesota. It was not present in postfire years 3, 5, or 14 after the April Heartlake Fire. It was not present on the Kelley Creek Burn, resulting from a July fire, at postfire year 2 but had a frequency of 3 percent in postfire years 5 and 11 . DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides
information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including pipsissewa, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Pipsissewa is a component in many subzones in which guidelines for prescribed burning and tree species selection have been developed in the Vancouver Forest District, British Columbia .
SPECIES: Chimaphila umbellata
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Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p.  6. Atzet, Thomas. 1979. Description and classification of the forests of the upper Illinois River drainage of southwestern Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 211 p. Dissertation.  7. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p.  8. Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1984. Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 278 p.  9. Baranyay, J. A.; Safranyik, L. 1970. Effect of dwarf mistletoe on growth and mortality of lodgepole pine in Alberta. Publ. No. 1285. 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Disturbance and recovery of trampled montane grassland and forests in Montana. Res. Pap. INT-389. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 37 p.  14. Edgerton, Paul J. 1987. Influence of ungulates on the development of the shrub understory of an upper slope mixed conifer forest. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 162-167.  15. Emmingham, W. H. 1972. Conifer growth and plant distribution under different light environments in the Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 50 p. Thesis.  16. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  17. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2).  18. Filip, Stanley M.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Trees and shrubs of the Bartlett Experimental Forest, Carroll County, New Hampshire. Res. Pap. NE-211. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 20 p.  19. Fischer, William C.; Bradley, Anne F. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-223. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 p.  20. Fonda, R. W. 1979. Fire resilient forests of Douglas-fir in Olympic National Park: a hypothesis. In: Linn, Robert M., ed. Proceedings, 1st conference on scientific research in the National Parks, Vol. 2; 1976 November 9-12; New Orleans, LA. NPS Transactions and Proceedings No. 5. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 1239-1242.  21. Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-8. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 p.  22. Freedman, June D. 1983. The historical relationship between fire and plant succession within the Swan Valley white-tailed deer winter range, western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 139 p. Dissertation.  23. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  24. Gleason, H. A.; Cronquist, A. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 810 p.  25. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  26. Green, R. N.; Courtin, P. J.; Klinka, K.; [and others]. 1984. Site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slashburning guidelines for the Vancouver Forest Region. Land Management Handbook Number 8. Abridged version. Burnaby, BC: Ministry of Forests, Vancouver Forest Region. 143 p.  27. Grier, Charles C.; Logan, Robert S. 1977. Old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii communties of a western Oregon watershed: biomass distribution and production budgets. Ecological Monographs. 47: 373-400.  28. Habeck, James R. 1968. Forest succession in the Glacier Park cedar-hemlock forests. Ecology. 49(5): 872-880.  29. Habeck, James R. 1970. Fire ecology investigations in Glacier National Park: Historical considerations and current observations. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, Department of Botany. 80 p.  30. Habeck, James R. 1978. A study of climax western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) forest communities in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho. Northwest Science. 52(1): 67-76.  31. Haber, Erich. 1992. Pyrolaceae: Wintergreen family. In: A new flora for Arizona in preparation. In: Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 26(1): 22-28.  32. Hall, Frederick C. 1973. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. R6-Area Guide 3-1. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 82 p.  33. Halpern, C. B. 1989. Early successional patterns of forest species: interactions of life history traits and disturbance. Ecology. 70(3): 704-720.  34. Halverson, Nancy M., compiler. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on National Forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p.  35. Harrington, H. D. 1964. 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