|FEIS Home Page|
|© Pat Breen, Oregon State University|
Resin birch hybridizes with arctic resin birch (Betula nana subsp. exilis and Betula nana subsp. nana) where their ranges overlap [54,77,159]. Resin birch also hybridizes with paper birch (Betula papyrifera) in interior Alaska . Numerous other hybrids have been described including:
Betula × sargentii Dugle (B. nana × B. pumila)
Betula × eastwoodiae Sargent (B. nana × B. occidentalis) [31,51,54]
Betula × dugleana Lepage (B. nana × B. neoalaskana)
Betula × dutillyi Lepage (B. nana × B. minor, a putative hybrid)  LIFE FORM:
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.
Resin birch is characteristic of many mixed shrub and tussock tundra communities in Alaska and northern Canada [1,2,10,149]. In southwestern Canada and the contiguous United States, resin birch often occurs on wetland sites including bogs, fens and carrs, within lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Engelmann spruce (P. engelmannii), or subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forest types and is often associated with alders (Alnus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) [15,22,84,86,110].
Resin birch is listed as a dominant species in the following vegetation classifications:United States―
black spruce/resin birch/feather moss (Hylocomium spp.) vegetation type
black spruce/resin birch-marsh Labrador tea/sphagnum (Ledum palustre/Sphagnum spp.) vegetation type
black spruce-white spruce/resin birch vegetation type 
black spruce-white spruce/resin birch/feather moss community 
black spruce-white spruce/resin birch/reindeer lichen (Cladonia spp.) community 
black spruce-white spruce/thinleaf alder (Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia)-resin birch/Schreber's big red stem moss (Pleurozium schreberi) vegetation type
resin birch vegetation type
resin birch-blueberry/rough fescue (Vaccinium spp./Festuca altaica)/feather moss-lichen vegetation type
resin birch-blueberry/Bigelow's sedge (Carex bigelowii) vegetation type
resin birch-bog blueberry-black crowberry (Vaccinium uliginosum-Empetrum nigrum)- marsh Labrador tea/lichen vegetation type
resin birch-bog blueberry/sedge (Carex spp.)/sphagnum vegetation type
resin birch-bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia)/sphagnum vegetation type
resin birch-diamondleaf willow (Salix planifolia)-bog blueberry vegetation type
resin birch-mountain cranberry-cloudberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea-Rubus chamaemorus)/sphagnum vegetation type
resin birch-marsh Labrador tea-blueberry vegetation type
resin birch-marsh Labrador tea/mountain cranberry/wideleaf polargrass (Arctagrostis latifolia) vegetation type
resin birch/Schreber's big red stem moss-mountain-fern moss (H. splendens) vegetation type
resin birch-sweet gale (Myrica gale)-bog rosemary/sphagnum vegetation type
resin birch-sweet gale/sedge/sphagnum vegetation type
resin birch-willow (Salix spp.)-marsh Labrador tea/Bigelow's sedge/feather moss-lichen vegetation type
resin birch-willow-thinleaf alder vegetation type
mountain alder (Alnus viridis subsp. crispa)-resin birch-marsh Labrador tea/sphagnum vegetation type
paper birch/resin birch/feather moss vegetation type
shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda)- sweet gale-resin birch-black crowberry/sphagnum vegetation type
shrubby cinquefoil-sweet gale-resin birch-marsh Labrador tea/feather moss vegetation type
white spruce/resin birch/feather moss-reindeer lichen vegetation type
white spruce/resin birch/reindeer lichen vegetation type
white spruce/resin birch/sphagnum vegetation type
white spruce/resin birch/mountain-fern moss vegetation type 
diamondleaf willow-resin birch shrub association 
willow-resin birch type 
Wolf's willow (S. wolfii)-resin birch-shrubby cinquefoil shrub association 
resin birch/woollyfruit sedge (C. lasiocarpa) community type 
resin birch dominance type 
resin birch/tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) community type 
resin birch/woollyfruit sedge community type 
grayleaf willow (S. glauca)-resin birch-shrubby cinquefoil shrub type 
resin birch-kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) shrub carr association 
white spruce/willow (Salix spp.)-resin birch zone 
resin birch/star reindeer lichen (Cladonia alpestris)-moss community (Kershaw 1984, cited in )
birch (Betula spp.) vegetation association 
balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)/resin birch/arctic lupine (Lupinus arcticus) vegetation type
black spruce/resin birch-marsh Labrador tea vegetation type 
resin birch/rough fescue community 
resin birch-bog blueberry-reindeer lichen vegetation type
cloudberry-resin birch-bog blueberry vegetation type
lichen-resin birch-marsh Labrador tea vegetation type 
white spruce/resin birch/water sedge (Carex aquatilis) community 
Resin birch is a deciduous, long-lived shrub. Plants are low and spreading to erect with 1 to several main stems. Resin birch ranges from 8 inches (20 cm) tall on upland sites and in arctic environments to 10 feet (3 m) in drainages and in more southern areas [31,44,60,76,77,77,102,137,159,168]. The bark is thin, smooth, and does not peel readily [51,75,159,168]. Leaves are thick and leathery and range from 0.2 to 1.2 inches (0.5-3 cm) long and 0.2 to 0.8 inch (0.5-2 cm) wide [75,76,77,159]. The inflorescences are catkins. Male catkins are 0.4 to 1 inch (10-25 mm) long, and female catkins are 0.3 to 0.8 inch (7-20 mm) long [31,159,168]. Fruits are narrow-winged, single-seeded samaras 1 to 1.5 mm long and wide [31,41,104]. Rhizomes are 0.8 to 2.4 inches (2-6 cm) thick and are found in the top 2.4 inches (6 cm) of soil . Resin birch has an extensive root system [24,42,104]. Roots are ectomycorrhizal, an adaptation to arctic and alpine soils that are generally low in inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus [37,145].RAUNKIAER  LIFE FORM:
Pollination: Resin birch is wind pollinated. In a resin birch population on Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, female catkins were smaller and contained 50% fewer flowers than were contained in female catkins from a more southern site in subarctic Quebec. There was an estimated 10-fold difference in pollen dispersed between the 2 sites. At the northern extent of its distribution, resin birch is clonal, and the distance between genetically distinct individuals is great. In these areas, female catkins are more likely to receive incompatible pollen, preventing fertilization from occurring .
Breeding system: Resin birch is monoecious [64,104]. Plants are not self fertile .
Seed production: Resin birch produces numerous catkins, each of which yields 30 to 50 samaras . Seed production is generally high in more southern parts of its range [30,42,73]. In more northern areas, production of viable seed is limited by the shorter growing season, lower temperatures, and distance between genetically distinct individuals .
Seed dispersal: Resin birch seeds are dispersed in their samaras. Wind, water, and sometimes gravity disperse the samaras. Samaras may blow across crusted snow [11,44,104].
Seed banking: Resin birch produces numerous, tiny seeds and has a transient seed bank. In a review of the literature, Karrfalt  states that birch seeds may be abundant in the soil but the seeds are generally short lived. Rowe 1983  states that viable resin birch seeds are "rare" in the soil seed bank. Resin birch seeds were present, however, in the first 1.2 inches (3 cm) of soil collected from alpine sites on the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec . Results of this study are provided in the table below.
Resin birch seed production and density on sites in Quebec 
|Site||Total seeds/m²||Viable seeds/m²||% cover in aboveground vegetation|
Germination: Prechilling improves germination of resin birch seeds. Optimum germination temperature for many arctic species is 59 to 86 °F (15-30 °C) . The germination rate of resin birch seeds collected from alpine sites in the White Mountains, New Hampshire, was 25% for refrigerated seeds and 4% for unrefrigerated seeds. Days required for germination ranged from 14 to 28 for refrigerated seeds and from 27 to 299 for unrefrigerated seeds .
Seed viability varies with latitude. At the northern range limit of resin birch on Baffin Island, <0.5% of seeds were viable. Very few samaras contained seeds with fully developed embryos. At a southern site in subarctic Quebec, 70% of seeds were viable [166,167]. Seeds that overwinter on plants remain viable until they disperse the following spring .
Seed germination and samara weight may be correlated. In a germination study in Kuujjuaq, Quebec, no seeds from samaras weighing <0.09 mg germinated, few samaras weighing <0.12 mg had seed that germinated, and all samaras weighing >0.34 mg had seed that germinated . Germination of wind-dispersed seeds may be highest on exposed mineral soils .
Seedling establishment/growth: Seedling recruitment rates in resin birch populations are usually very low. Site disturbance by fire increases the likelihood of seedling establishment . Although recruitment from seed is almost nonexistent in northern resin birch populations, plants of all age classes were evident in a southern Quebec population [73,166]. Seedling growth is very slow, and seedling mortality is often high [41,44].
Vegetative regeneration: Resin birch reproduces vegetatively by branch layering and sprouting from dormant buds on the root crown and rhizomes [26,44]. Resin birch is clonal in the northern parts of its range .
Resin birch occupies a wide variety of sites, ranging from rocky subarctic and alpine tundra to deep, organic, boreal soils . It is typically a wetland species occurring most commonly on moist, acidic, and nutrient-poor organic sites including fens, swamps, bogs, muskegs, wet meadows, lake and stream margins, and seepage areas [22,31,48,60,75,76,77,159,168]. Bog birch is also found on upland sites including eskers, till ridges, rock outcrops covered with shallow soil, cliffs, sandy hillsides, and rocky ridges [5,31,51,82,137]. It dominates open valley bottoms in the Canadian Rocky Mountains  and is the most common shrub at treeline in interior Alaska, forming a nearly continuous zone between the treeline and alpine tundra in many areas .
Elevation: Resin birch occurs between 1,300 and 11,000 feet (400-3,400 m) across its range [66,75,79,80,123,125,168]. Elevational ranges are summarized below.
Elevational ranges for resin birch by state or province
|Sierra Nevada||6,500-8,500 |
|Nova Scotia||1,300 |
Temperature: Resin birch is tolerant of cold temperatures. It is common in black spruce forests in the Yukon where the mean annual temperature is 27 °F (-3 °C) . Frost tolerance in resin birch is high, and resin birch grows abundantly over large areas of permafrost . Resin birch tolerates severe winter temperatures by withdrawing water from the protoplast and freezing it in the cell walls .
Moisture: Although it is primarily a wetland plant, resin birch does not appear to tolerate continuous flooding. In bogs near Fairbanks, Alaska, resin birch abundance decreases as soil moisture increases. Resin birch is also more "vigorous" in communities that support taller tussocks . In the Cariboo Forest Region of British Columbia, resin birch is common in wetlands that have no standing water late in the season . In Montana, however, the water table is often within the rooting zone of resin birch throughout the summer, and resin birch grows in soils that remain flooded until midsummer or are saturated year-round . In a willow (Salix spp.)-resin birch community near Churchill, Manitoba, the depth of the water table averaged 3 inches (6.5 cm) below the surface, and soil moisture in the organic layer was 63% . Resin birch is an indicator of "substantial groundwater" in the North Thompson River valley, British Columbia .
Annual precipitation ranges from 4 to 9 inches (109-230 mm) on 2 northern Canadian study sites where resin birch is abundant [6,24]. While some authors describe resin birch as drought intolerant , in a review of the literature de Groot and others  state that resin birch appears tolerant of periodic drought.
Soils: Resin birch grows in a variety of soils, ranging from sandy and gravelly loam on river terraces to poorly drained, organic soils in bogs, muskegs, and other wetland habitats [43,64,114,121,141]. It is tolerant of moderate salinity  and pH ranging from 3.1 to 6.5 [105,141].SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
The table below summarizes an analysis of 5 stands representing a vegetation chronosequence on gravel outwash of the Muldrow Glacier in Denali National Park, Alaska. Resin birch was not present in the earliest successional stage but was abundant in intermediate stages and persistent in the oldest stands .
|Frequency (%) and cover (%) of resin birch at 5 successional stages |
|Pioneer stage (25-30 years)||0||0|
|Meadow stage (100 years)||80||<5|
|Early shrub stage (150-200 years)||100||50-75|
|Late shrub stage (200-300 years)||100||50-75|
|Climax tundra (5,000-9,000 years)||100||25-50|
|Flowering dates for resin birch by region|
|Sierra Nevada, California||April-June |
|Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec||June-August |
Fruits mature between July and October and can persist through the winter [104,106,159,166]. Samara dispersal occurs in the fall, just prior to snow fall, and in the following spring soon after snow melt [78,166]. Leaves begin to senesce in late summer, and leaf abscission is complete by late September .
Phenological stages for resin birch in a valley-bottom floodplain in west-central Alberta are summarized below.
|Seasonal development of resin birch in west-central Alberta |
|5 May||most plants initiating leaf-break|
|10 June||male catkins dropped; female catkins small and turning darker green|
|29 June||female catkins at mature size|
|11 Aug.||female catkins brown; terminal buds large|
|1 Sept.||half of leaves on most plants yellow|
Fire regimes: Resin birch is adapted to a wide range of fire regimes, from subarctic and alpine areas that seldom burn to boreal environments that burn frequently [42,44]. Wetland areas where resin birch grows burn infrequently due to the high moisture content of the vegetation and soil. These sites sometimes act as firebreaks. Fires do occur, however, during dry summers or in the spring and fall when the vegetation is dry [35,43,44,86,104,143].
In interior Alaska, resin birch is found on poorly drained and permafrost underlain sites occupied primarily by black spruce stands, muskegs, and bogs. These types are widespread in Alaska and burn frequently [154,158]. Black spruce-birch (Betula spp.) is the most widespread forest type in interior Alaska and also the type with the highest frequency of fire . Native Americans were an important cause of fires in the black spruce-birch ecosystem . Fire frequency increased with the increase in mining activity in the 1800s . Today, most fires are lightning caused [70,95]. Between 1940 and 1969, lightning was responsible for 78% of the area burned in interior Alaska .
Fires occur in interior Alaska between 1 April and 30 September. Most fires occur in May, June, and July, corresponding with the highest annual temperatures, longest day length, lowest humidity and precipitation, and high winds [55,154]. Fires can occur, however, whenever fuels are not covered with snow and are exposed to sufficiently warm temperatures and drying winds .
Fire years are sporadic in occurrence but tend to occur at least once every decade . “Exceptional fire years” are characteristic of the black spruce-birch ecosystem. In Alaska, 6 years (1941, 1950, 1957, 1969, and 1977) accounted for 63% of the total area burned between 1940 and 1978 . The average acreage burned each year in interior Alaska is approximately 1 million acres . Fires tend to be large and may spread over thousands to hundreds of thousands of acres or more [71,94,150].
Estimated fire-return intervals in the black spruce-birch ecosystem vary from 50 to 200 years [71,160]. Fires occur every 50 to 70 years in black spruce-white spruce/bog birch/reindeer lichen communities in interior Alaska . Heinselman  estimates a fire-return interval of 130 years for open black spruce/reindeer lichen forest and 100 years for closed-canopy black spruce forest. Mean fire-return intervals in lowland black spruce forests on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, range from 89 to 195 years [4,97].
Black spruce-birch communities experience high-severity, stand-replacing fires. These communities are highly flammable due to the abundance of ericaceous shrubs, the prevalence of dead, low-hanging branches on the black spruce trees, which are often covered with highly flammable epiphytic lichens, and the thick moss and lichen mats that cover the forest floor and become highly flammable after periods of low rainfall [94,95,155]. There is often nearly continuous fuel from the forest floor to the tree crowns . Most fires in black spruce-birch communities are either crown fires or ground fires severe enough to damage or kill aboveground vegetation, including overstory trees. Fires may be severe enough to completely expose the mineral soil layer [50,71,150,160].
The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where resin birch is important. Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
|Fire-return intervals for plant communities with resin birch|
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|birch||Betula spp.||80-230 |
|tamarack||Larix laricina||35-200 |
|Great Lakes spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35 to >200|
|northeastern spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35-200 |
|Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir||Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa||35 to >200 |
|black spruce||Picea mariana||35-200|
|conifer bog*||Picea mariana-Larix laricina||35-200 |
|jack pine||Pinus banksiana||<35 to 200 [34,50]|
|Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. latifolia||25-340 [16,17,144]|
|aspen-birch||Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera||35-200 [50,161]|
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||Populus tremuloides||7-120 [7,62,103]|
|Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir*||Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca||25-100 [7,8,9]|
|Changes in root biomass and root phosphorus in resin birch before and after fire |
|Root characteristics||Mature (140-year-old)||Burned (0-year-old)||Change (%)|
|root biomass (kg/ha)||9,159||8,886||-4|
|concentration of P in roots (% dry weight)||0.047||0.133||+283|
|mass of P in roots (kg/ha)||4.30||11.80||+274|
Resin birch increases after low- to moderate-severity fires . Repeated fires near treeline and on some wet sites in Alaska and northern Canada result in thickets of resin birch, mountain alder, and willows (Salix spp.) [82,154]. On tundra sites near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, total vascular plant cover on a burned area was more than twice that on an adjacent unburned area. The increase was due in large part to resin birch, which increased 8.8% after the burn .
Because of its ability to sprout from the root crown and rhizomes, resin birch is among the first plants to regenerate after fire in many communities [26,43,44,69,105,149,150]. Resin birch also persists into middle and late successional stages [23,105,133,149,150]. It was present in all postfire successional stages observed in a black spruce/reindeer lichen woodland in northern Quebec, but was most abundant in the intermediate stages between approximately 20 and 50 years after fire . Frequency of resin birch at each successional stage is summarized below.
|Frequency (%) of resin birch at 4 postfire stages |
|postfire year 5||postfire year 20||postfire year 50||postfire year 90|
In subarctic black spruce forests of western Labrador, resin birch was most abundant 18 to 40 years after fire. Mean canopy volume of resin birch between 2 and 140 years after fire is summarized below .
|Mean canopy volume (m³) of resin birch across 5 postfire successional stages |
|postfire year 2||postfire year 18||postfire year 40||postfire year 80||postfire year 140|
Low-severity fire and spring burning promote sprouting in resin birch. In a study conducted during the 1992 growing season in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, resin birch plants were burned in low-, medium-, and high-severity treatments. Plants burned earlier in the growing season and in low-severity treatments produced more and taller sprouts by the end of the first year after burning than plants burned late in the growing season or in severe fire treatments. Resin birch in the high-severity treatments sprouted latest. Following high-severity fire, new sprouts originated from the bottoms of rhizomes, indicating mortality of buds closer to the soil surface. No sprouting occurred on plants burned after late June, which may be related to seasonal variation in plant hormones that release buds from dormancy and promote stem extension in resin birch. Fall burning resulted in greatest plant mortality than spring and summer burning. Some plants burned in the fall sprouted the following year [43,44].
Resin birch was more abundant in "lightly" burned areas than in "heavily" burned areas following a June 1971 wildfire in black spruce forest near Fairbanks, Alaska . Density of resin birch for 4 years following the fire is provided below.
|Resin birch density (stems/ha) after wildfire in heavily and lightly burned areas |
|postfire year 1||postfire year 2||postfire year 3||postfire year 4|
The response of resin birch to fire in a valley-bottom floodplain in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta varied with fire severity. Resin birch stem density increased for 2 years after a spring prescribed, low-severity fire in 1984 due to abundant sprouting. Following high-severity burns in 1987 and 1993, however, both stem density and canopy cover sharply declined. Results of this study are given in the figure below .
Although survival of resin birch plants decreases when fire severity is high, seedlings establish more easily on the bare mineral soil that is exposed after a high-severity fire [23,42].
On some sites, including in Wisconsin fens, resin birch increases in the absence of fire . In the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, resin birch forms extensive, closed-canopy stands where fire has been excluded .DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
Prescribed burning at 3- to 6-year intervals in the Rocky Mountain foothills of Alberta has decreased shrub cover and increased forage production . Resin birch cover decreased by 35% following a moderate-severity, prescribed spring fire in wood bison habitat in Fort Providence, Northwest Territories. After 3 months, resin birch cover increased by 26% . Due to resin birch's "vigorous" sprouting response, burning at regular intervals is necessary to minimize its regrowth .
Fuel potential of resin birch is low because leaf moisture content is high . Moisture content of resin birch measured near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, is given in the table below .
|Moisture content (%) of resin birch in dry and wet tundra |
|18 July||1 August||15 August|
Numerous wildlife species eat resin birch, including moose, mule deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk, mountain goats, caribou, grizzly bears, American black bears, small mammals, birds, and insects [14,68,74,81,91,109,126,146,159]. Resin birch is a "preferred" browse species for game animals in Teton County, Wyoming . It is dominant in tamarack swamps in southwestern Manitoba. These swamps provide habitat for moose, jumping mice, northern river otters, shrews, Canada jays, black-capped chickadees, white-throated sparrows, and Connecticut warblers .
Moose: Resin birch accounted for 11.8% of summer and 0.7% of winter moose forage on the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge . It is preferred browse in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Alberta , but is not preferred by moose in Alaska .
Caribou: Buds, leaves, and sprouts of resin birch are preferred foods for caribou in Alaska in the spring and early summer. The rumens of 6 caribou examined in mid-June contained almost exclusively bog birch. Caribou eat the leaves extensively into June and July, but by mid-September the leaves are less palatable than willow (Salix spp.) leaves [135,159]. Caribou also eat resin birch in summer and winter in northern Canada [20,36,72,128]. Heavy browsing by the Rivière George caribou herd in northern Quebec depleted winter carbohydrate reserves in resin birch, leading to decreased resin birch growth in spring .
Birds: Several species of ptarmigan and grouse eat resin birch in Alaska, Canada, and the contiguous northern United States [107,159]. Sharp-tailed grouse and greater prairie-chickens eat resin birch buds in Wisconsin in the winter , and spruce grouse eat resin birch seeds in central Alaska . Resin birch and resin birch buds and catkins comprised 11% of the food in rock ptarmigan crops in Alaska in spring, 12% in summer, 45% in fall, and 79% in winter. For willow ptarmigan the 2 birches comprised 0% of food in crops in spring, 3% in summer, 4% in fall, and 12% in winter .
Small mammals: American beavers eat resin birch . Resin birch is a preferred winter food of snowshoe hares in the southwestern Yukon [39,88,122,136]. Eastern heather voles eat resin birch bark in the winter in Canada . White spruce/resin birch communities in the Kluane Region, Yukon, provide habitat for a number of small mammals including deer mice, northern red-backed voles, meadow voles, and heather voles .
Fish: Resin birch provides overhanging shade and cover for fish along low-gradient streams in western Montana .
Insects: Insect herbivores can cause "moderate" damage to resin birch. During the 1976 to 1980 growing seasons, resin birch plants in northern Quebec lost 20% to 50% of leaf biomass to insects . In Alaska, the total number of herbivorous insects decreased with increases in latitude and altitude and distance from the white spruce forest zone. More detailed information on insects found on resin birch foliage is available .
Resin birch importance rankings for 9 ungulate species in British Columbia are provided below.
|Importance of resin birch in the diets of ungulates in British Columbia |
|Sitka black-tailed deer||low|
|Rocky Mountain elk||moderate|
Palatability/nutritional value: The palatability of resin birch in several states is as follows
|Palatability of resin birch for livestock and wildlife [28,38,46,67,125]:|
The energy and protein values of resin birch are low . Sugar content in resin birch leaves declines in late summer. Nitrogen concentration in leaves peaks early in spring then declines throughout the growing season . Nutritive values measured in resin birch plants near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, are given in the table below [129,130].
|Nutritive values in resin birch twigs and leaves [129,130]|
|Plant part||Month||Cu||Mo||Fe||Mn||Zn||K||Mg||Ca||P||crude fat||crude fiber||crude protein|
* No data available.
Resin birch produces carbon and nitrogen-based antiherbivore compounds that deter browsing . Sugar and nitrogen content is highest in the leaves in early spring. Resin birch allocates the greatest portion of its photosynthate to the production of antiherbivore phenolics at that time; otherwise, leaves would be susceptible to browsing insects .
Cover value: The table below summarizes thermal or feeding cover values of resin birch.
|Cover values of resin birch for wildlife in 3 western states [28,46]|
|upland game birds||good||fair||fair|
|small nongame birds||good||fair||good|
Resin birch provides cover for willow, rock, and white-tailed ptarmigan in southwestern Yukon . Grizzly bears in the central Canadian Arctic constructed their dens under resin birch cover more than any other plant species. Resin birch was present at 84% of 52 den sites, and it was the highest in percent cover around den entrances. Resin birch roots formed ceilings of several dens studied .VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Black spruce seedling survival after fire in the boreal forest may be facilitated by shading from resin birch and other shrubs that reproduce vegetatively and grow quickly .OTHER USES:
Expanding resin birch populations on Canadian Rocky Mountain rangelands reduce forage for elk, bison, and other grazing animals. Removal of bog birch increases the production of forage grasses .Information on the effects of herbicides on resin birch is available in Chapin and others .
1. Abraham, Kenneth F.; Jefferies, Robert L.; Rockwell, Robert F. 2005. Goose-induced changes in vegetation and land cover between 1976 and 1997 in an arctic coastal marsh. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 37(3): 269-275. 
2. Ahlstrand, Gary M.; Racine, Charles H. 1993. Response of an Alaska, U.S.A., shrub-tussock community to selected all-terrain vehicle use. Arctic and Alpine Research. 25(2): 142-149. 
3. Alexander, M. E.; Stocks, B. J.; Lawson, B. D. 1991. Fire behavior in black spruce-lichen woodland: the Porter Lake project. NOR-X-310. Edmonton, AB: Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre. 44 p. 
4. Anderson, R. S.; Hallett, D. J.; Berg, E.; Jass, R. B.; Toney, J. L.; de Fontaine, C. S.; DeVolder, A. 2006. Holocene development of boreal forests and fire regimes on the Kenai lowlands of Alaska. The Holocene. 16(6): 791-803. 
5. Argus, George W. 1966. Botanical investigations in northeastern Saskatchewan: the subarctic Patterson-Hasbala Lakes region. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 80(3): 119-143. 
6. Arii, Ken; Turkington, Roy. 2002. Do nutrient availability and competition limit plant growth of herbaceous species in the boreal forest understory? Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 34(3): 251-261. 
7. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. 
8. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. 
9. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. 
10. Arseneault, Dominique; Payette, Serge. 1992. A postfire shift from lichen-spruce to lichen-tundra vegetation at tree line. Ecology. 73(3): 1067-1081. 
11. Auclair, A. N. D. 1983. The role of fire in lichen-dominated tundra and forest-tundra. In: Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A., eds. The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. Scope 18. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 235-256. 
12. Auclair, Allan N. D. 1985. Postfire regeneration of plant and soil organic pools in a Picea mariana-Cladonia stellaris ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 15(1): 279-291. 
13. Baker, William L. 1984. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. The Great Basin Naturalist. 44(4): 647-676. 
14. Balfour, Patty M. 1989. Effects of forest herbicides on some important wildlife forage species. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 58 p. 
15. Banci, Vivian; Harestad, Alton S. 1990. Home range and habitat use of wolverines Gulo gulo in Yukon, Canada. Holarctic Ecology. 13(3): 195-200. 
16. Barrett, Stephen W. 1993. Fire regimes on the Clearwater and Nez Perce National Forests north-central Idaho. Final Report: Order No. 43-0276-3-0112. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 21 p. 
17. Barrett, Stephen W.; Arno, Stephen F.; Key, Carl H. 1991. Fire regimes of western larch - lodgepole pine forests in Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1711-1720. 
18. Beetle, Alan A. 1962. Range survey in Teton County, Wyoming. Part 2: Utilization and condition classes. Bull. 400. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 38 p. 
19. Bentz, Jerry A. 1981. Effects of fire on the subalpine range of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in Alberta. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 192 p. Thesis. 
20. Bergerud, Arthur T. 1972. Food habits of Newfoundland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management. 36(3): 913-923. 
21. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. 
22. Bird, Ralph D. 1927. A preliminary ecological survey of the district surrounding the entomological station at Treesbank, Manitoba. Ecology. 8(2): 207-220. 
23. Black, R. A.; Bliss, L. C. 1978. Recovery sequence of Picea mariana - Vaccinium uliginosum forests after burning near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany. 56: 2020-2030. 
24. Blanken, Peter D.; Rouse, Wayne R. 1994. The role of willow-birch forest in the surface energy balance at arctic treeline. Arctic and Alpine Research. 26(4): 403-411. 
25. Blanken, Peter D.; Rouse, Wayne R. 1996. Evidence of water conservation mechanisms in several subarctic wetland species. Journal of Applied Ecology. 33(4): 842-850. 
26. Bliss, L. C. 1988. Arctic tundra and polar desert biome. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 1-32. 
27. Blower, Dan. 1982. Key winter forage plants for B.C. ungulates. In: [Source unknown]. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, Terrestrial Studies Branch: 57. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
28. Boggs, Keith; Hansen, Paul; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in northwestern Montana. Draft Version 1. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 217 p. 
29. Bork, Edward; Smith, Darrell; Willoughby, Michael. 1996. Prescribed burning of bog birch. Rangelands. 18(1): 4-7. 
30. Boucher, Tina V. 2003. Vegetation response to prescribed fire in the Kenai Mountains, Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-554. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 59 p. 
31. Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1976. Catkin bearing plants of British Columbia. Occas. Pap. No. 18. Victoria, BC: The British Columbia Provincial Museum. 176 p. 
32. Calmes, Mary A. 1976. Vegetation pattern of bottomland bogs in the Fairbanks area, Alaska. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska. 104 p. Thesis. 
33. Chadde, Steve W.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Bursik, Robert J.; Moseley, Robert K.; Evenden, Angela G.; Mantas, Maria; Rabe, Fred; Heidel, Bonnie. 1998. Peatlands on national forests of the Northern Rocky Mountains: ecology and conservation. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 75 p. 
34. Cleland, David T.; Crow, Thomas R.; Saunders, Sari C.; Dickmann, Donald I.; Maclean, Ann L.; Jordan, James K.; Watson, Richard L.; Sloan, Alyssa M.; Brosofske, Kimberley D. 2004. Characterizing historical and modern fire regimes in Michigan (USA): a landscape ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecology. 19: 311-325. 
35. Crane, Marilyn F. 1982. Fire ecology of Rocky Mountain Region forest habitat types. Final report: Contract No. 43-83X9-1-884. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 1. 272 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
36. Crete, Michel; Doucet, G. Jean. 1998. Persistent suppression in dwarf birch after release from heavy summer browsing by caribou. Arctic and Alpine Research. 30(2): 126-132. 
37. Cripps, Cathy L.; Eddington, Leslie H. 2005. Distribution of mycorrhizal types among alpine vascular plant families on the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, U.S.A., in reference to large-scale pattern in arctic-alpine habitats. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 37(2): 177-188. 
38. Curtis, John T. 1959. Fen, meadow, and bog. In: Curtis, John T. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press: 361-381. 
39. Dale, M. R. T.; Zbigniewicz, M. W. 1997. Spatial pattern in boreal shrub communities: effects of a peak in herbivore density. Canadian Journal of Botany. 75(8): 1342-1348. 
40. Dayton, William A. 1931. Important western browse plants. Misc. Publ. 101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 214 p. 
41. de Groot, W. J.; Thomas, P. A.; Wein, Ross W. 1997. Biological flora of the British Isles: No. 194. Betula nana L. and Betula glandulosa Michx. Journal of Ecology. 85(2): 241-264. 
42. de Groot, W. J.; Wein, Ross W. 1999. Betula glandulosa Michx. response to burning and postfire growth temperature and implications of climate change. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 9(1): 51-64. 
43. de Groot, William J. 1998. Fire ecology of Betula glandulosa Michx. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 203 p. Dissertation. 
44. de Groot, William J.; Wein, Ross W. 2004. Effects of fire severity and season of burn on Betula glandulosa growth dynamics. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 13: 287-295. 
45. DeBano, Leonard F.; Neary, Daniel G.; Ffolliott, Peter F. 1998. Preface. In: DeBano, Leonard F.; Neary, Daniel G.; Ffolliott, Peter F. Fire's effects on ecosystems. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc: xv-xvii. 
46. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The Plant Information Network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
47. Dorn, Robert D. 1970. Moose and cattle food habits in southwestern Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(3): 559-564. 
48. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. 
49. Douglas, George W. 1974. Montane zone vegetation of the Alsek River region, southwestern Yukon. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 2505-2532. 
50. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. 
51. Dugle, Janet R. 1966. A taxonomic study of western Canadian species in the genus Betula. Canadian Journal of Botany. 44(7): 929-1007. 
52. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
53. Flook, Donald R. 1964. Range relationships of some ungulates native to Banff and Jasper National Parks, Alberta. In: Crisp, D. J., ed. Grazing in terrestrial and marine environments: A symposium of the British Ecological Society; 1962 April 11-14; Bangor, UK. No. 4. Oxford: Blackwell: 119-128. 
54. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. 
55. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. 
56. Fortin, Marie-Josee; Payette, Serge; Marineau, Kim. 1999. Spatial vegetation diversity index along a postfire successional gradient in the northern boreal forest. Ecoscience. 6(2): 204-213. 
57. Foster, J. Bristol. 1961. Life history of the Phenacomys vole. Journal of Mammalogy. 42(2): 181-198. 
58. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
59. Gates, C. C.; Chowns, T.; Antoniak, R.; Ellsworth, T. 1998. Succession and prescribed fire in shrublands in northern Canada: shaping the landscape to enhance bison habitat. In: Close, Kelly; Bartlette, Roberta A., eds. Fire management under fire (adapting to change): Proceedings, 1994 Interior West Fire Council meeting and program; 1994 November 1-4; Coeur d'Alene, ID. Fairfield, WA: Interior West Fire Council: 125-132. 
60. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. 
61. Govaerts, Rafael; Frodin, David G. 1998. World checklist and bibliography of Fagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Tricodendraceae). Kew, England: The Royal Botanic Gardens. 497 p. 
62. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 
63. Hamer, David. 1995. Buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) fruit production in fire-successional bear feeding sites. Unpublished report [submitted to Parks Canada]. Banff, AB: Parks Canada, Banff National Park. 65 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
64. Hansen, Paul L.; Chadde, Steve W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1988. Riparian dominance types of Montana. Misc. Publ. No. 49. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 411 p. 
65. Harper, Karen A.; Kershaw, G. Peter. 1996. Natural revegetation on borrow pits and vehicle tracks in shrub tundra, 48 years following construction of the CANOL No. 1 Pipeline, N.W.T., Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research. 28(2): 163-171. 
66. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. 
67. Harry, G. Bryan. 1957. Winter food habits of moose in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Management. 21(1): 53-57. 
68. Hatler, David F. 1972. Food habits of black bears in interior Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 86(1): 17-31. 
69. Hawkes, Brad C. 1983. Fire history and management study of Kluane National Park. Winnipeg, MB: Parks Canada, Prairie Region. 85 p. 
70. Heinselman, Miron L. 1981. Fire and succession in the conifer forests of northern North America. In: West, Darrell C.; Shugart, Herman H.; Botkin, Daniel B., eds. Forest succession: concepts and applications. New York: Springer-Verlag: 374-405. 
71. Heinselman, Miron L. 1981. Fire intensity and frequency as factors in the distribution and structure of northern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 7-57. 
72. Henry, G. H. R.; Gunn, A. 1991. Recovery of tundra vegetation after overgrazing by caribou in arctic Canada. Arctic. 44(1): 38-42. 
73. Hermanutz, L. A.; Innes, D. J.; Weis, I. M. 1989. Clonal structure of arctic dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) at its northern limit. American Journal of Botany. 76(5): 755-761. 
74. Hibbs, L. Dale. 1967. Food habits of the mountain goat in Colorado. Journal of Mammalogy. 48(2): 242-248. 
75. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. 
76. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. 
77. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. 
78. Karrfalt, Robert P. [In press]. Betula L.--birch, [Online]. In: Bonner, Franklin T.; Nisley, Rebecca G.; Karrfait, R. P., coords. Woody plant seed manual. Agric. Handbook 727. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Producer). Available: http://www.nsl.fs.fed.us/wpsm/Betula.pdf [2007, August 22]. 
79. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. 
80. Kelly, George W. 1970. A guide to the woody plants of Colorado. Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing Co. 180 p. 
81. Kelsall, John P. 1957. Continued barren-ground caribou studies. Wildlife Management Bulletin Series 1: No. 12. Ottawa: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, National Parks Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service. 148 p. 
82. Kelsall, John P.; Telfer, E. S.; Wright, Thomas D. 1977. The effects of fire on the ecology of the boreal forest, with particular reference to the Canadian north: a review and selected bibliography. Occasional Paper Number 32. Ottawa: Fisheries and Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. 58 p. 
83. Kershaw, K. A. 1974. Studies on lichen-dominated systems. X. The sedge meadows of the coastal raised beaches. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 1947-1972. 
84. Komarkova, Vera. 1986. Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests. Final report: Contract No. 28-K2-234. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 270 p. 
85. Koponen, Seppo. 1984. Abundance of herbivorous insects on dwarf birch near the treeline in Alaska. Reports from the Kevo Subarctic Research Station. 19: 19-24. 
86. Kovalchik, Bernard L. 1987. Riparian zone associations: Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema National Forests. R6 ECOL TP-279-87. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 171 p. 
87. Krajina, V. J.; Klinka, K.; Worrall, J. 1982. Distribution and ecological characteristics of trees and shrubs of British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia, Department of Botany and Faculty of Forestry. 131 p. 
88. Krebs, Charles J.; Dale, Mark R. T.; Nams, Vilis O.; Sinclair, A. R. E.; O'Donoghue, Mark. 2001. Shrubs. In: Krebs, Charles J.; Boutin, Stan; Boonstra, Rudy, eds. Ecosystem dynamics of the boreal forest: the Kluane project. New York: Oxford University Press: 92-115. 
89. Krebs, Charles J.; Wingate, Irene. 1976. Small mammal communities of the Kluane Region, Yukon Territory. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 90(4): 379-389. 
90. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
91. Kufeld, Roland C.; Wallmo, O. C.; Feddema, Charles. 1973. Foods of the Rocky Mountain mule deer. Res. Pap. RM-111. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 31 p. 
92. Landhausser, Simon M.; Wein, Ross W. 1993. Postfire vegetation recovery and tree establishment at the Arctic treeline: climate-change--vegetation response hypotheses. Journal of Ecology. 81: 665-672. 
93. Lotan, James E.; Alexander, Martin E.; Arno, Stephen F.; French, Richard E.; Langdon, O. Gordon; Loomis, Robert M.; Norum, Rodney A.; Rothermel, Richard C.; Schmidt, Wyman C.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan. 1981. Effects of fire on flora: A state-of-knowledge review: Proceedings of the national fire effects workshop; 1978 April 10-14; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-16. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 71 p. 
94. Lutz, H. J. 1956. Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of Alaska. Tech. Bull. No. 1133. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 121 p. 
95. Lutz, H. J. 1960. Fire as an ecological factor in the boreal forest of Alaska. Journal of Forestry. 58: 454-460. 
96. Lutz, Harold J. 1950. Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of Alaska. Natural Resources Council Bulletin. [Proceedings, Alaskan Science Conference]. 122: 120. 
97. Lynch, Jason A.; Hollis, Jeremy L.; Hu, Feng Sheng. 2004. Climatic and landscape controls of the boreal forest fire regime: Holocene records from Alaska. Journal of Ecology. 92(3): 477-489. 
98. Majak, W.; Quinton, D. A.; Broersma, K. 1980. Cyanogenic glycoside levels in Saskatoon serviceberry. Journal of Range Management. 33(3): 197-199. 
99. Manseau, M.; Huot, J.; Crete, M. 1996. Effects of summer grazing by caribou on composition and productivity of vegetation: community and landscape level. Journal of Ecology. 84: 503-513. 
100. Marr, John W. 1961. Ecosystems of the east slope of the Front Range in Colorado. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Biology. No. 8. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Press. 134 p. 
101. Maslen, Lynn; Kershaw, G. Peter. 1989. First year results of revegetation trials using selected native plant species on a simulated pipeline trench, Fort Norman, N.W.T., Canada. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No. RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 81-90. 
102. McLoughlin, Philip D.; Cluff, H. Dean; Messier, Francois. 2002. Denning ecology of barren-ground grizzly bears in the central Arctic. Journal of Mammalogy. 83(1): 188-198. 
103. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. 
104. Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard; Shaw, Nancy L. 2004. Shrubs of other families. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Stevens, Richard; Shaw, Nancy L., comps. Restoring western ranges and wildlands. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-136-vol-2. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 598-698. 
105. Moore, T. R. 1980. The nutrient status of subarctic woodland soils. Arctic and Alpine Research. 12(2): 147-160. 
106. Morin, Hubert; Payette, Serge. 1988. Buried seed populations in the montane, subalpine, and alpine belts of Mont Jacques-Cartier, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 101-107. 
107. Morris, Melvin S.; Schmautz, Jack E.; Stickney, Peter F. 1962. Winter field key to the native shrubs of Montana. Bulletin No. 23. Missoula, MT: Montana State University, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 70 p. 
108. Nichols, G. E. 1934. The influence of exposure to winter temperatures upon seed germination in various native American plants. Ecology. 15(4): 364-373. 
109. Novak, Milan. 1987. Beaver. In: Novak, Milan; Baker, James A.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Malloch, Bruce, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. North Bay, ON: Ontario Trappers Association: 996-1006. 
110. Olson, R. A.; Gerhart, W. A. 1982. A physical and biological characterization of riparian habitat and its importance to wildlife in Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Department. 188 p. 
111. Parminter, John. 1983. Fire history and fire ecology in the Prince Rupert Forest Region. In: Trowbridge, R. L.; Macadam, A., eds. Prescribed fire--forest soils: Symposium proceedings; 1982 March 2-3; Smithers, BC. Land Management Report Number 16. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests: 1-35. 
112. Parminter, John. 1984. Fire-ecological relationships for the biogeoclimatic zones of the northern portion of the Mackenzie Timber Supply Area: summary report. In: Northern Fire Ecology Project: Northern Mackenzie Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 59 p. 
113. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. 
114. Peck, V. Ross; Peek, James M. 1991. Elk, Cervus elaphus, habitat use related to prescribed fire, Tuchodi River, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(3): 354-362. 
115. Pelletier, Luc; Krebs, Charles J. 1998. Evaluation of aerial surveys of ptarmigan Lagopus species. Journal of Applied Ecology. 35(6): 941-947. 
116. Pierce, John; Johnson, Janet. 1986. Wetland community type classification for west-central Montana. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Region, Ecosystem Management Program. 158 p. Review draft. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 
117. Pojar, J.; Trowbridge, R.; Coates, D. 1984. Ecosystem classification and interpretation of the sub-boreal spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest Region, British Columbia. Land Management Report No. 17. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 319 p. 
118. Prudhomme, Thomas I. 1983. Carbon allocation to antiherbivore compounds in a deciduous and an evergreen arctic shrub species. Oikos. 40(3): 344-356. 
119. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
120. Roath, Leonard Roy; Krueger, William C. 1982. Cattle grazing influence on a mountain riparian zone. Journal of Range Management. 35(1): 100-103. 
121. Robbins, W. W. 1918. Successions of vegetation in Boulder Park, Colorado. Botanical Gazette. 65(6): 493-525. 
122. Rodgers, Arthur R.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E. 1997. Diet choice and nutrition of captive snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus): interactions of energy, protein, and plant secondary compounds. Ecoscience. 4(2): 163-169. 
123. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. 
124. Rowe, J. S. 1983. Concepts of fire effects on plant individuals and species. In: Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A., eds. The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. SCOPE 18. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 135-154. 
125. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences; California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. 
126. Schallenberger, Allen Dee. 1966. Food habits, range use and interspecific relationships of bighorn sheep in the Sun River area, west-central Montana. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 44 p. Thesis. 
127. Schmidt, F. J. W. 1936. Winter food of the sharp-tailed grouse and pinnated grouse in Wisconsin. Wilson Bulletin. September: 186-203. 
128. Scotter, George W. 1967. The winter diet of barren-ground caribou in northern Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 81: 33-39. 
129. Scotter, George W. 1972. Chemical composition of forage plants from the Reindeer Preserve, Northwest Territories. Arctic. 25(1): 21-27. 
130. Scotter, George W.; Miltimore, J. E. 1973. Mineral content of forage plants from the Reindeer Preserve, Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 53(2): 263-268. 
131. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. 
132. Simon, Neal P. P.; Schwab, Francis E. 2005. Plant community structure after wildfire in the subarctic forests of western Labrador. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 22(4): 229-235. 
133. Sirois, Luc; Payette, Serge. 1989. Postfire black spruce establishment in subarctic and boreal Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 19: 1571-1580. 
134. Sirois, Luc; Payette, Serge. 1991. Reduced postfire tree regeneration along a boreal forest - forest tundra transect in northern Quebec. Ecology. 72(2): 619-627. 
135. Skoog, Ronald Oliver. 1968. Ecology of the caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in Alaska. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley. 699 p. Dissertation. 
136. Smith, J. N. M.; Krebs, C. J.; Sinclair, A. R. E.; Boonstra, R. 1988. Population biology of snowshoe hares. II. Interactions with winter food plants. Journal of Animal Ecology. 57: 269-286. 
137. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. 
138. Stanek, W.; Alexander, K.; Simmons, C. S. 1981. Reconnaissance of vegetation and soils along the Dempster Highway, Yukon Territory: I. Vegetation types. BC-X-217. Victoria, BC: Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre. 32 p. 
139. Steen, O. A.; Roberts, A. L. 1988. Guide to wetland ecosystems of the Very Dry Montane Interior Douglas-fir Subzone, Eastern Fraser Plateau Variant (IDFb2) in the Cariboo Forest Region, British Columbia. Williams Lake, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands. 101 p. 
140. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. 
141. Sutton, Richard F.; Johnson, Craig W. 1974. Landscape plants from Utah's mountains. EC-368. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 135 p. 
142. Swain, Albert M. 1978. Environmental changes during the past 2000 years in north-central Wisconsin: analysis of pollen, charcoal, and seeds from varved lake sediments. Quaternary Research. 10: 55-68. 
143. Sylvester, T. W.; Wein, Ross W. 1981. Fuel characteristics of arctic plant species and simulated plant community flammability by Rothermel's model. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59: 898-907. 
144. Tande, Gerald F. 1979. Fire history and vegetation pattern of coniferous forests in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 1912-1931. 
145. Treseder, Kathleen K.; Mack, Michelle C.; Cross, Alison. 2004. Relationships among fires, fungi, and soil dynamics in Alaskan boreal forests. Ecological Applications. 14(6): 1826-1838. 
146. Trudell, Jeanette; White, Robert G. 1981. The effect of forage structure and availability on food intake, biting rate, bite size and daily eating time of reindeer. Journal of Applied Ecology. 18: 63-81. 
147. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2007. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: https://plants.usda.gov /. 
148. U.S. Department of the Interior. 1982. Alaska Interagency Fire Management Plan: Tanana/Minchumian Planning Area. Environmental Assessment: Final. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior. 148 p. 
149. Van Cleve, Keith; Viereck, Leslie A. 1981. Forest succession in relation to nutrient cycling in the boreal forest of Alaska. In: Fire and succession in conifer forests of North America. New York: Springer-Verlag: 185-211. 
150. Viereck, L. A. 1983. The effects of fire in black spruce ecosystems of Alaska and northern Canada. In: Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A., eds. The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. New York: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.: 201-220. 
151. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T. 1979. Ecological effects of the Wickersham Dome fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-90. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 71 p. 
152. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Batten, A. R.; Wenzlick, K. J. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 278 p. 
153. Viereck, Leslie A. 1966. Plant succession and soil development on gravel outwash of the Muldrow Glacier, Alaska. Ecological Monographs. 36(3): 181-199. 
154. Viereck, Leslie A. 1973. Wildfire in the taiga of Alaska. Quaternary Research. 3: 465-495. 
155. Viereck, Leslie A. 1975. Forest ecology of the Alaska taiga. In: Proceedings of the circumpolar conference on northern ecology; 1975 September 15-18; Ottawa, ON. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 1-22. 
156. Viereck, Leslie A. 1979. Characteristics of treeline plant communities in Alaska. Holarctic Ecology. 2: 228-238. 
157. Viereck, Leslie A. 1980. Black spruce-white spruce. In: Eyre, F. H., ed. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 84-85. 
158. Viereck, Leslie A.; Foote, Joan; Dyrness, C. T.; Van Cleve, Keith; Kane, Douglas; Seifert, Richard. 1979. Preliminary results of experimental fires in the black spruce type of interior Alaska. Res. Note PNW-332. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 27 p. 
159. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. 
160. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6; BLM/AK/TR-80/06. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office. 124 p. 
161. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. 
162. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. 
163. Weeden, Robert B. 1965. Grouse and ptarmigan in Alaska: Their ecology and management. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Project Report. Vol. V: Project W-6-R-5, Work Plan I. Juneau, AK: Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 110 p. 
164. Wein, R. W. 1974. Recovery of vegetation in arctic regions after burning. Rep. 74-6. Ottawa: Canadian Task Force on Northern Oil Development. 41 p. 
165. Wein, Ross W.; Bliss, L. C. 1973. Changes in arctic Eriophorum tussock communities following fire. Ecology. 54(4): 845-852. 
166. Weis, I. M.; Hermanutz, L. A. 1988. The population biology of the arctic dwarf birch, Betula glandulosa: seed rain and the germinable seed bank. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(10): 2055-2061. 
167. Weis, I. M.; Hermanutz, L. A. 1993. Pollination dynamics of arctic dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa; Betulaceae) and its role in the loss of seed production. American Journal of Botany. 80(9): 1021-1027. 
168. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
169. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration of trees and tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T., eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73.