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SPECIES: Artemisia tripartita

Creative Commons photo ©2013 Dean Wm. Taylor, Ph.D.



Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Artemisia tripartita. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

Correction: On 12 July, 2017, all mentions of Wyoming big sagebrush sprouting were removed from this review. Wyoming big sagebrush does not sprout.




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threetip sagebrush
tall threetip sagebrush
Wyoming threetip sagebrush


The fully documented scientific name of threetip sagebrush is Artemisia tripartita Rydb. (Asteraceae) [3,21,33]. Two subspecies of threetip sagebrush are currently recognized: tall threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita subsp. tripartita) and Wyoming threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita subsp. rupicola Beetle) [3,33].

Threetip sagebrush occasionally hybridizes with silver sagebrush (A. cana subsp. viscidula) [3]. Hybridization with Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) may also occur in parts of south-central and southeastern Idaho [52]. In some areas, threetip sagebrush may intergrade with low sagebrush (A. arbuscula subsp. arbuscula) [3].





No special status


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SPECIES: Artemisia tripartita

Tall threetip sagebrush ranges from central British Columbia south through central Washington and western Oregon to northern Nevada, and from western Montana south through eastern Idaho to northern Utah. It also occurs in the Snake River Valley in western Wyoming [3].

Wyoming threetip sagebrush occurs in central and southeastern Wyoming and southern Oregon [3,14]. In Wyoming, the subspecies are separated by the Continental Divide, with Wyoming threetip sagebrush occurring only east of the Divide [6].

Threetip sagebrush grows on approximately 8.4 million acres (3.4 million hectares) throughout the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Basin [11]. Occurrence is spotty throughout much of the Intermountain region because most of the area has been plowed for farmland [56].


FRES29  Sagebrush
FRES38  Plains grasslands





 5 Columbia Plateau
 6 Upper Basin and Range
 8 Northern Rocky Mountains
 9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin


K038  Great Basin sagebrush
K050  Fescue-wheatgrass
K055  Sagebrush steppe
K056  Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K065  Grama-buffalograss


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322  Curlleaf mountain mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
324  Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue
404  Threetip sagebrush
416  True mountain mahogany


Tall threetip sagebrush is commonly associated with bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), needle-and-thread grass (Hesperostipa comata), Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), and Thurber's needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum). Common shrub associates of threetip sagebrush include big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), broom snakeweed (Guterrezia sarothrae), green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus), gray horsebrush (Tetradymia canescens), and curlleaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) [55]. Stands of tall threetip sagebrush often occur adjacent to mountain big sagebrush (A. t. spp. vaseyana) stands [6], but usually on moister soils at higher elevations [10]. Threetip sagebrush typically occurs at elevations above Wyoming big sagebrush but below mountain big sagebrush [11]. Threetip sagebrush stands are often more uniform with plants more closely spaced than in big sagebrush stands [46].

Creative Commons photo ©2013 Dean Wm. Taylor, Ph.D.

Publications listing tall threetip sagebrush as a dominant, codominant, or indicator species include the following:

Habitat types of the Curlew National Grassland, Idaho [20]
Steppe vegetation of Washington [22]
Wildlife habitat on managed rangelands--the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: plant communities
    and their importance to wildlife [24]
Sagebrush-grass habitat types of southern Idaho [31]
An ecological study of sagebrush in interior British Columbia [36]
Plant communities of the Similkameen Valley, British Columbia [40]
Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana [42]
An area of pristine vegetation in Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho [63]

Wyoming threetip sagebrush: This taxon commonly occurs with slimstem muhly (Muhlenberia filiculmis) [62]. The following publication lists Wyoming threetip sagebrush as a dominant species:

Grassland and shrubland habitat types of the Shoshone National Forest [64]


SPECIES: Artemisia tripartita

Threetip sagebrush is not a preferred browse for most wild ungulates. Threetip sagebrush is used to some extent by mule deer in both summer and winter in north-central Washington [18]. In Wyoming, elk do not generally feed on threetip sagebrush [4]. In parts of Wyoming, Wyoming threetip sagebrush may be used by large ungulates as emergency winter forage [25].

Threetip sagebrush may provide some browse for domestic sheep but its value to cattle appears limited. It is "never used" by cattle in Nevada [14,52]. In British Columbia, threetip sagebrush may be browsed by domestic sheep, but is not used by cattle [19]. Threetip sagebrush, along with other species of Artemisia, is eaten throughout the year by the pygmy rabbit in southeastern Idaho [30]. In southern Idaho, sage grouse may include small amounts of threetip sagebrush leaves in their diet. The genus is, in general, used to some degree by sharp-tailed grouse, sage grouse, jackrabbits, chipmunks, ground squirrels, pocket mice, and kangaroo rats [58].


Threetip sagebrush is one of the least palatable species within the genus to both livestock and wildlife [3]. However, palatability of tall threetip sagebrush is quite variable. Some plants may be heavily browsed, while others are barely touched [72]. Palatability may vary by form and/or population [38,51]. A hybrid between threetip sagebrush and Wyoming big sagebrush is important and palatable forage in some parts of south-central and southeastern Idaho [52]. Subspecies: Wyoming threetip sagebrush is rated poor in palatability to cattle, domestic sheep, and horses in Wyoming. Palatability of tall threetip sagebrush is rated as follows [25]:

                           UT      WY
Cattle                    poor    fair
Sheep                     fair    good
Horses                    poor    fair
Pronghorn                 fair    ----
Elk                       fair    ----
Mule deer                 fair    ----
Small mammals             fair    ----
Small nongame birds       fair    ----
Upland game birds         good    ----
Waterfowl                 poor    ----

Tall threetip sagebrush is rated fair in energy and protein value and is listed as slightly toxic to livestock [25]. Nutritional values (%) for both subspecies in Wyoming are listed below [3]:

Date          Crude    Crude  Crude  Ash   CaO    Mg
              protein  fat    fiber                    
Tall threetip sagebrush  
 6/12/57      13.00    10.12  21.58  6.85  0.770  0.185
 7/15/58       4.17     1.45  51.88  4.49  0.45   ---
 7/17/58      11.54    12.56  14.94  5.92  0.66   ---
 7/19/57      11.00    12.10  20.53  6.90  0.98   0.207
11/10/57       8.63     8.22  28.67  4.75  0.755  0.142
Wyoming threetip sagebrush
 5/29/57      10.19     5.72  28.03 12.03  1.205  0.176
11/10/57       7.44     9.46  31.17  4.58  0.839  0.170

Threetip sagebrush provides nesting cover for sage grouse in south-central Washington and in southern Idaho [29,34,60]. In Washington, threetip sagebrush/fescue (Festuca spp.) communities provide habitat for sharp-tailed grouse. Loess mounds in stands of tall threetip sagebrush provide a stone-free substrate for rodents and badgers [22].

The degree to which tall threetip sagebrush provides cover for wildlife species in Utah is as follows [25]:

Pronghorn               fair
Elk                     poor
Mule deer               fair
Small mammals           good
Small nongame birds     good
Upland game birds       good
Waterfowl               poor

Threetip sagebrush can be successfully planted onto disturbed sites. Plants may be propagated through seed or by layering. Details on specific planting techniques are available [54].

According to McArthur [37], artificial hybrids of the drought-tolerant silver sagebrush (A. cana) and fire-tolerant threetip sagebrush may "hold some promise of rebuilding a badly damaged ecosystem."


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Tall threetip sagebrush can sprout after burning, clipping, or chemical treatment; periodic treatment, with proper grazing management during treatment intervals, may be necessary if sagebrush reduction is desired [6]. Often, mechanical control measures, such as cutting or beating, are only partially successful due to the low spreading branches and a proclivity to sprout. Root cutters can be effective in reducing numbers but work best on level rock-free ground [48]. Threetip sagebrush is described as "moderately susceptible" to defoliation during the fall and winter [11].

Various herbicides can be used to reduce threetip sagebrush, with reductions of up to 50 to 70% reported during the 2nd growing season [44]. However, herbicide treatments often are expensive and can produce only temporary reductions in threetip sagebrush. Even after large reductions are obtained with herbicides, threetip sagebrush often seeds back within 5 to 10 years [52]. In some cases, plants may sprout after herbicide applications [10,52]. Often the stands that develop are denser than prior to herbicide application [52]. Details on herbicide applications are available [44].

Individual longevity of threetip sagebrush is reduced by grazing in sagebrush-grass communities of south-central Utah [70]. In eastern Idaho, tall threetip sagebrush increases in response to heavy spring domestic sheep use [26]. Fall sheep use can, by contrast, result in decreases of tall threetip sagebrush [26,43,67]. Heavy fall sheep grazing with light grazing in spring under a rotational system can increase grass and forb production [26,61].

Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) and Kentucky bluegrass (P. pratensis) are common increasers in tall threetip sagebrush stands [71]. As badgers dig rodents from loess mounds in tall threetip sagebrush stands, the soil is churned and invasion of basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) may also be favored [22].


SPECIES: Artemisia tripartita

Tall threetip sagebrush is a rounded, freely branching, native evergreen shrub that grows up to 6 feet (2 m) in height [3,38]. Leaves are long and deeply 3-cleft [5].

Wyoming threetip sagebrush is a dwarf shrub with decumbent branches. It can grow up to 59 inches (15 cm) tall, with a crown spread of 12 to 20 inches (30-50 cm) [3].




Threetip sagebrush may sprout; sprouting ability varies by geographic location which suggests ecotypic variation [2]. Both subspecies of threetip sagebrush "occasionally sprout" [9] from shallow, lateral roots or the root crown [22,38].

The light seed of threetip sagebrush is wind-dispersed [49]. Both tall threetip sagebrush and Wyoming threetip sagebrush are vigorous seeders [39]. Threetip sagebrush can seed back onto disturbed sites within 5 to 10 years; density increases after treatment by herbicides [53].

Germination of threetip sagebrush is described as "moderate to rapid" [73]. In germination experiments, germination of tall threetip sagebrush increased progressively with increased stratification. Germination is greatest at approximately 60o Fahrenheit (16oC). Details on germination techniques for threetip sagebrush are available [36]. Threetip sagebrush seed can remain viable for 4 to 6 years in storage [54].


Threetip sagebrush commonly grows on steep slopes, rocky knolls, and windswept ridges with shallow soils [6,18]. It occurs in semi-arid areas which are characterized by cold winters and warm summers [11]. Tall threetip sagebrush is especially common along river drainages [6]. Wyoming threetip sagebrush occurs on shallow, rocky soils on barren knolls surrounded by well-developed grasslands [3].

Tall threetip sagebrush grows on moderate to deep, well-drained, loamy to sandy loam soils [26]. In western Montana and Idaho, it is associated with coarse-textured sandy to stony soils [41]. In Idaho tall threetip sagebrush is often associated with fertile volcanic soils [56]. Threetip sagebrush is tolerant of dry soils [23].

The elevational range of tall threetip sagebrush in several states is as follows [10,21,69]:

3,388 to 7,084 feet (1100-2300 m) in the Intermountain Region
6,500 to 7,000 feet (1980-2130 m) in Montana
4,697 to 5,636 feet (1525-1830 m) in Utah
6,000 to 7,000 feet (1830-2130 m) in Wyoming

The elevational range of Wyoming threetip sagebrush in Wyoming is from 7,000 to 9,000 feet (2,130-2,740 m) [3].


Threetip sagebrush occurs in a number of undisturbed communities. It occurs with Idaho fescue in climax steppe communities of eastern Washington [23]. In southeastern Idaho, tall threetip sagebrush is common in late successional communities [32]. Wyoming threetip sagebrush is described as an indicator of climax in some Wyoming big sagebrush communities [64]. Although tall threetip sagebrush grows in undisturbed communities, it has established on disturbed sites within 5 to 10 years. Tall threetip sagebrush increases in the absence of disturbance such as fire [2].

Tall threetip sagebrush, along with fringed sagebrush (Artemisia frigida), often replaces big sagebrush following fire in grassland communities of British Columbia [19]. Under heavy disturbance, tall threetip sagebrush stands may become dense brush fields, with tall threetip sagebrush crowding out herbaceous understory species [71].


Threetip sagebrush begins new growth in May, young flowerheads develop in July, and flowering occurs during August and October. In Wyoming, tall threetip sagebrush flowers from June to September, with August as the most common flowering period [25]. Seed ripens in October [3].

In eastern Idaho phenological development of threetip sagebrush is as follows [8,72]:

 Dates for various stages in 1965           Average dates for 1941-1947
leaf growth started       Apr 25           April
twig growth started       May 25           mid-June
flowerbuds evident        Jun 20           ------               
flowerstalk growth        Jul 20           ------   
first bloom               Sept 1           ------
full bloom                ------           mid-Sept
blooming over             Sept 20          ------  
seed ripe                 Oct  12          mid-Oct
seed disseminated         Nov  05          ------
previous year's leaves
     begin to drop        Aug  05          ------
previous year's leaves    Sep  02          ------
Average phenology for tall threetip sagebrush from the upper Snake River Plain in southern Idaho was as follows [9]:
leaf growth     twig growth     flower buds    1st       full
starts          starts          visible        bloom     bloom

4/20             6/25           6/17           9/15      9/18

bloom           seed            leaves      
over            ripe            drying

9/30            10/14           7/30 

Wyoming threetip sagebrush blooms in late August and September; the seeds ripen in October [3].


SPECIES: Artemisia tripartita

Threetip sagebrush exhibits variable sprouting abilities following fire. The specific response may depend on ecotypic differences or on fire severity [1,16]. In some instances sprouting is described as "weak," but in other cases, researchers have observed "prolific" or "vigorous" sprouting [1,3].

Nearly pure stands of threetip sagebrush can develop after stands are burned [46]. In southeastern Idaho, Barrington and others [2] report that without periodic fire, threetip sagebrush gradually increases in density and cover. In southern Idaho, threetip sagebrush reaches preburn levels within 25 to 40 years after fire [2]. Neuenschwander [45] reports recovery time of approximately 30 years.

Some species that dominate communities where threetip sagebrush occurs are listed below. To learn more about the fire regimes in those communities, refer to the FEIS summary for these species, under “Fire Ecology or Adaptations.”

big sagebrush
blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis)
Idaho fescue
bluebunch wheatgrass


Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".


SPECIES: Artemisia tripartita

Unlike many low-stature sagebrush communities, threetip sagebrush communities can support fire spread [12]. Fires often kill aerial plant parts. Threetip sagebrush is described as "severely damaged" by fire in parts of the Intermountain Region [13]. In Wyoming, threetip sagebrush is "moderately damaged" by fire [57] and in Idaho, plants are generally "harmed" by fire [45]. A fairly high percentage of threetip sagebrush is commonly killed by fire in southern Idaho; a small percentage may sprout [47,48].


No entry


Threetip sagebrush may sprout from the root crown and/or roots after fire [19,38,48]. Beetle [3] observed that tall threetip sagebrush sometimes sprouts "vigorously" from the root crown following fire, and sprouting from lateral roots has been reported [15,68].

Sprouting ability varies considerably with geographic location which suggests that several ecotypes may exist [3,14,16]. For threetip sagebrushes with the ability to sprout, sprouting is most likely if postfire soils are moist [73].



In general, populations in eastern Idaho seem to have the greatest potential for sprouting after fire. Populations in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain seem to have low sprouting potential and those in eastern Oregon have a moderate potential for sprouting after fire [16]. However, Young [73] reported a strong sprouting response following fire in parts of eastern Oregon. Overall, sprouting potential in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon can range from "high" to "nearly zero" [15]. In southwestern Montana, populations tend to sprout readily after fire [16].

In a southeastern Idaho study, Akinsoji [1] observed no sprouting 1 year after fire. Lack of sprouting could have been due to the "intensity of the burn." Similarly, Pechanic and others [47] reported that only approximately 6% of threetip sagebrush sprouted in the 1st year or 2 after fire in a southeastern Idaho study. At Craters of the Moon National Monument in southeastern Idaho, only "moderate resprouting potential" was observed, and reductions in cover and density usually occur after fire [2]. Only a "small percentage of plants" sprouted after fire in a northern Great Basin study [17].


Because threetip sagebrush can sometimes sprout prolifically after fire, special management considerations may be required if reductions in sagebrush are desired management goals [71].

Artemisia tripartita: References

1. Akinsoji, Aderopo. 1988. Postfire vegetation dynamics in a sagebrush steppe in southeastern Idaho, USA. Vegetatio. 78: 151-155. [6944]

2. Barrington, Mac; Bunting, Steve; Wright, Gerald. 1988. A fire management plan for Craters of the Moon National Monument. Cooperative Agreement CA-9000-8-0005. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Range Resources Department. 52 p. Draft. [1687]

3. Beetle, A. A. 1960. A study of sagebrush: The section Tridentatae of Artemisia. Bulletin 368. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 83 p. [416]

4. Beetle, Alan A. 1962. Range survey in Teton County, Wyoming: Part 2. Utilization and condition classes. Bull. 400. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 38 p. [418]

5. Beetle, Alan A. 1977. Recognition of Artemisia subspecies--a necessity. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings, 6th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; 1977 May 24-25; Buffalo, WY. Laramie, WY: Shrub Ecology Workshop: 35-42. [419]

6. Beetle, Alan A.; Johnson, Kendall L. 1982. Sagebrush in Wyoming. Bull. 779. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 68 p. [421]

7. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

8. Blaisdell, James P. 1953. Ecological effects of planned burning of sagebrush-grass range on the Upper Snake River Plains. Tech. Bull. 1975. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 39 p. [462]

9. Blaisdell, James P. 1958. Seasonal development and yield of native plants on the upper Snake River Plains and their relation to certain climatic factors. Tech. Bull. 1190. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 68 p. [463]

10. Blaisdell, James P.; Murray, Robert B.; McArthur, E. Durant. 1982. Managing Intermountain rangelands--sagebrush-grass ranges. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-134. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 41 p. [467]

11. Bork, Edward W.; West, Neil E.; Walker, John W. 1998. Cover components on long-term seasonal sheep grazing treatments in three-tip sagebrush steppe. Journal of Range Management. 51(3): 293-300. [28589]

12. Britton, Carlton M. 1979. Fire on the range. Western Wildlands. 5(4): 32-33. [514]

13. Britton, Carlton M.; Ralphs, Michael H. 1979. Use of fire as a management tool in sagebrush ecosystems. In: The sagebrush ecosystem: a symposium: Proceedings; 1978 April; Logan, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources. 101-109. [518]

14. Brunner, James R. 1972. Observations on Artemisia in Nevada. Journal of Range Management. 25: 205-298. [550]

15. Bunting, Stephen C. 1989. Effects of prescribed fire on rangeland shrubs in the Intermountain Region. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Breuer, David W.; Zamora, Benjamin A.; [and others], compilers. Prescribed fire in the Intermountain region: Symposium proceedings; 1986 March 3-5; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 103-106. [11254]

16. Bunting, Stephen C.; Kilgore, Bruce M.; Bushey, Charles L. 1987. Guidelines for prescribed burning sagebrush-grass rangelands in the northern Great Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-231. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 33 p. [5281]

17. Bushey, Charles L. 1987. Short-term vegetative response to prescribed burning in the sagebrush/grass ecosystem of the northern Great Basin; three years of postburn data from the demonstration of prescribed burning on selected Bureau of Land Management districts. Final Report. Cooperative Agreement 22-C-4-INT-33. Missoula, MT: Systems for Environmental Management. 77 p. [568]

18. Carson, Robert G.; Peek, James M. 1987. Mule deer habitat selection patterns in northcentral Washington. Journal of Wildlife Management. 51(1): 46-51. [608]

19. Cawker, K. B. 1983. Fire history and grassland vegetation change: three pollen diagrams from southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 1126-1139. [611]

20. Collins, P. D.; Harper, K. T. 1982. Habitat types of the Curlew National Grassland, Idaho. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University, Department of Botany and Range Science. 46 p. Editorial draft. [663]

21. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5. Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]

22. Daubenmire, R. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Technical Bulletin 62. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, College of Agriculture, Washington Agricultural Experiment Station. 131 p. [733]

23. Daubenmire, R. 1972. Annual cycles of soil moisture and temperature as related to grass development in the steppe of eastern Washington. Ecology. 53(3): 419-424. [741]

24. Dealy, J. Edward; Leckenby, Donavin A.; Concannon, Diane M. 1981. Wildlife habitats on managed rangelands--the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: plant communities and their importance to wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-120. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest and Range Experiment Station. 66 p. [786]

25. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

26. Ellison, Lincoln. 1960. Influence of grazing on plant succession of rangelands. Botanical Review. 26(1): 1-78. [862]

27. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

28. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

29. Gray, Gene Mack. 1967. An ecological study of sage grouse broods with reference to nesting, movements, food habits, and sagebrush strip spraying in the Medicine Lodge drainage, Clark County, Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 200 p. Thesis. [5894]

30. Green, Jeffery, S.; Flinders, Jerran T. 1980. Habitat and dietary relationships of the pygmy rabbit. Journal of Range Management. 33(2): 136-142. [6257]

31. Hironaka, M.; Fosberg, M. A.; Winward, A. H. 1983. Sagebrush-grass habitat types of southern Idaho. Bulletin Number 35. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 44 p. [1152]

32. Humphrey, L. David. 1984. Patterns and mechanisms of plant succession after fire on Artemisia-grass sites in southeastern Idaho. Vegetatio. 57: 91-101. [1214]

33. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. [23877]

34. Klebenow, Donald A. 1969. Sage grouse nesting and brood habitat in Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management. 33(3): 649-662. [26035]

35. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]

36. Marchand, Leonard Stephen. 1964. An ecological study of sagebrush in interior British Columbia. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 116 p. Thesis. [5678]

37. McArthur, E. Durant. 1994. Ecology, distribution, and values of sagebrush within the Intermountain Region. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., compilers. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 347-351. [24308]

38. McArthur, E. Durant; Blauer, A. Clyde; Plummer, A. Perry; Stevens, Richard. 1979. Characteristics and hybridization of important Intermountain shrubs. III. Sunflower family. Res. Pap. INT-220. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 82 p. [1571]

39. McArthur, E. Durant; Stevens, Richard. 1986. Composite shrubs. Unpublished manuscript on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Labortory, Missoula, MT. 155 p. [7342]

40. McLean, Alastair. 1970. Plant communities of the Similkameen Valley, British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 40(4): 403-424. [1620]

41. Morris, Melvin S.; Kelsey, Rick G.; Griggs, Dave. 1976. The geographic and ecological distribution of big sagebrush and other woody Artemisias in Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences. 36: 56-79. [1695]

42. Mueggler, W. F.; Stewart, W. L. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-66. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 154 p. [1717]

43. Mueggler, Walter F. 1950. Effects of spring and fall grazing by sheep on vegetation of the upper Snake River plains. Journal of Range Management. 3: 308-315. [1703]

44. Murray, Robert B. 1988. Response of three shrub communities in southeastern Idaho to spring applied tebuthiuron. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 16-22. [3066]

45. Neuenschwander, L. F. [n.d.]. The fire induced autecology of selected shrubs of the cold desert and surrounding forests: A-state-of-the-art-review. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences. In cooperation with: Fire in Multiple Use Management, Research, Development, and Applications Program, Northern Forest Fire Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 30 p. Unpublished manuscript on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [1747]

46. Passey, H. B.; Hugie, V. K. 1962. Sagebrush on relict ranges in the Snake River plains and northern Great Basin. Journal of Range Management. 15: 273-278. [1830]

47. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George; Blaisdell, James P. 1954. Sagebrush burning good and bad. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1948. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [1859]

48. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George; Plummer, A. Perry; [and others]. 1954. Controlling sagebrush on rangelands. Farmers' Bulletin 2072. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 44 p. [1860]

49. Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Harper, Kimball T. 1989. Breeding systems of woody plant species in Utah. In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall R., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and biotechnology; 1987 June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 5-22. [5918]

50. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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