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Zlatnik, Elena. 1999. Hilaria belangeri. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/plants/graminoid/hilbel/all.html .
The fully documented scientific name of curlymesquite is Hilaria belangeri (Steud.) Nash (Poaceae) [27,31,32]. There are 2 varieties of curlymesquite :
H. b. var. belangeri (Steud.) Nash
H. b. var. longifolia (Vasey) A.S. Hitchc.
No special status
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES40 Desert grasslands
AZ CA NM OK TX
3 Southern Pacific Border
7 Lower Basin and Range
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K031 Oak-juniper woodlands
K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe
K061 Mesquite-live oak savanna
K086 Juniper-oak savanna
241 Western Live oak
503 Arizona chaparral
505 Grama-tobosa shrub
701 Alkali sacaton-tobosagrass
702 Black grama-alkali sacaton
705 Blue grama-galleta
Curlymesquite appears in desert and semi-desert grasslands and shrubsteppes. In desert plains grasslands in the Southwest, curlymesquite and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) dominate, with hairy grama (B. hirsuta), black grama (B. eriopoda), tobosa (Hilaria mutica), threeawn species (Aristida spp.), New Mexico feathergrass (Stipa neomexicana), sideoats grama (B. curtipendula), and bush muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri). Occasional honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) and acacia (Acacia spp.) are also found in this community .
In southern Texas, curlymesquite appears in thornscrub woodland with honey mesquite, brasil (Condalia obovata), huisache (A. farnesiana), blackbrush acacia (A. rigidula), white brush (Aloysia gratissima), Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), cactus (Opuntia spp.), prairie broomweed (Amphiachyris dracunculoides), sensitivebriar (Shrankia latidens), Indian mallow (Abutilon incarnum), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), red threeawn (Aristida purpurea), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), and bristlegrass (Setaria spp.) .
On the Edwards Plateau, Texas, curlymesquite is part of short-and mid-grass rangelands, with dominant overstories of redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchottii) and honey mesquite and understories of red threeawn, red grama (B. trifida), hairy tridens (Erioneuron pilosum), Reverchon bristlegrass (S. reverchonii), needleleaf bluet (Hedyotis acerosavar. acerosa), Parks groomwell (Lithospermum parksii), mouse-ear (Tiquilia canescens), and longstalk greenthread (Thelesperma longipes) .
Vegetation typings describing communities in which curlymesquite is dominant include:
Flora and vegetation of the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona 
Biotic communities of the Southwest 
A vegetation classification system for New Mexico, U.S.A. 
A vegetation classification system applied to southern California 
Curlymesquite can be an important forage species in the desert Southwest [25,28,53]. In some parts of central and western Texas, curlymesquite is the most important cattle forage . Horses, cattle, domestic sheep, domestic goats, pronghorn, and deer graze it year-round . Curlymesquite is not highly productive .
Curlymesquite is of fair to good nutritional value [20,28,56]. Protein content of curlymesquite in Arizona peaks around 13% in August and reaches a low of nearly 2% in November and December .
Nutritional content (%) of immature curlymesquite is as follows :
In general, shortgrass prairies featuring curlymesquite are not an important habitat for breeding birds .
Curlymesquite has good soil binding qualities and grows on most soils, so it has potential as a rehabilitation species [4,37,47,57]. Commercial seed is hard to get, so mulching with hay is the most economical seed source [10,11]. Also, curlymesquite is not drought resistant, so revegetated sites need sufficient irrigation [10,11].
Curlymesquite responds well to disturbance . Curlymesquite is highly grazing tolerant [3,4,21,33,39,43,57]. Following herbicide trials in huisache and mesquite stands in southern Texas, curlymesquite was the first grass species to reinvade treated areas .
Resinbush (Euryops mulitifus), an introduced shrub from Africa, prevents the growth of curlymesquite from up to 5 to 6.5 feet (1.5-2 m) away .
Curlymesquite is a native, perennial, warm-season shortgrass. Tufts grow to 4 to 12 inches (10-30 cm) tall . The plant is a sod-former that sends out slender stolons to produce new tufts [27,56].
Longevity of curlymesquite in southern Arizona was determined to be shorter than 9 years on grazed study plots and shorter than 5 years on ungrazed plots .
Curlymesquite reproduces by seed or, more commonly, by long stolons that establish new tufts [14,27,53,56]. In a good season, the plant can spread as much as 13 feet (4 m) .
Plants produce very few seeds and are often sterile [14,56]. Curlymesquite is not self-fertile . After 20 years uncontrolled storage, only 6% of curlymesquite seeds germinated near Globe, Arizona . Seed germination increased from 59 to 92% and 55 to 87% in 2 trials after an afterripening period of 12 weeks. Removing the seed fascicles also increases germination percentage and lengthens storage periods .
The presence of seeds in the soil seedbank depends, in part, on management practices. In a soil seedbank study in a semiarid Texas grassland, curlymesquite, which was a dominant feature of the extant vegetation, had high germinable seed density (254/m2) under heavy continuous grazing. Seed density was low to none under grazing exclusion [34,33].
Curlymesquite is found on dry, open foothills, mesas, rocky slopes, and swales throughout the Southwest [29,32,53]. The plant grows on a wide variety of soils, but grows best on loams to clay loams with pH of 6.8 to 7.4 .
Curlymesquite is not a particularly drought-tolerant species . In Arizona desert grasslands, curlymesquite sites receive 13-19 inches (330-483 mm) of precipitation . The semidesert grasslands in New Mexico and Arizona, of which curlymesquite is a prominent component, receive between 10 and 18 inches (250 and 450 mm) annual precipitation, over 50% of which comes from April to September .
In southeastern Arizona, curlymesquite is most common on rolling uplands and south-facing treeless slopes, from 1,500 to 6,000 feet (450-1818 m) , particularly on sites with much exposed rock and sparse litter  and well-drained clay soils .
Curlymesquite is one of the first grasses to start growth in the late
spring [34,51], with seedheads emerging about 1 month later [36,51]. In
some areas it is dependent on summer rains to initiate growth. In
southern Arizona, annual summer rains normally begin in July, at which
time plants begin their rapid growth, mature quickly, and begin to dry up
by the middle of October . Except for a few green shoots in the
spring, the grasses show no further growth until the summer rains. In
the coastal plains of Texas, curlymesquite grows throughout the year,
wherever moisture is available . Its growth there does not follow a
rigid seasonal pattern, as the area normally receives 30 inches (760 mm)
of precipitation yearly. In Texas, flowering occurs mostly form August
to October, but occasionally from March to November .
Curlymesquite is dormant during drought .
Curlymesquite is often top-killed by fire, but due to its stoloniferous growth pattern, it is usually able to survive and recover quickly .
Mean fire interval for presettlement southwestern desert grasslands was approximately 10 years [28,58].
Surface rhizome/chamaephytic root crown
FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".
Stoloniferous grasses like curlymesquite generally are less affected by fire than bunchgrasses, due to the smaller amounts of dead, dry material remaining on the plant. Fires tend to burn more quickly over the grass and not penetrate into growing points .
In the 2nd year following spring prescribed burns in a Madrean evergreen woodland in Arizona, abundance of curlymesquite was significantly (p<0.05) greater on the burned than on the unburned sites .
Following a March burn in western Texas in a honey mesquite/tobosa-sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula)-buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides)-threeawn community, curlymesquite grass production increased 28% in the 1st growing season after fire .
The Research Project Summary, Response of herbaceous vegetation to winter burning in Texas oak savanna provides information on postfire response of curlymesquite and other herbaceous species that was not available when this species review was originally written.
Because curlymesquite does not regenerate reliably by seed, spring burning under cool conditions that preserve growing points causes less mortality than fall burning. Forage production increases moderately following burning [5,55].
Zlatnik, Elena, compiler. 1999. Response of curlymesquite to burning in two Arizona desert ecosystems. In: Hilaria belangeri. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us /database/feis/ [ ].
Two study sites were burned on May 25 and June 12, 1984.
The study took place in southeastern Arizona at The National Audubon Society's Appleton-Whittell Research Sanctuary near Elgin, Santa Cruz County.
The Lyle Canyon oak woodland site featured sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), plains lovegrass (Eragrostis intermedia), Texas bluestem (Schizacharium cirratum), Hall's panic grass (Panicum hallii), goldeneye (Viguiera spp.), Louisiana sagewort (Artemisia ludoviciana), bindweed (Convolvulus spp.), warty caltrop (Kallstremia parviflora), wait-a-minute bush (Mimosa biuncifera), velvet-pod mimosa (M. dysocarpa), yerba de pasmo (Baccharis pteronioides), Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), and Arizona white oak (Q. arizonica).
The Bald Hill grassland site featured plains lovegrass, wolftail (Lycurus phleoides), 3 species of threeawn (Aristida spp.), sprucetop grama (Bouteloua chondrosiodes), sideoats grama, spreading fleabane (Erigeron divergens), shrubby falsemallow (Malvastrum bicuspidatum), dwarf morningglory (Evolvulus spp.), spreading snakeherb (Dyschoriste decumbens), tansyleaf aster (Machaerathera tanacetifolius), wait-a-minute bush, velet-pod mimosa, and yerba de pasmo.
Curlymesquite was in the early phase of growth.
The site is in the foothills on the west side of the Huachuca Mountains at 4,950 feet (1500 m) elevation. Temperatures range from a 29 degree Fahrenheit (-1.73 oC) January mean minimum to a June mean maximum of 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32.4 oC). Mean annual precipitation is 17 inches (430 mm), mostly falling in the summer monsoon between July and September.
The Madrean evergreen site at Lyle Canyon burned on May 25, 1984, between 10 a.m. and noon. Air temperature was 90 to 92 degrees Fahrenheit (32-33 oC). Relative humidity ranged from 16 to 18%, and winds were from 5 to 10 miles per hour (8-16 km/h). Fuel moistures were estimated between 5 to 6%.
The grassland site at Bald Hill burned on June 12, 1984, between 10 and 11:30 a.m. Air temperatures ranged from 84 to 88 degrees Fahrenheit (29-31 oC), with relative humidity from 13 to 16% and variable winds gusting from 5 to 22 miles per hour (8-35.2 km/h).
The Bald Hill grassland fires moved slowly, 3.3 to 13.2 feet/minute (1-4 m/minute), with flame lengths from 2.6 to 4.6 feet (0.8-1.4 m) in height. Heat releases were 160 to 540 kW/m.
At the Lyle Canyon oak woodland site, abundance of curlymesquite was not significantly difference between the burned and unburned plots for the 1st growing season following the burn. In the 2nd growing season, abundance was significantly higher (P<0.05) on the burned site.
On the Bald Hill grassland site, all species of grasses declined during the 1st postfire season but recovered fully after 2 years.
Curlymesquite is not damaged by fire. It may increase in abundance following a spring fire. This study was part of an extensive of body of research on fire effects in semidesert grassland, oak savanna, and Madrean oak woodlands of southeastern Arizona. See the Research Project Summary of this work for more information on burning conditions, fires, and fire effects on more than 100 species of plants, birds, small mammals, and grasshoppers.
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