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|Rough fescue leaves. Leaves of species in the rough fescue complex are scabrous and rough to the touch. Wikimedia Commons image by Matt Lavin from Bozeman, Montana.|
On 30 January 2018, the common name of Festuca altaica was changed in FEIS
from: northern rough fescue
to: Altai fescue. Distributional maps were also added.
for Festuca campestris:
mountain rough fescue
for Festuca hallii:
plains rough fescue
Festuca altaica Trin., Altai fescue [14,66,112]
Festuca campestris Rydb., rough fescue [1,2,14,66,88,112]
Festuca hallii (Vasey) Piper, plains rough fescue [14,66,112]
These species are separated by morphology and ploidy level . Altai and plains rough fescue are tetraploids, whereas rough fescue is octaploid [2,3]. In this review, these species are referred to by the full common names listed just above. The "rough fescue complex" refers to all 3 species.SYNONYMS:
for Festuca campestris:
Festuca altaica var. major (Vasey) Gleason 
Festuca scabrella var. major Vasey 
for Festuca hallii:
Festuca altaica subsp. hallii (Vasey) Harms 
Distributions of species in the rough fescue complex are:
Altai fescue - from Alaska and the Northwest Territories south to British Columbia [4,7]; scattered occurrences in the Great Lakes states and the eastern provinces [1,4,11,13,15,112]
rough fescue - from British Columbia east to Ontario and south to Montana and Oregon, Idaho, and Colorado [4,13,112]
plains rough fescue - scattered occurrences from eastern British Columbia east to Ontario and south to New Mexico and North Dakota [4,10,13,112]
|Figure 2—Distributions of Altai fescue, rough fescue, and plains rough fescue, respectively. Maps courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. (2018, January 30) .|
Plants in the rough fescue complex grow on a number of soil types including loam and silty loams . In eastern North America, Altai fescue populations are often localized on sand plains, serpentine barrens, limestone plains and basaltic slopes. In western North American, Altai fescue grows on slopes and plateaus in subalpine, alpine, taiga, and tundra zones in open forests, meadows, and grasslands .
Site preferences vary by species. Rough fescue is a dominant component of foothill grasslands. It occurs on more mesic and cooler sites than other species in the rough fescue complex .
Topography supporting plains rough fescue ranges from level to gently rolling. Plains and rough fescue are separated by elevation in southern Alberta. Plains rough fescue occupies prairie sites in central Alberta and Saskatchewan at elevations from 1,200 to 2,000 feet (366-610 m) .
Elevational ranges of species in the rough fescue complex ranges are as follows:
|Colorado||7,900-12,000 feet (2,400-3,700 m)||rough fescue, plains rough fescue [32,125]|
|Montana||2,100-7,400 feet (600-2,300 m)||Altai fescue |
|Oregon||8,000-9,500 feet (2,400-2,900 m)||Altai fescue |
|Washington||2,000-6,000 feet (600-1,900 m)||Altai fescue |
|Wyoming||7,250-8,600 feet (2,200-2,600 m)||plains rough fescue |
|Alberta||2,000-7,500 feet (600-2,300 m)||Altai fescue, rough fescue |
|British Columbia||2,000-3,800 feet (600-1,200 m)||Altai fescue, rough fescue [74,78]|
|Manitoba||1,200-2,400 feet (400-700 m)||Altai fescue, rough fescue, plains rough fescue |
|Saskatchewan||1,900-4,200 feet (600-1,000 m)||Altai fescue, rough fescue [25,74,125]|
PLANT COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT TYPES:
Species in the rough fescue complex are dominant groundlayer plants in a number of nonforested and forested communities throughout their ranges. On grassland sites, they often late-seral dominants and have been used as series indicators [7,91,96]. Shrublands in which they are as an understory indicators include big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), and shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa subsp. floribunda)series [7,91,96].
Altai fescue dominates some grassland and forest types. It grows in tundra meadows in Alaska with downy ryegrass (Elymus innovatus) and bluegrass (Poa spp.) . In Alaskan taiga communities, it grows on windy foothill sites with bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis) . It also grows in boreal lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests . On the steppes of Washington, Altai fescue is often associated with Idaho fescue/parsnipflower buckwheat (Eriogonum heracleoides) and Idaho fescue/common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus) habitat types . In the Northern Rocky Mountains, grassland types dominated by Altai fescue include Altai fescue-Idaho fescue (F. idahoensis) and Altai fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata). Habitat types where Altai fescue dominates the understory have been identified within limber pine (Pinus flexilis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) series [7,91,96].
Rough fescue is common in western Canada. It is a dominant component of several grassland associations of southern Alberta and British Columbia . Common associates in rough fescue prairies include timber oatgrass (Danthonia intermedia), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha), bluegrass (Poa spp.), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and shrubby cinquefoil . In central Alberta and Manitoba, rough fescue commonly grows in association with porcupinegrass (Hesperostipa spartea), western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis), prairie Junegrass, timber oatgrass, and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) [6,12]. In British Columbia, rough fescue occurs in open ponderosa pine forests, in forests within the subalpine zone, and in grassy balds within forested areas .
Plains rough fescue commonly occurs in mixed-grass prairies with blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis)  in parts of the northern Great Plains . It overlaps with mountain rough fescue in parts of the Rocky Mountains . Grazing and agriculture have largely eliminated plains rough fescue from many of the highly productive, low-elevation prairies it once occupied [6,103]. Historically, it also occurred in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) parklands and benches along the Rocky Mountain foothills [45,109]. Griltz and Romo  estimate that less than 5% of prairie once dominated by plains rough fescue remains, primarily as small, isolated remnants.
Plant classifications describing communities dominated by species in the rough fescue complex are as follows:
Forest habitat types of Montana  (Altai fescue)
Forest regions of Montana  (Altai fescue)
Grassland and shrubland habitats of western Montana  (Altai fescue)
Soil and vegetation inventory of near-pristine sites in Montana  (Altai fescue, plains rough fescue)
The fescue grasslands of western Canada  (Altai fescue)
The grasslands of the southern interior of British Columbia  (Altai fescue, plains rough fescue)
The fescue grasslands of Alberta  (Altai fescue, plains rough fescue)
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Plants in the rough fescue complex are erect, native, cool-season, perennial bunchgrasses. Root crowns grow in thick mats and have persistent sheaths [1,27] (fig. 3). Depending on species, plants may be caespitose or rhizomatous in habit [88,105] (see Species descriptions). Culms typically range from 2 to 3.5 feet (0.6-1.0 m) tall, although plant heights to 5 feet (1.5 m) have been recorded. Leaves 12 to 16 inches (30-40 cm). Species in the rough fescue complex have rough, scabrous leaf blades, rachises, and lemmas .
|Figure 3—Persistent root crowns and leaf sheaths of rough fescue. Flickr image by Matt Lavin.|
Individual plants often form large-diameter bunches. Moss and Campbell  reported crown diameters of 10 to 20 inches (25-50 cm) for Altai fescue on undisturbed sites in Alberta. In quaking aspen parklands of Saskatchewan, plant diameters rarely exceed 5 to 6 inches (13-15 cm). Plants have an extensive fibrous root system that can reach more than 4 feet (120 cm) in depth on sites in the black soil zone of Saskatchewan. Approximately 73% of the root system is concentrated in the top 6 inches (15 cm) of soil. On these sites, average yield of underground fescue parts to a depth of 4 feet (1.2 m) is estimated at approximately 11.11 tons/acre . In Alberta, maximum root depth of plains rough fescue averaged 6 inches (15 cm), and maximum rhizome lengths were approximately 23 inches (60 cm) .
Species descriptions: Culm height, color, and other characteristics differ by species . In the field, the species are distinguished primarily by growth habit and other morphological characteristics, and there is overlap among them. Botanical characteristics of each species follow.
Altai fescue is usually densely caespitose, although short, inconspicuous rhizomes are infrequently present. Leaves are yellowish to dark green [1,88]. Plants produce 5 to 10 culms that are 16 to 24 inches (40-60 cm) in height, and have 3 to 5 florets per spikelet [14,49,88].
Rough fescue is densely caespitose, with occasional short rhizomes,. Leaves are bluish to gray-green [14,49,88]. Rough fescue is relatively tall and forms large clumps consisting of up to 25 culms . Culms generally range from 16 to 36 inches (40-90 cm) in height, with 4 to 6 florets per spikelet . Rough fescue has double the chromosome number of the other 2 species .
Plains rough fescue is mat forming in habit, with short, creeping rhizomes. Leaves are bluish to gray-green. Plants produce 3 to 5 culms that range from 8 to 26 inches (20-65 cm) in height. There are 2 to 3 florets per spikelet. Plants are relatively short and less strongly tufted than the other species [1,14,68].
|Figure 4—Plains rough fescue fibrous roots and rhizomes. Image by Brian Elliott, Environmental Consulting. Used with permission.|
In British Columbia, flowering of rough fescue typically occurs from mid-May to mid-June, with seed dispersal from mid- to late July. Maximum plant weights were attained in late June, after culm and blade elongation had ceased. Summer growth is controlled primarily by water availability . Fall regrowth occasionally occurs in plains rough fescue in Manitoba . In British Columbia, fall regrowth of rough fescue occurred in 2 out of 3 years in September or October. Lack of regrowth was attributed to defoliation .
|Dates of phenological development of Altai fescue over a 3-year period on 2 sites in interior British Columbia .|
3,798 feet (1,160 m)
2,800 feet (850 m)
|End of flower||7/1||6/22||6/13||6/23||6/14||6/12|
|Seed in milk||----||----||6/29||6/30||----||6/19|
|Seed in dough||----||7/11||----||7/7||7/5||6/26|
|Leaf growth stops|
|estimated from measurements||6/10||6/29||5/30||6/2||6/7||5/28|
|Fall regrowth begins|
|estimated from measurements||9/9||none||none||9/22||none||10/17|
In Manitoba, plains rough fescue begins growth from mid-April to early May. Plants reach full seedhead development from late May through mid-June, depending on environmental conditions . Although plains rough fescue flowers 2 to 3 weeks earlier than rough fescue, the seed matures at a later date. Mass flowering of plains rough fescue has been reported at irregular intervals. Mass flowering may be due to a combination of warm spring temperatures, few killing frosts, and early heat penetration of the soil .REGENERATION PROCESSES:
Seed production: As is the case with most cool-season grasses, the seed crop is initiated and partially develops during the fall. Final seedhead maturation occurs the next summer. Vegetative buds are maintained throughout the year at approximately 0.09 inch (2.3 mm) above the root crown. Floral initiation occurs primarily during late August and early September. Flowers are gradually elevated to 0.6-inch (15.2-mm) during the winter months. Rapid culm elongation occurs during May and early June .
Year-to-year germination and seed production is variable. Studies in southern Alberta found seed production of rough fescue was erratic, with several years elapsing without appreciable seed set. Important seed years were 1902, 1952, 1964, and 1966 . Plains rough fescue produces seed only infrequently . Seed production of species in the rough fescue complex is not consistently related to basal area or the number of tillers per plant. Stout and others  found prolonged low temperatures enhanced seed development of these species.
Griltz and others  report that "persistence of viable rough fescue seed in the soil is low." In Alberta, the number of viable seed per m2 of rough fescue decreased with grazing . According to Griltz and others  germination in the rough fescue complex is controlled more by water availability than temperature. For example, plains rough fescue is known to germinate over a wide range of temperatures. Germination was highest at constant temperatures of 59 and 68 oF (15 and 20 oC) . Germination of species in the rough fescue complex is reduced by exposure to moist conditions at low temperatures . In field trials in southern Alberta, Johnston and MacDonald  reported germination rates of 86 to 96.5% for Altai fescue. Details on germination characteristics of species in the rough fescue complex by temperature, light, and osmotic potential are available in these sources: [47,95,100,101].
Stands typically take from 3 to 4 years to fully develop. Initial establishment is enhanced on sites that receive protection from grazing. Establishment of plains rough fescue is likely highest where neighboring plants have died or at some distance from established plains rough fescue plants .
Vegetative reproduction: All species in the rough fescue complex reproduce by tillering [1,27,41]. Vegetative regeneration may be reduced by heavy grazing .
Altai fescue sometimes reproduces from short, inconspicuous rhizomes [1,14].
Rough fescue rarely produces rhizomes [14,49,88]. Its tillers appear to survive "several" years and become larger with age . Most tillers are vegetative and lack flowering culms .
Plains rough fescue, which grows along the foothills and in mountain grasslands of the Rocky Mountains, is rhizomatous. In Alberta, bunches are connected by short rhizomes to form a large, loosely consolidated crown. Rhizomes emerge either laterally or from underneath the crown and radiate in all directions. Sprouts are then produced within approximately 0.8 inch (2 cm) of the parent plant .SUCCESSIONAL STATUS:
Altai fescue is common soon after fire in quaking aspen woodlands of Alaska . It is also prevalent on some black spruce (Picea mariana) sites 40 to 100 years after fire in British Columbia . It occurs in early stages of succession in tundra communities of the Alaska Range. It is present into the early shrub stage, but does not reproduce sexually. By the late shrub stage, Altai fescue is no longer present. Generalized succession in these tundra communities is as follows :
|Successional stage||Duration (years)|
|early shrub stage||150-200|
|late shrub stage||200-300|
Susceptibility to fire is related to fire severity, frequency, and season . Root crowns accumulate coarse leaf sheath stubble that persists from year to year. During burning, densely packed stubble accumulations insulate perennating buds located near the soil surface [61,83]. Reductions in plant vigor are more long lasting following growing-season burns than dormant-season burns. Postfire recovery rates decline the further into the growing season plants are burned [12,99]. Survival may be low where reduced fire frequencies have resulted in large-diameter bunches or tufts with heavy litter buildup: Root crowns tend to continue burning long after passage of the flame front [6,126].
Fire regimes: Antos and others  suggest that fire frequencies in the range of 5 to 10 years best maintain species in the rough fescue complex. In parts of Saskatchewan, presettlement fire-return intervals in plains rough fescue communities are estimated at 2 to 10 years . Barrett  estimates presettlement fire-return intervals of 10 to 18 years in ponderosa pine/rough fescue communities in Idaho.
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which these species may occur by entering the species' names in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". The following table provides fire-return intervals for some plant communities in which plants in the rough fescue complex are common.
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range
|plains grasslands||Bouteloua spp.||<35|
|blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass||B. gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii||<35|
|wheatgrass plains grasslands||Pascopyrum smithii||<35 |
|Great Lakes spruce-fir||Picea-Abies spp.||35 to >200 |
|Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine*||Pinus contorta var. latifolia||25-300+ [8,9,94]|
|Pacific ponderosa pine*||P. ponderosa var. ponderosa||1-47|
|interior ponderosa pine*||P. p. var. scopulorum||2-10 |
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||Populus tremuloides||7-120 [9,48,82]|
|aspen-birch||Populus-Betula spp.||35-200 [35,116]|
Although densely packed stubble accumulations help to insulate the perennating
buds when fire severity is low, with very dry burning conditions the dense stubble accumulations can fuel
high-severity fires . Fires that penetrate the duff layer and burn into the
root crowns increase belowground temperatures that can damage belowground
tissues [19,107]. Fire damage can be particularly severe, and mortality can
occur, on sites where reduced fire frequencies have
resulted in heavy litter buildups within large-diameter bunches .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT:
Plants in the rough fescue complex can be severely damaged by severe summer or early fall wildfires. Altai fescue cover was significantly reduced by an early summer wildfire (28 June 1977) on rough fescue-dominated foothills grassland in western Montana. At postfire year 1, rough fescue cover was 8.1% on burned areas and 24.6% on unburned areas. The site had been protected from fire for 32 years and had been ungrazed for almost 80 years. Altai fescue plants were characterized by large-diameter bunches with substantial accumulations of old culm stubble. Mortality occurred where crown diameters exceeded 7.8 inches (20 cm), and many of these plants had burned to below the soil surface. Complete consumption of some bunches produced holes in the ground from 1 to 2 inches (3-5 cm) in depth that were filled with as much as 1 inch (3 cm) of ash .
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Species in the rough fescue complex recover from fire by tillering, sprouting from the root crown, and regenerating from seed [1,45,99,106,107]. Plains rough fescue also sprouts from rhizomes; the other species may do so infrequently (see General Botanical Characteristics). Cover of these fescues is initially reduced by fire regardless of the season of burning, although prefire cover is typically regained within 2 to 3 years on most sites . Burning season and fire severity influence the rate of recovery. Despite burning at high temperatures, these species can sometimes initiate conspicuous green shoots within a week after the fire. Plants are generally unharmed by burning if the plant is dormant . Late summer or autumn lightning fires apparently enhanced postfire growth of rough fescue in Oregon .
|Plains rough fescue sprouting in postfire year 1 after a 2012 fire on Indian Ridge, Wyoming. Image by Brian Elliott, Environmental Consulting. Used with permission.|
Spring burns can adversely affect flower development, and seed production can be reduced. However, in a southeastern British Columbia study, spring fires had no significant effect on rough fescue cover or seed production [12,107]. Elevated soil moistures which are associated with late fall fire may lower damage from fire. Early spring growth and flower development were reported following the fall fires in British Columbia. Earlier growth was attributed to increased soil temperatures resulting from greater heat absorption from the blackened surface .
Nonrhizomatous Altai and rough fescue appear more
susceptible to fire damage than rhizomatous plains rough fescue. Plants are particularly prone to fire
damage on sites where reduced fire frequencies have produced
large-diameter bunches with heavy stubble
accumulations. Antos and others  observed decreased
sprouting with increasing bunch size following
a hot, early summer wildfire in Montana. Crowns less than
4 inches (10 cm) in diameter sprouted vigorously, whereas
sprouting was inhibited in crowns greater than 7.8 inches
(20 cm) in diameter. Three years after the fire, average
coverage of Altai fescue on burned sites was 11.1%
versus 29.9% in unburned areas. Where fire was severe, herbage production remained below
unburned levels for 2 to 3 postfire years .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE:
Cover of these species can be severely reduced when burning occurs during the growing season. On quaking aspen parkland of southern Alberta, Bailey and Anderson  reported a 26% decline 1 year after a spring burn compared to a 6% decline after a fall burn. Altai fescue cover was reduced for at least 3 years: Herbage production on burned sites remained below production on unburned areas. New rough fescue growth on burned sites was approximately 4 inches (10 cm) in height at postfire year 3. In contrast, burning on similar sites immediately after snowmelt—when leaf growth was approximately 1.5 inches (4 cm)—slightly reduced Altai fescue cover but maintained prefire annual production during postfire year 1.
Generally, plains rough fescue responds to fire with increased tiller production. Burned swards are shorter and denser than unburned swards. Apparently the further into the growing season the burning occurs, the greater the detrimental effect. Grilz and Romo  reported reduced tillering of plains rough fescue following spring or fall burns in communities with patchy smooth brome (Bromus inermis). Sinton  observed a nearly linear relationship between herbage production, leaf blade length, and tiller density following burning 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after snowmelt.
Drastic reductions in seed production can occur after spring burns. Bailey and Anderson  reported a 92% reduction in seedstalk production of Altai fescue 3 months after a spring burn in southern Alberta. Following a spring burn in Saskatchewan, biomass in grasslands dominated by plains rough fescue was reduced by 72 to 84% . Plants in the rough fescue complex initiate floral development in the fall. Growing points are gradually elevated during the winter from 0.4 inch (12.6 mm) above the root crown in October to 1.5 inches (40 cm) above in May . Bailey and Anderson  suggest that floral initiation is not affected by spring fires; but by May, the greater height of reproductive growing points leaves them susceptible to fire damage. Seed development of Altai fescue on burned sites in Alberta approximated that on unburned sites within 2 growing seasons. Fall fires had no effect on subsequent seed head development .
In Montana, plains rough fescue decreased 17.5% in the 1st season after fire. During the 2nd growing season after fire, a 5% reduction was noted when compared to prefire levels . The following densities (stems/m2) were reported for rough fescue following spring and fall burning in Saskatchewan :
|Spring burn (1988)||Fall burn (1987)||Unburned|
For further information on plains rough fescue response to fire, see the Fire Case Study. The following Research Project Summaries also provide information postfire responses of species in the rough fescue complex, and on use of prescribed fire in plant communities in which they occur:
It is recommended that spring fires be conducted as soon after snowmelt as possible to minimize fire damage . The degree to which plants recover typically declines as the growing season progresses [5,99]. In northwestern Montana, fall fires increased the chances of soil erosion by wind or water, leaving rough fescue more susceptible to frost damage. Fall fires may also reduce important elk forage, including rough fescue, during the 1st winter after burning .
Protein content (%) of plants in the rough fescue complex may be increased by burning. In central Montana, protein content of Altai fescue ranged from 6.0 to 8.9% on unburned control sites, and from 8.1 to 14.6% on burned sites .Heavy grazing generally hampers fire's ability to ignite and spread, and severe livestock grazing can restrict fire occurrence in rough fescue grasslands .
Burn 1) 8 April - high moisture content of fallen litter resulted
in mostly standing fuel burning and only 43% consumption
Burn 2) 27 April - moisture content of litter was 29% when the fire temperatures were highest
Burn 3) 1 June - no additional information
Burn 4) 31 July - conditions were driest on July 31st, but precipitation at the time of burning increased moisture of the standing fuel
Burn 5) 19 October - greatest percentage of fuel burned on this date
|Air temperature (oC)||Relative humidity (%)|
|Total fuel||Moisture content (%)||Fire temperature*||Fuel consumed|
|(kg/ha)||standing fuel||fallen litter||soil||(oC)||(%)|
|*Approximate fire temperature was recorded using temperature pellets, each designed to melt at a specific temperature. These were arranged on an asbestos card, covered with mica and positioned 4 inches (10 cm) above ground level. This was the height at which maximum temperature occurred in this grassland.|
Yield of rough fescue herbage (kg/ha) produced in the current year, harvested in August 1978 after burning or mowing:
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
Tiller density (number/m2) of plains rough fescue in 1978 and 1979 (after treatment in 1978):
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
Length (cm) of longest leaf of 2-leaf tillers of plains rough fescue in 1978 and 1979 (after treatment in 1978):
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
Leaf growth (cm) of plains rough fescue over a 9-day period in June, 1979 (after treatment in 1978):
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
|Burn 1||Burn 2||Burn 3||Burn 4||Burn 5|
These fescues are used throughout the growing season by a number of big game species including bighorn sheep, mule deer, elk, and bison. They are the primary food for bison herds wintering in the quaking aspen parklands of southern Canada [59,84]. In Alberta, bison utilize rough fescue heavily in fall. Their summer use of rough fescue is described as "moderate" .
Elk seek species in the rough fescue complex as forage. They use Altai fescue heavily on winter ranges in west-central Montana . On the Sun River Game Range of Montana, Altai fescue is the most preferred forage of wintering elk . Elk consumption may also be fairly heavy in spring and fall (20 and 27% "aggregated frequency") . In northern Idaho, elk feed on Altai fescue in midsummer and fall, with highest use in late summer . Altai fescue is also important late fall elk food in subalpine grasslands of British Columbia . In Alberta, elk and cattle favor these fescue species as forage, seeking Altai fescue rangelands , and rough fescue winter rangelands . Seasonal elk use of Altai fescue was as follows in west-central Alberta :
A number of wildlife species—including bighorn sheep, mule deer, elk, and bison—use these fescues throughout the growing season . Winter use of these species by Rocky Mountain mule deer in the United States and Alberta is described as "light" [72,102]. In Montana, white-tailed deer graze Altai fescue during winter in trace amounts ; in northern Idaho, they graze it in early summer . Bighorn sheep make at least "moderate" use of rough fescue on winter ranges of Alberta. During July, it was the largest component of bighorn sheep diets . Winter-ranging mountain goats feed on these fescues on low ridges and slopes, and on exposed high ridges and rock outcrops . Snowshoe hares feed on Altai and rough fescue in summer .PALATABILITY:
Palatability of Altai fescue is rated as follows [32,53]:
|domestic sheep||good||fair||---- (no data)|
In-vitro digestibility studies indicate that these fescues rank slightly above average in relative nutritive value among associated species on grasslands in southwestern Alberta . They make good-quality hay in southern Canada , with crude protein levels of 7% and total digestible nutrients ranging between 44 and 57%. Nutritional value of Altai fescue by phenological stage is as follows :
|Stage||Digestible protein (%)||Cellulose (%)|
Nutritional value of Altai fescue from southwestern Alberta was as follows :
|Stage||Dry matter (%)||Protein (%)||Crude fat (%)||Crude fiber (%)||Ash (%)||Ca (%)||P (%)|
Levels of crude protein, phosphorus, and carotene decline with seasonal growth . In central Montana, protein values of Altai fescue in April averaged 17.0% . In west-central Montana, nutritional values of Altai fescue were as follows :
|Stage||Crude protein (%)||Cellulose (%)||Hemicellulose (%)||Ash (%)|
Mean winter values are as follows :
|Dry mass (%)|
These fescues tolerate winter grazing [61,111,121]. Approximately 80% utilization can occur during dormancy without any appreciable loss in summer vigor . Dormant-season grazing may actually enhance plant vigor by stimulating tillering . However, Campbell and others  suggest that maintenance of excellent or climax conditions is not possible on fescue ranges subjected to grazing.
Plains and rough fescue are described as "sensitive" to summer grazing . Plains rough fescue may be reduced by light to moderate grazing during the growing season in Alberta ; however, overall plant vigor may be unimpaired following light grazing [63,87]. In Alberta, rough fescue was not eliminated despite 80% utilization with light cattle stocking over a 32-year period in which seed was not produced and plants were described as "inconspicuous" [120,123]. A "modest increase" in cattle stocking led to a marked decline in range condition .
Numerous clipping studies have focused on these species, and detailed information is available in these sources: [80,118,123]. In Alberta, production potential of Altai fescue was not affected by a single harvest at the end of August in 3 consecutive years. A single defoliation stimulated tillering, but additional cutting reduced tiller numbers . Plants can be adversely affected by defoliation in September . Clipping studies suggest that greatest mortality occurs when plants are grazed weekly to 2 inches (5 cm) from mid-May to late-June and then once in early September to remove regrowth . Mortality also occurs following weekly, season-long defoliation .
Grazing can cause a general decline in coverage of these fescues. In western Montana, Altai fescue is one of the 1st species to decline after grazing . Common increasers with grazing include Idaho fescue, Parry's oatgrass (Danthonia parryi), needlegrass (Hesperostipa spp.), prairie Junegrass, and thread-leaved sedge (Carex filifolia). Heavy grazing in rough fescue prairie of Alberta led to decreases in rough fescue and increases in Parry oatgrass, Idaho fescue, and wheatgrass (Triticeae) . Prolonged heavy grazing leads to replacement by weedy species such as fringed sagebrush (Artemisia frigida), locoweed (Oxtropis campestris), pussytoes (Antennaria spp.), common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), and rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) [29,33].
Basal area is a good indicator of grazing history on most sites. Following heavy grazing, large, robust bunches are typically reduced to small, inconspicuous shoots. On sites in southern Alberta receiving 17 years of continuous summer cattle grazing, mean percent basal area of rough fescue by percent utilization differed as follows :
|Very heavily grazed
It may be helpful to monitor grazing intensities on cattle and horse summer ranges receiving concentrated use throughout the growing season. To maintain plant vigor of fescue grasslands of Alberta, Campbell and others  recommend grazing intensities that retain 40 to 50% of the current year's growth and 20% of the seedstalks. Deferred-rotation and rest-rotation systems of grazing are recommended for fescue-dominated grasslands in Montana. On low elevation spring and fall ranges, it is recommended that grazing not begin until late spring; earlier grazing may results in exclusive utilization of fescues until other forage species become available . Two to three summers of heavy grazing can effectively eliminate these fescues from sites in Alberta . In Alberta, Altai fescue was nearly eliminated after 5 years of heavy grazing . An erect growth habit permits easy removal of large portions of photosynthetic material. Continued close grazing greatly lowers vigor and eventually results in the death of the plant. Recovery from overgrazing is slow due to erratic seed production and limited tillering abilities. Johnston and MacDonald  report that for rough fescue and plains rough fescue, "Susceptibility to damage from heavy grazing may result from a limited ability of the species to produce lateral tillers from axillary meristems. Our observations suggest that tillering in rough fescue, especially when grazed, is not as vigorous as the data indicated".
In interior British Columbia, rough fescue comprises up to 10% of the dry-matter yield of the middle grassland zone, and up to 50% of the dry-matter yield of the upper grassland zone . Several authors suggest that Altai fescue can be managed as a key forage species on sites where it comprises more than 15% of the total plant composition [53,105].Fescue grasslands are susceptible to invasion by woody species and nonnative herbs. "Brush" has invaded fescue-dominated grasslands in central Alberta . In Montana, the low montane zone is particularly susceptible to establishment of native woody and nonnative herbaceous species . In parts of Montana, large areas of Altai fescue-dominated grasslands have been invaded by Douglas-fir, causing reductions in Altai fescue . Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) has invaded some Altai fescue communities in the Bob Marshall Wilderness and in Glacier National Park . However, rough fescue communities in Montana are described as "fairly resistant" to invasion of spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos). Smooth brome has invaded Altai, rough, and plains rough fescue grasslands in Saskatchewan . Griltz and Romo  recommend monitoring fescue ranges regularly for smooth brome invasion.
|Vegetation classifications in which species in the rough fescue complex occur.|
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