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SPECIES: Pleuraphis jamesii

INTRODUCTORY


AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Simonin, Kevin A. 2000. Pleuraphis jamesii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/plejam/all.html [].

ABBREVIATION:
PLEJAM

SYNONYMS:
Hilaria jamesii ( Torr.) Benth. [18,40]

NRCS PLANT CODE [86]:
PLJA

COMMON NAMES:
James' galleta
curlygrass
galleta

TAXONOMY:
The scientific name of James' galleta is Pleuraphis jamesii Torr. (Poaceae) [46,56].

LIFE FORM:
Graminoid

FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status

OTHER STATUS:
No entry


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Pleuraphis jamesii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION:
James' galleta is widespread throughout southern California to the desert mountains of Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming and western Texas [39,45,46]. James' galleta is also found in the panhandle of Oklahoma and extreme southwest Kansas [45]. The PLANTS database shows the distribution of galletta.

ECOSYSTEMS [35]:
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES40 Desert grasslands

STATES:
AZ CA CO
KS NV NM
OK TX UT
WY

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [6]:
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

KUCHLER [64] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
K019 Arizona pine forest
K022 Great Basin pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K031 Oak-juniper woodland
K034 Montane chaparral
K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K039 Blackbrush
K040 Saltbush-greasewood
K041 Creosotebush
K042 Creosotebush-bursage
K044 Creosotebush-tarbush
K045 Ceniza shrub
K053 Grama-galleta steppe
K054 Grama-tobosa prairie
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe
K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe
K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna
K060 Mesquite savanna
K061 Mesquite-acacia savanna
K065 Grama-buffalo grass
K085 Mesquite-buffalo grass

SAF COVER TYPES [26]:
68 Mesquite
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
239 Pinyon-juniper
242 Mesquite

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [80]:
206 Chamise chaparral
210 Bitterbrush
211 Creosotebush scrub
212 Blackbush
310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
404 Threetip sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
407 Stiff sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
413 Gambel oak
414 Salt desert shrub
501 Saltbush-greasewood
502 Grama-galleta
503 Arizona chaparral
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
505 Grama-tobosa shrub
506 Creosotebush-bursage
508 Creosotebush-tarbush
601 Bluestem prairie
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
604 Bluestem-grama prairie
612 Sagebrush-grass
613 Fescue grassland
701 Alkali sacaton-tobosagrass
702 Black grama-alkali sacaton
703 Black grama-sideoats grama
704 Blue grama-western wheatgrass
705 Blue grama-galleta
706 Blue grama-sideoats grama
707 Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama
708 Bluestem-dropseed
709 Bluestem-grama
710 Bluestem prairie
712 Galleta-alkali sacaton
713 Grama-muhly-threeawn
714 Grama-bluestem
715 Grama-buffalo grass
716 Grama-feathergrass
717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass
718 Mesquite-grama
719 Mesquite-liveoak-seacoast bluestem
720 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (dunes)
722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie
725 Vine mesquite-alkali sacaton
727 Mesquite-buffalo grass

HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
In the Southwest James' galleta is a member of pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) habitat types [88,93] and an important component of plains grasslands [12]. James' galleta is also a member of northern desert-shrub communities of California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado [14].

James' galleta is an important understory component in northern regions of the southwestern pinyon-juniper ecosystem [65,71], and in the conifer woodland-grassland transition zones [11]. James' galleta is a member of tallgrass communities along the New Mexico-Colorado border in association with little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), needle-and-thread (Hesperostipa comata), purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea), and sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus) [12].

In Arizona James' galleta occurs in pinyon-juniper, shortgrass, and sagebrush plant communities [74]. In Utah, James' galleta occurs in salt desert shrub, creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), desert shrub, sagebrush, pinyon-juniper [91], and blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) communities [87]. In the central portion of the Great Basin (Nevada), James' galleta forms a habitat type with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) [83].

Common plant associates:

Grasses: black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) [21,34], blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) [8,21,74], little bluestem, needle-and-thread [12], Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) [7], desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa) [84], bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) [8], alkali sacaton (Sporobolous airoides), sand dropseed [8,29,30], gyp dropseed (S. nealleyi), spike dropseed (S. contractus) [30], Fendler threeawn (Aristida purpurea var. fendleriana) [34], and western wheatgrass [74],

Shrubs: shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia), Gardner's saltbush (A. gardneri), fourwing saltbush (A. canescens), valley saltbush (A. cuneata) [8], mound saltbush (A. obovata) [29], greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), bud sagebrush (Picrothamnus desertorum), black sagebrush (Artemisia nova) [8], big sagebrush (A. tridentata) [83], rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus spp.), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) [8,83], and broom snakeweed (Guitierrezia sarothrae) [83].

Trees: true pinyon (Pinus edulis), singleleaf pinyon (P. monophylla), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), Rocky Mountain juniper (J. scopularum) [10], and oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) [29].

Publications listing James' galleta as a dominant or indicator species are:

Phyto-edaphic communities of the upper Rico Puerco watershed, New Mexico [29]
Preliminary habitat types of a semiarid grassland [30]
An ecological approach to classifying semiarid plant communities [31]
A vegetation classification system applied to southern California [69]
Plant associations (habitat types) of Region 2, 3rd edition [85]
A management-oriented classification of pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Great Basin [94]


BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Pleuraphis jamesii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
James' galleta is a native, warm season, rhizomatous perennial [38,42,46,91] tolerant of arid, desiccating environments [16,78,91,93]. Culms have solid internodes [38] with pilose nodes [42] and commonly attain heights between 3 to 24 inches (8-61 cm) [49,93]. Leaves are firm, generally recurved when dry, 0.04 to 0.012 inches (1-3 mm) wide and 0.04 to 6.3 inches (1-16 cm) long [91]. Inflorescence is an erect spike, usually less than 3.5 inches (9 cm) [93], generally 1.2 to 2.8 inches (3-7 cm) long [46].

Although rhizomatous, James' galleta grows in bunches. Under favorable conditions bunches merge forming a sod [93]. Rhizomes occur 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5.1 cm) below the soil surface [51] and constitute the majority of underground biomass. The tough, woody, scaly rhizome may reach 5 to 6 feet (1.52-1.83 m) in length [43]. According to Hassell and Oaks [44], James' galleta may persist for at least 5 to 7 years. Roots are commonly found within the upper soil profile, with few roots extending further than 18 inches (50 cm) below the soil surface [93].

RAUNKIAER [73] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte

REGENERATION PROCESSES:
James' galleta reproduces through seed and development of adventitious buds on rhizomes. Since James' galleta is not a prolific seed producer [93], populations are maintained through production of rhizomes [51].

Seed: Soil moisture directly affects the flowering cycle of James' galleta [25], with relatively abundant soil moisture providing the cue for initiation of the reproductive phase. Seedstalks emerge under favorable moisture and will not occur during years of below normal precipitation [8,51]. James' galleta may produce seed several times within a growing season depending upon frequency and amount of summer precipitation [25].

Seed viability and germination are generally poor [53]. However, seedlings have the potential to arise under dry conditions. Knipe [63] found James' galleta seeds to germinate at moisture tensions of 16 atmospheres (101.3 kPa). Cress [17] found 10-day old seedlings to have good survival at soil moisture levels down to 2.9% (-3000 kPa) under greenhouse conditions.

Vegetative: Vegetative production is closely tied to moisture availability. A description is found under Seasonal Development below.

SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
James' galleta prefers arid and slightly mesic habitats, with competitive abilities decreasing as moisture availability increases. James' galleta will inhabit areas receiving the majority of annual precipitation either in summer, or winter and fall [93]. James' galleta is adapted to alkaline soils, both saline and fresh [53] and will grow in fine to coarse textured [53,93] sandy, loam, and clay soils [2].

Platou and others [72] observed edaphic factors associated with James' galleta within the Great Basin. James' galleta prefers neutral to moderately alkaline soils of relatively low water-holding capacity, with a coarse loamy texture. Soil surface horizons possess a low percent clay, high bulk density and high percentage of rock fragments. James' galleta was almost exclusive to soils of moderate temperature (8-15 degrees C) and relatively mesic moisture regimes (light summer precipitation). Cook and others [16] observed James' galleta in the Great Basin on well-drained, gravelly slopes adjacent to salt deserts. James' galleta is a prominent understory species of pinyon-juniper woodlands experiencing cool, dry winters, on soils derived from Kaibab limestone, tertiary sands and gravel basalt [44,81].

Regional: In California, James' galleta occurs on dry, sandy to rocky slopes, and flats within scrub and woodland areas [46]. Dry, sandy plateaus are preferred sites in Arizona. In Utah, dry flats and foothills are preferred [91]. James' galleta also thrives on well-drained, sandy soils, and fractured rockland sites of the Colorado plateau region [89]. Preferred sites in Texas are dry rocky ledges, rolling slopes, and valley flats [39]. West and others [93] provide a comprehensive overview of topography and soils where James' galleta occurs.

James' galleta is commonly found between 3,500 and 7,500 feet (1,067-2,286 m) [45]. Elevational ranges by state are listed below:

AZ 4,500 to 7,000 feet (1,372-2,134 m) [49]
CA 3,281 to 8,202 feet (1,000-2,500 m) [46]
NM 3,500 to 7,500 feet (1,067-2,286 m) [36]

SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
According to Hassell and Oaks [44], James' galleta may persist for at least 5 to 7 years, usually lasting 10 to 20 years after disturbance. For information on its recovery rate after fire see Plant Response To Fire.

SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Phenological records for James' galleta are extremely variable due to close ties with seasonal moisture availability [93].

Seedling emergence: Emergence is directly associated with late spring to early summer moisture availability, with greatest seedling emergence occurring during wetter years. In the Great Basin, Humphrey and Schupp [48] found annual seedling emergence of James' galleta to begin and end later than the majority of perennial associates. James' galleta was found to emerge from June to July; all other associated species showed February to June emergence intervals.

Root growth is important during early developmental stages within arid environments. West and others [93] observed seedlings to achieve up to 9.72 inches (24.7 cm) of root penetration at 6 weeks growth.

Vegetative growth: Moisture availability is the underlying cue for vegetative growth, with growth patterns corresponding to periods of available moisture [51,93]. A common growing season is May to September. Several periods of dormancy may occur during the growing season when moisture is lacking. In the Utah desert experimental range, James' galleta was observed to go through 4 growth-dormancy cycles in a single year [38].

Phenological observations of James' galleta in James' galleta-shadscale and James' galleta-sagebrush communities of New Mexico found annual growth beginning late March to early April [25].


FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Pleuraphis jamesii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
James' galleta is a rhizomatous perennial [38,42,46,91] which can resprout after top-kill by fire [55].

Desert grassland fire regime: Knowledge of fire frequency and ecological role in desert grasslands is uncertain. Grassland fires leave no direct evidence of historical frequency, such as tree scars [99]. Our general understanding comes from studies of plant community ecology and physiology of individual plant species along with historical accounts. Scientific research has provided indirect evidence generating several arguments to support and contradict occurrence of fire as a common component of desert grasslands.

Fires in desert grasslands were stand replacing and probably frequent. Several researchers suggest a fire frequency of 7 to 10 years for desert grasslands [95,99]. Fires in desert grasslands of the Chihuahuan Desert were probably less frequent than those of the Sonoran Desert [1]. Many researchers view fire as a necessary component to maintain desert grasslands, mainly due to the current level of invasion by woody species in the absence of fire. It is hypothesized that shrubs in desert grasslands would not have achieved the current level of coverage if stand-replacement fires had occurred at regular intervals [99]. Although fires may kill some grass plants and weaken others, establishment of shrub seedlings requires several more years than establishment of grasses [9]. Grassland fires in deserts are usually low-severity and rapid. With perennial grasses, fires generally remove only a single year's growth without burning deep into root crowns, enabling grasses to sprout [50]. Most desert shrubs with perennating buds on the root crown cannot sprout until a 0.4-inch (1 cm) diameter is achieved, and most shrubs require several growing seasons before fruiting [37].

The desert grassland ecosystem provides all the cues necessary for fire. Annual dry lightning storms mark the beginning of the southwestern rains, which take place late June or early July [99]. Lightning and the dry fine fuels generated by the hot dry periods of desert grasslands provide all the components for ignition and spread. When cured and dried, desert grassland vegetation provides adequate fuels for ignition. Once ignited, plant density is the limiting factor for fire spread in the desert grasslands. The amount of fuel varies between desert grassland sites. Annual productivity can vary from almost nothing to 1,000 lbs/acre. If sparse fuels are present, light winds may carry desert grassland fires [9,95]. Grazing may reduce fuels to the point where fire will no longer carry [9]. The Appleton-Whittell Research Sanctuary, a 7,800-acre (3,160 ha) semiarid grassland preserve in southeastern Arizona, experiences frequent wildfires associated with fuel accumulations resulting from domestic livestock exclusion [36].

FIRE REGIMES:
The following table provides some fire-return intervals for communities in which James' galleta occurs. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium < 10
bluestem-Sacahuista prairie Andropogon littoralis-Spartina spartinae < 10
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [95]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [76]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 20-60 [4,13]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (40)** [88,102]
saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus < 35 to < 100
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica 5-100
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. < 35
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii < 35
grama-James' galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii < 35 to < 100
blue grama-tobosa prairie Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis mutica < 35 to < 100
blackbrush Coleogyne ramosissima < 35 to < 100
James' galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea < 35 to < 100
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. < 35 [95]
**(Mean).

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [82]:
Rhizomatous, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Pleuraphis jamesii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Fire usually top-kills James' galleta, leaving rhizomes relatively intact [55].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
No entry

PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
James' galleta resprouts from rhizomes following fire, achieving or exceeding preburn cover within 2 years [55]. James' galleta decreases after wildfire during below-average years of precipitation [101].

DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
During a year of below-average precipitation, James' galleta decreased in the 1st year after spring (April) fire within a pinyon-juniper habitat of New Mexico [24].

In the Great Basin, burning had no effect on James' galleta seedling emergence but was correlated with seedling survival. Significantly (p<0.05) greater seedling survival occurred on unburned areas [48].

FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
James' galleta is most susceptible to fire during periods of low humidity [55]. Fire, during years of below normal precipitation, generally reduces James' galleta within shortgrass prairies [47].

Prescribed burning in winter may prove less deleterious. Jameson [54] found James' galleta survived higher temperatures during winter than summer burns in pinyon-juniper habitats in Arizona. Fatal temperatures ranged from 135.5 to 142.2 degrees Fahrenheit (57.5-61.2 °C) in the summer (July-September) and averaged 155.48 degrees Fahrenheit (68.6 °C) in the winter (November-December) [54].


MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Pleuraphis jamesii
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
When actively growing, James' galleta provides good to excellent forage for cattle and horses and fair forage for domestic sheep [16,49]. Although not preferred, all classes of livestock may use James' galleta when it is dry [49].

Domestic sheep show greater use in winter than summer months and typically feed upon central portions of James' galleta tufts, leaving coarser growth around the edges [52].

Desert bighorn sheep of the Mojave Desert utilize James' galleta as forage [84].

PALATABILITY:
James' galleta provides moderately palatable forage when actively growing and relatively unpalatable forage during dormant periods [22,46,91]. James' galleta also provides usable forage after winter curing [8].

James' galleta may prove somewhat coarse to domestic sheep [41].

NUTRITIONAL VALUE:
James' galleta is a poor source of carotene and phosphorus and is ranked fair in protein value [16,87]. Protein content is drastically reduced after winter curing [87,93]. However, James' galleta is relatively higher in digestible protein than are most desert grasses within winter ranges [16].

James' galleta is lower in energy than the majority of desert grasses [16]. Nutritive quality of James' galleta in various stages, expressed as percent dry matter, is [22]:

  Aerial part, fresh, mid-bloom Aerial part, fresh, mature Aerial part, fresh, overripe Aerial part without lower stems, fresh Aerial part without lower stems, fresh, mature Aerial part without lower stems, fresh, dormant
Ash 11.3 14.3 14.0 10.0 9.4 12.6
Crude fiber 32.2 32.9 33.0 31.8 32.0 32.0
Ether extract 1.9 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.4
N-free extract 44.7 46.4 48.0 50.2 51.7 50.0
Protein (N x 6.25) 9.9 4.9 3.6 6.5 5.2 4.0
Cattle - digestible protein 6.3 2.1 1.0 3.4 2.3 1.3
Horses - digestible protein 5.9 1.7 0.8 3.0 1.9 0.9
Sheep - Digestible protein 6.2 1.6 0.5 0.5 1.8 0.7
Ca --- 1.16 0.59 0.24 0.58 0.34
P --- 0.08 0.08 0.09 --- ---
Carotene --- 0.4 --- 12.7 --- ---
Vitamin A equiv. IU/g --- 0.4 --- 21.2 --- ---

Winter nutritional value [90]:

In-vitro digestibility (%) Crude protein (%) Phosphorous (%) Carotene (mg/kg)
48.2 4.6 0.08 0.40


COVER VALUE:
James' galleta provides poor cover for most wildlife species. In Utah, James' galleta is ranked as providing fair cover for small mammals and small nongame birds [22].

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
James' galleta possesses several desirable characteristics for restoration of arid lands. James' galleta is a good surface stabilizer [53], providing excellent surface erosion control [36,57] even within areas receiving only 7 inches (178 mm) annual precipitation [43]. Once established, James' galleta is extremely drought tolerant requiring little maintenance [48]. Schultz and Ostler [78] recorded 98% survival after a 4-year (1987-1991) drought in the Mojave Desert, when annual precipitation was 64% of the 25-year average.

Although drought tolerant, initial establishment of James' galleta in arid ranges generally requires supplemental watering. Mulching is also recommended [43]. Winkel and others [78] conducted mulching studies under greenhouse conditions with temperatures similar to the Mojave Desert. Results suggest use of 0.8 to 1.2 inches (2-3 cm) gravel or mulch layer for greater revegetation success. Layers deeper than 1.2 inches (3 cm) were found to prohibit germination. The same authors also recommend irrigation schedules that keep soil water content at matrix potentials above -1.50 mpa.

James' galleta's reliance upon rhizomatous expansion may lead to ecotypic variation. West and others [93] found root distribution to differ between areas according to annual availability of precipitation. Within habitats receiving the majority of precipitation in fall and winter, James' galleta roots were most abundant in relatively deeper areas of soil profiles. Areas where summer rains provide the majority of precipitation supported James' galleta plants with roots concentrated in upper soil layers.

Use of James' galleta for revegetation was previously limited by high seed costs. However, production of the 'Viva' cultivar has improved seed production and seedling vigor [43]. Commercial seed is now readily available [20]. Originally form north-central New Mexico, 'Viva' grows well on sites receiving 10 to 14 inches (250-350 mm) annual precipitation [43].

Knipe [62] observed 85% germination under constant temperatures between 60 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5-32 °C) at 100% relative humidity. Sabo and others [75] recommend either a constant temperature of 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 °C) or alternating temperatures of 75 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit (24-35 °C).

National regulations require seeding of native plants on disturbed mine lands in the United States [97]. James' galleta has been used in several mineland rehabilitation projects in arid ecosystems [27,28,32,77]; however, quantitative data on survivorship is limited.

OTHER USES AND VALUES:
No entry

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
James' galleta is not tolerant of mechanical soil disturbance [79], showing slow recovery [33].

Rangeland management: Within rangeland systems, James' galleta is generally classified as a decreaser in northern deserts and an increaser in southern deserts [45]. Cover dynamics of James' galleta within grazing systems are driven by competition, that is, the presence of other plant species.

Perennial rangelands where James' galleta is dominant generally increase in species diversity following prolonged grazing. Grazing pressure usually allows for increased presence of annuals, which may overtake perennials depending upon duration of grazing [96]. James' galleta is considered tolerant to highly resistant of grazing in the south, increasing as competing species cover decreases [7,19,87]. In areas where more palatable species are present, James' galleta acts as a facultative forage species, often showing better representation in grazed than in non-grazed and heavily grazed areas [7,19,60]. Greater use of James' galleta occurs in areas where other more palatable species, such as Indian ricegrass, are not as abundant [52].

James' galleta possesses several adaptations to grazing in arid rangelands. James' galleta's resistance to drought and tough, woody rhizome contribute to grazing tolerance [8]. Although tolerant of grazing, rotational schedules are recommended. James' galleta requires periods of rest to maintain coverage. Continuous grazing to stubble heights less than 4 inches (10 cm) will eventually remove James' galleta [36,57].

Tetubuthiuron, used for sagebrush control, shows no negative effects on James' galleta [66].


Pleuraphis jamesii: References


1. Allen, Larry S. 1996. Ecological role of fire in the Madrean Province. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; DeBano, Leonard F.; Baker, Malchus, B., Jr.; [and others], tech. coords. Effects of fire on Madrean Province ecosystems: a symposium proceedings; 1996 March 11-15; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-289. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 5-10. [28059]
2. Allison, Chris. 1988. Seeding New Mexico rangeland. Circular 525. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Cooperative Extension Service. 15 p. [11830]
3. Alzerreca-Angelo, Humberto; Schupp, Eugene W.; Kitchen, Stanley G. 1998. Sheep grazing and plant cover dynamics of a shadscale community. Journal of Range Management. 51(2): 214-222. [28454]
4. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
5. Arnold, Joseph F.; Jameson, Donald A.; Reid, Elbert H. 1964. The pinyon-juniper type of Arizona: effects of grazing, fire and tree control. Production Research Report No. 84. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 28 p. [353]
6. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
7. Bich, Brian S.; Butler, Jack L.; Schmidt, Cheryl A. 1995. Effects of differential livestock use of key plant species and rodent populations within selected Oryzopsis hymenoides/Hilaria jamesii communities in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The Southwestern Naturalist. 40(3): 281-287. [26494]
8. Blaisdell, James P.; Holmgren, Ralph C. 1984. Managing Intermountain rangelands--salt-desert shrub ranges. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-163. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 52 p. [464]
9. Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H.; Grant, Michael C.; Seastedt, Timothy R. 1995. Effects of fire on abundance of Eragrostis intermedia in a semi-arid grassland in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Vegetation Science. 6: 325-328. [27140]
10. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands of Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [18212]
11. Brown, David E. 1982. Great Basin conifer woodland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 52-57. [535]
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