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SPECIES:  Adenostoma sparsifolium
 
A redshank plant in Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Creative Commons image by Noah Elhardt - Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1284076 Redshank in Riverside County, showing shreddy bark. Creative Commons image ©2015 Keir Morse.

Introductory

SPECIES: Adenostoma sparsifolium
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1993. Adenostoma sparsifolium. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/adespa/all.html []. Revisions: Images were added on 13 July 2018.
ABBREVIATION : ADESPA SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY NRCS PLANT CODE : ADSP COMMON NAMES : redshank ribbon bush TAXONOMY : The scientific name of redshank is Adenostoma sparsifolium Torr. (Rosaceae) [33]. Redshank and chamise (A. fasciculatum) are the only two species in the genus. These congeners do not naturally hybridize because their flowering periods do not overlap [15]. There are no recognized infrataxa. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Adenostoma sparsifolium
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Redshank occurs in discrete, disjunct populations in southern California and Baja California Norte. It is distributed along the South Coast and Transverse ranges from south-central San Louis Obispo County to Los Angeles County, where distribution shifts inland to interior regions of the Peninsular Ranges and the Sierra San Pedro Matir [7,17,26,30,32,36]. The southern edge of redshank's distribution is about 150 miles (240 km) beyond the Alta-Baja California border. The total range of the species is approximately 300 miles (480 km) in extent (latitude 30 deg 30 min N. to latitude 35 deg 30 min N; longitude 115 deg 40 min W. to longitude 120 deg 30 min W.) [30]. The largest red shank populations are in the San Jacinto and Santa Rosa mountains and in interior valleys of Riverside and San Diego counties [17].
Distribution of redshank in California. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, July 13] [45].
ECOSYSTEMS : 
   FRES34  Chaparral - mountain shrub
   FRES35  Pinyon - juniper


STATES : 
     CA  MEXICO


BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 
    3  Southern Pacific Border


KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : 
   K033  Chaparral
   K035  Coastal sagebrush


SAF COVER TYPES : 
   239  Pinyon - juniper


SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 
   205 Coastal sage shrub
   206 Chamise chaparral
   207 Scrub oak mixed chaparral
   412 Juniper-pinyon

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : 
Redshank is a dominant species in chamise, mixed, redshank, and desert
chaparral, coastal sage scrub, and singleleaf pinyon-Utah juniper (Pinus
monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) woodland [30].  Redshank chaparral
primarily occurs in the San Jacinto and Santa Monica mountains, where it
often forms open, nearly pure stands [3,16,19].  Because it grows as
tall as 18 feet (5.5 m), it dominates chaparral overstories [15,36].  It
is a common associate in chamise chaparral [30], and redshank and
chamise codominate on some sites [26].  Redshank-populated chaparral
merges with desert vegetation on its eastern edges and with coastal sage
scrub and annual grassland on other margins [15].
Redshank chaparral in Riverside County. Public domain image by Anthony Baniaga.
Associated overstory species of redshank include Eastwood manzanita
(Arctostaphylos glandulosa), desert ceanothus (Ceanothus greggii),
bigpod ceanothus (C. megacarpus), spiny ceanothus (C. spinosus),
hoaryleaf ceanothus (C. crassifolius), hairy ceanothus (C. oliganthus),
birchleaf mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus betuloides), California
buckwheat (Erigonum fasciculatum), California scrub oak (Quercus
dumosa), laurel sumac (Malosma laurina), and chaparral yucca (Yucca
whipplei) [3,15,46].  Herbaceous associates include slender oat (Avena
barbata), foxtail brome (Bromus rubens), twining brodiaea (Brodiaea
pulchella), showy penstemon (Penstemon spectabilis), and phacelia
(Phacelia brachyloba) [31].

Publications describing redshank-dominated communities are as follows:

California chaparral [16]
Terrestrial natural communities of California [19]
A vegetation classification system applied to southern California [36]
The vascular plant communities of California [44].

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Adenostoma sparsifolium
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Small mammals browse redshank sprouts. Twenty-seven percent of sprouts tagged following prescribed fire at the University of San Diego's Sky Oaks Research Station were browsed by chaparral rodents and lagomorphs during postfire year 1. The animals browsed 42 percent of tagged sprouts in postfire year 2 [31]. Brush rabbit have been observed browsing redshank sprouts [6]. Bullock and Sosa [6] reported that range cattle in the Sierra de Juarez of Baja California were the primary consumers of redshank sprouts after a wildfire there. Following fire, Coast Range western fence lizard use charred redshank branches as basking sites [34]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Redshank aids in stabilizing watersheds. It is recommended on shallow, well-drained soils [21]. A large quantity of fresh seed must be collected directly from parent plants and germinated immediately, because seed viability is low and of short duration. Plants are established by direct seeding or by planting bareroot shrubs 1 to 3 years of age. Transplants in the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, California, showed over 47 percent survival after 11 years. Nine years after transplanting, they were 13 feet (4 m) tall and had a 10-foot (3-m) canopy spread [11]. Seedlings planted in the San Dimas Experimental Forest in the Santa Monica Mountains showed 100 percent survival after 4 years, and were 4 to 6 feet (1.2-1.8 m) tall at that time [21]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans used an infusion of redshank bark and leaves to treat syphilis. The plant oils were used to relieve skin infections [43]. Spanish Californians used redshank as a remedy for colds, snakebite, and tetanus [8]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Only 2.5 percent of California's chaparral formation is dominated by red shank. Total area occupied by redshank communities is 291,700 acres (116,680 ha) [30]. The oak (Quercus spp.)-infesting mistletoe Phoradendron villosum ssp. villosum also parasitizes redshank [18]. Pinto and Velten [37] provide a list of plant bugs (Miridae in the order Hemiptera) associated with redshank. Control: Spring aerosol application of glyphosate top-kills redshank [40]. Follow-up spraying is indicated for long-term control of sprouts. A study of redshank and chamise response to glyphosate showed that a single application killed chamise's lignotubers but not redshank's [20]. Spraying redshank with 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T is ineffective [20].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Adenostoma sparsifolium
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Redshank is a native arborescent shrub growing from 6 to 18 feet (2-6 m) tall [7,16,33]. It has a rounded growth form with thick multiple branches that ascend several feet without foliage before multiple smaller branches display leaves [15,22]. Redshank is classified as a broad-leaved sclerophyll [15]. Its leaves are covered with a sticky resin that may serve to reflect excess radiation [39]. The bark exfoliates freely, peeling off in long strips [8,15,33]. Redshank has a large lignotuber; the lignotuber of one individual in the Santa Monica Mountains measured 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter. The root system has not been well studied but appears to be predominantly lateral with masses of small roots. Two plants excavated in the Santa Monica Mountains had thick, woody, multiple roots rapidly branching into succulent fibrous roots at 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) below the soil surface. A few roots were found below 6 feet (1.8 m) [15]. The inflorescence is an open panicle; the fruit is an achene [7,33]. Redshank may live over 100 years [21]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Redshank primarily reproduces vegetatively. The roots and lignotuber store carbohydrates and other nutrients necessary for sprout development from adventitious buds of the lignotuber [23]. Sprouting continues throughout the life of the plant until senescence, but die-off of young stems appears to be great. Growth-ring analysis of redshank in the Palomar Mountains of San Diego County revealed that most stems were either less than 5 years of age or greater than 30 years of age, with few in between [25]. Sprout viability may be enhanced in the first few years following top-kill by fire or other means because of lack of competition from older stems. Seedling recruitment is rare. Limited research suggests that this is due to three factors: low seed set, low seed viability, and rapid loss of viability in seed that is sound when fresh. Microscopic examination of redshank seed collected over the range of redshank's distribution showed that much of the seed was unfilled. Heat treatment and subsequent sowing of the seed resulted in 0 percent germination [15]. Redshank's congener chamise produces two physiologically distinct types of seed. One type has a hard seedcoat that requires heat scarification prior to germination. This seed can remain viable in the seedbank for decades before fire breaks dormancy. The other type is nondormant and loses viability rapidly [42]. Although redshank has been reported as producing hardcoated, dormant seed [21], it probably does not. One investigation indicated that redshank produces only one of the two chamise seed types: nondormant, short-lived seed. Seed crops are usually scant. Hanes [15] searched for redshank seedlings in or near mature redshank stands from San Luis Obispo County to Baja California. He found only one site, in the Santa Monica Mountains, that supported seedlings. This site was not a burn but had been bulldozed the year prior to seedling recruitment. The year following establishment, 50 percent of seedlings died during summer drought. Hanes suggested that lack of seedling recruitment accounts for redshank's limited distribution. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Redshank grows on dry, well-drained slopes and mesas at elevations from 1,000 to 7,000 feet (305-2,134 m), with most populations found from 1,500 to 5,000 feet (457-1,524 m) elevation [7,15]. It may occur on any aspect [15], but shows definite slope association in some locations. In the Santa Monica Mountains, redshank occurs primarily on north-facing slopes [3], while in San Diego County, redshank is found on southern aspects [29]. All redshank populations except one in the Santa Monica Mountains occur more than 50 miles (80 km) inland [15]. Soils supporting redshank are typically shallow. They may be coarse in texture [15], but redshank's shallow, succulent roots are best adapted to fine-textured soils because of the superior water-retaining capacity of such soils [2]. Redshank grows in soils derived from granite or loosely-cemented Miocene sandstone [15]. A soil pH of 6.6 was reported beneath redshank stands in the Los Padres National Forest, Santa Barbara County [9], and of 6.3 beneath stands in the Palomar Mountains, San Diego County. Where coexisting with chamise, redshank occupies the more mesic and fertile sites [26]. Soil moisture, organic matter, sulfate, and ammonium levels are significantly higher (p<0.01, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) on redshank-occupied soil than on chamise-occupied soil. Magnesium levels, percent coarse fraction, and soil pH are significantly lower (p<0.05 in all cases) on red shank-occupied soil [3]. The climate in which redshank grows is Mediterranean, characterized by wet, mild winters and hot, dry summers [16]. Santa Ana foehn winds may occur at any time of year, but are most common in fall [32]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Redshank is a survivor in disturbed communities, establishing from sprouts following top-kill. It is usually not replaced by other species at any stage of chaparral succession. Redshank is shade intolerant [15]. Development of new redshank communities during secondary succession is rare. When this does occur, seedlings establish during the first few postdisturbance years, competing with the herbaceous species which also establish at this time. Herbs diminish in number as the community matures, occupying spaces between redshank [15,16]. Redshank stands attain maximum canopy coverage at about postdisturbance year 25 [17]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Redshank growth begins in February. The period of most active growth is from June to mid-August [46]. Flowering occurs in late August and continues through September [8,33,46]. Stem die-off and abscission occurs during summer and fall drought. Plants on the Murphy Ranch in the Santa Monica Mountains dropped 32.5 percent of randomly tagged stems during the dry season of a year of normal precipitation [15].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Adenostoma sparsifolium
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Plant Adaptations: Redshank sprouts from the lignotuber following burning of aboveground portions of the plant [7,9,16,25,26,31]. Fire Ecology: Redshank communities generally have less total aboveground biomass than chamise communities because they are more open, but have more standing dead fuel per plant and deeper litter. A comparison of the two species on the Los Padres National Forest showed that redshank averaged 44 percent dead biomass versus 38 percent for chamise [9]. Redshank litter accumulates rapidly because of continuous shedding of bark and abscission of stems during summer drought, and because rate of litter decay is slow in southern California chaparral [17]. Redshank litter in mature stands varies from 0.5 to 2.0 inches (1.3-5.1 cm) in depth [15]. Litter accumulation on the Los Padres National Forest is 1.2 tons per acre per year (1.2 t/ha/yr). Average aboveground biomass in the 25-year-old redshank community was 12 tons per acre (30 t/ha) [9]. Redshank leaves are covered by a sticky resin comprising 10 to 15 percent of their dry weight. Flammable compounds found in redshank leaves and exuded resin include flavonoids and phenolic acids. Some of the compounds within these chemical families have been extracted from leaves and resin and identified [39]. Historical documents show that prior to fire suppression, southern California chaparral usually burned in summer. Fires typically crept down slopes by means of falling brands and coals, and only occasionally formed the hot runs on steep slopes that are typical of today's fires. Large fuels often smoldered for months. This fire behavior resulted in a mosaic of numerous small burns throughout the landscape. This pattern is still evident in northern Baja California, where fire suppression is not practiced. In contrast, most fires in southern California now occur in fall during Santa Ana winds and consume large patches of chaparral. The size of individual burns increases abruptly north of the international border. Fire suppression has reduced the number of fires, but because of the increase in burn size, total acreage burned is approximately the same on either side of the border [32]. Southern California chaparral fires typically crown out, burning all or most of the aboveground portions of shrubs [1]. Fire frequency varies from a few years to as long as 60, although shrubs cannot survive many short-interval fires [32]. Chaparral stands become extremely flammable within 30 to 60 years after fire, depending on topography and stand productivity [38]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Adenostoma sparsifolium
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire top-kills redshank [15,17,31]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Redshank sprouts vigorously following fire [15]. Nearly 100 percent of redshank on the Sky Oaks Field Station, San Diego County, sprouted following prescribed winter fire [31]. Redshank does not establish well from seed after fire [3,15]. A prescribed December fire in Chihuahua Valley, San Diego County, top-killed redshank, but did little damage to redshank lignotubers and fine root hairs. Mean surface soil temperature was 662 degrees Fahrenheit (350 deg C). Redshank fine root hair density in the burn site was higher at postfire year 1 than on an adjacent unburned area. Sprouts grew an average length of 4.8 inches (12 cm) per month in the first postfire growing season. Die-back of fine root hairs occurred with the onset of summer drought, but sprouts continued to grow through fall [28]. A study on redshank community structure in the long-term absence of fire, conducted in Chihuahua Valley, San Diego County, showed that basal coverage of redshank was 29.22 square feet per acre (6.79 sq m/ha) and density was 368 plants per acre (920/ha) at postfire year 66 [24,25] . DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Soil under redshank plants in redshank-chamise chaparral showed a significant decrease in soil organic matter following prescribed February fire. Postfire changes in nutrient levels of soil under red shank were detailed [4]. The caloric content of redshank leaves and stems is high, but not as high as chamise. Caloric content of redshank foliage by fuel diameter class size is available [46]. Elements of consideration when developing a fire prescription for southern California chaparral are available in the literature [13,14].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Adenostoma sparsifolium
REFERENCES : 1. Barro, S. C.; Conard, S. G. 1991. Fire effects on California chaparral systems: an overview. Environmental International. 17(2-3): 135-149. [15760] 2. Beatty, Susan W. 1987. Spatial distributions of Adenostoma species in southern California chaparral: an analysis of niche separation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 77(2): 255-264. [6646] 3. Beatty, Susan W. 1987. Origin and role of soil variability in southern California chaparral. Physical Geography. 8(1): 1-17. [11998] 4. Beatty, Susan W. 1989. Fire effects on soil heterogeneity beneath chamise and redshanks chaparral. Physical Geography. 10(1): 44-52. [15758] 5. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 6. Bullock, Stephen H. 1991. Herbivory and the demography of the chaparral shrub Ceanothus greggii (Rhamnaceae). Madrono. 38(2): 63-72. [15765] 7. Conrad, C. Eugene. 1987. Common shrubs of chaparral and associated ecosystems of southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-99. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 86 p. [4209] 8. Dale, Nancy. 1986. Flowering plants: The Santa Monica Mountains, coastal and chaparral regions of southern California. Santa Barbara, CA: Capra Press. In cooperation with: The California Native Plant Society. 239 p. [7605] 9. DeBano, L. F.; Conrad, C. E. 1978. The effect of fire on nutrients in a chaparral ecosystem. Ecology. 59(3): 489-497. [4630] 10. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 11. Everett, Percy C. 1957. A summary of the culture of California plants at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 1927-1950. Claremont, CA: The Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 223 p. [7191] 12. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 13. Green, Lisle R. 1981. Burning by prescription in chaparral. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-51. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p. [19800] 14. Green, Lisle R. 1982. Prescribed burning in the California Mediterranean ecosystem. In: Conrad, C. Eugene; Oechel, Walter C., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems; 1981 June 22-26; San Diego, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 464-471. [6052] 15. Hanes, Ted L. 1965. Ecological studies on two closely related chaparral shrubs in southern California. Ecological Monograph. 35(2): 213-235. [10325] 16. Hanes, Ted L. 1977. California chaparral. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 417-469. [7216] 17. Hanes, Ted L. 1981. California chaparral. In: Di Castri, F.; Goodall, D. W.; Specht, R. L., eds. Mediterranean-type shrublands. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V: 139-174. [13576] 18. Hawksworth, Frank G.; Wiens, Delbert. 1966. Observations on witches'-broom formation, autoparasitism, and new hosts in Phoradendron. Madrono. 18: 218-244. [18653] 19. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756] 20. Holt, J. S.; Radosevich, S. R.; Graves, W. L. 1985. Long-term effects on vegetation of herbicide treatments in chaparral. Weed Science. 33(3): 353-357. [4126] 21. Horton, Jerome S. 1949. Trees and shrubs for erosion control of southern California mountains. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, California [Pacific Southwest] Forest and Range Experiment Station; California Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. 72 p. [10689] 22. James, Susanne Marie. 1983. Lignotubers and vegetative regeneration of Arctostaphylos in the California chaparral--anatomy, morphology and ecological significance. Riverside, CA: University of California. 133 p. Dissertation. [12197] 23. James, Susanne. 1984. Lignotubers and burls--their structure, function and ecological significance in Mediterranean ecosystems. Botanical Review. 50(3): 225-266. [5590] 24. Keeley, Jon E. 1992. Demographic structure of California chaparral in the long-term absence of fire. Vegetation Science. 3(1): 79-90. [18345] 25. Keeley, Jon E. 1992. Recruitment of seedlings and vegetative sprouts in unburned chaparral. Ecology. 73(4): 1194-1208. [19085] 26. Keeley, Jon E.; Keeley, Sterling C. 1988. Chaparral. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press: 165-207. [19545] 27. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 28. Kummerow, Jocken; Borth, Wayne. 1986. Mycorrhizal associations in chaparral. Fremontia. 14(3): 11-13. [18649] 29. Marion, G. M.; Moreno, J. M.; Oechel, W. C. 1991. Fire severity, ash deposition, and clipping effects on soil nutrients in chaparral. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 55: 235-240. [15757] 30. Marion, Lois H. 1943. The distribution of Adenostoma sparsifolium. American Midland Naturalist. 29(1): 206-116. [19953] 31. Mills, James N. 1986. Herbivores and early postfire succession in southern California chaparral. Ecology. 67(6): 1637-1649. [5405] 32. Drivas, Evan P.; Everett, Richard L. 1987. Xylem water potentials of singleleaf pinyon seedlings and sagebrush nurse plants. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 423-428. [4990] 33. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 34. Lillywhite, Harvey B.; North, F. 1974. Perching behavior of Sceloporus occidentalis in recently burned chaparral. Copeia. 1974(1): 256-257. [13568] 35. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 36. Paysen, Timothy E.; Derby, Jeanine A.; Black, Hugh, Jr.; [and others]. 1980. A vegetation classification system applied to southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-45. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. [1849] 37. Pinto, John D.; Velten, Robert K. 1986. The plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) associated with Adenostoma (Rosaceae) in southern California. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 94(4): 542-551. [19839] 38. Philpot, Charles W. 1977. Vegetative features as determinants of fire frequency and intensity. In: Mooney, Harold A.; Conrad, C. Eugene, technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on the environmental consequences of fire and fuel management in Mediterreanean ecosystems; 1977 August 1-5; Palo Alto, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 12-16. [17403] 39. Proksch, Margareta; Weissenbock, Gottfried,; Rodriguez, Eloy. 1985. Flavonoids and phenolic acids in Adenostoma, a dominant genus of the California chaparral. Phytochemistry. [Oxford England: Pergamon Press]; 24(12): 2889-2891. [19903] 40. Radosevich, S. R.; Graves, W. L.; Agamalian, H. A. 1977. Response of two Adenostoma species to several herbicides. Weed Science. 25(2): 188-192. [19954] 41. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 42. Stone, Edward C.; Juhren, Gustaf. 1953. Fire stimulated germination: effect of burning on germination of brush seed investigated in physiological study of chamise. California Agriculture. 7(9): 13-14. [9688] 43. Sweet, M.. 1962. Common edible and useful plants of the West. Healdsburg, CA: Naturegraph Co.. 62 p. [20333] 44. Thorne, Robert F. 1976. The vascular plant communities of California. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 1-31. [3289] 45. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer). Available: https://plants.usda.gov/. [34262] 46. Wakimoto, Ronald H. 1978. Responses of southern California brushland vegetation to fuel manipulation. Berkeley, CA: University of California. 264 p. Dissertation. [10993] 47. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 48. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. 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