Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION:
Carey, Jennifer H. 1995. Cynodon dactylon. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
On 2 October 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS
from: Bermuda grass
to: Bermudagrass. Images were also added.
NRCS PLANT CODE:
The currently accepted scientific name for Bermudagrass is Cynodon
dactylon (L.) Pers. (Poaceae) [28,31,40,41]. Two varieties are
Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers.
Cynodon dactylon var. aridus Harlan & de Wet
Numerous cultivars have been developed. Many of the studies cited in
this report were conducted using Bermudagrass cultivars. The specific
cultivar name is only mentioned here if it is compared to another
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS:
No special status
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
Bermudagrass is native to Africa but occurs throughout the world in tropical
to warm temperate climates between 45 degrees north and 45 degrees south
latitude . In the United States Bermudagrass is most common in the
subtropical regions from southern California east to the Gulf Coast and
southeastern states. It is adventive north to Washington, Idaho, Utah,
Colorado, Iowa, Michigan, New York, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire
[25,28,31,41]. Populations occurring in cool temperate climates may be
winter hardy cultivars .
|Distribution of Bermudagrass in the United States. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database.
National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC. [2018, October 1] .
FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES40 Desert grasslands
FRES41 Wet grasslands
FRES42 Annual grasslands
AL AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI
ID IL IN IA KS KY LA MD MA MI
MS MO NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC OH
OK OR PA RI SC TN TX UT VA WA
WV DC MEXICO VI PR GU
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS:
1 Northern Pacific Border
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:
SAF COVER TYPES:
Bermudagrass probably occurs on suitable sites within most
SAF Cover Types that fall within its distribution.
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES:
201 Blue oak woodland
202 Coast live oak woodland
203 Riparian woodland
409 Tall forb
717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass
719 Mesquite-liveoak-seacoast bluestem
730 Sand shinnery oak
731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma
732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak)
804 Tall fescue
807 Gulf Coast fresh marsh
808 Sand pine scrub
809 Mixed hardwood and pine
810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills
811 South Florida flatwoods
812 North Florida flatwoods
813 Cutthroat seeps
815 Upland hardwood hammocks
819 Freshwater marsh and ponds
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES:
In the southeastern United States, Bermudagrass occurs in pastures and
fields and in the understory of open woods, forests, orchards, and pine
(Pinus spp.) plantations. In Georgia it occurs in a 15-year fallow
field with blackberry (Rubus spp.), American plum (Prunus americana),
sassafras (Sassafras albidum), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), and numerous
herbaceous plants . In South Carolina it occurs in an 8-year fallow
field dominated by broomsedge bluestem (Andropogon virginicus) and
paintbrush bluestem (A. ternarius) . Bermudagrass occurs with
slender woodoats (Chasmanthium laxum var. sessiliflorum) and big
bluestem (Andropogon gerardi var. gerardi) in the herbaceous layer of a
pine-oak (Quercus spp.) forest in eastern Texas .
In the southwestern United States, Bermudagrass occurs in riparian
areas and in grasslands adjacent to streams and marshes. It is a
frequently encountered understory grass in velvet mesquite (Prosopis
velutina) bosques . A mixed honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa
var. glandulosa)-saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima)-Bermudagrass
association has replaced some native associations in the Rio Grande
floodplain in Big Bend National Park, Texas . On Santa Rosa Island,
California, Bermudagrass is a common understory plant in a riparian
woodland composed of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), arroyo
willow (Salix lasiolepis), and goosefoot (Chenopodium spp.) . In
the Sacramento River valley, California, Bermudagrass occurs in a
gravel bar thicket community dominated by sandbar willow (Salix exigua)
where the willow canopy is not dense .
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Bermudagrass is eaten by livestock . No information was found
discussing beneficial or detrimental effects of Bermudagrass on
Bermudagrass is highly preferred by cattle .
Bermudagrass has good forage value for cattle , and is acceptable
for sheep . Bermudagrass, sampled in September in Oklahoma,
contained 8.1 to 10.2 percent crude protein and was 41.6 to 44.4 percent
Nutritional contents (% dry matter) of Bermudagrass stems and leaves
sampled from the Edwards Plateau region of Texas are as follows :
phosphorus crude protein digestible organic matter
May 24 0.22% 12% 58%
June 28 0.21% 12% 56%
Crude protein was measured for four Bermudagrass cultivars in New
Mexico. Coastal Bermudagrass had the highest crude protein values:
5.5, 7.5, and 7.4 percent for July, August, and October, respectively.
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
Bermudagrass is commonly used to revegetate lignite surface mine spoils
in the southeastern and Gulf Coast states [37,69,81]. It provides good
initial erosion control as well as high forage quality. However, its
use is limited because optimal establishment requires planting by sprig
rather than by seed. Seeding rates and sprig spacings are described
. Bermudagrass planted on uranium mine spoils should not be used
for forage because of potentially high plant selenium concentrations
Bermudagrass declines on mine spoils if not fertilized on a yearly
basis. It may be a good species for initial erosion control followed by
later replacement with lower maintenance plants [69,81]. Harris and
Zuberer  found that Bermudagrass production increased when grown
with subterranean clover (Trifolium subterranean) inoculated with
rhizobia (Rhizobium spp.). The clover grows during the winter months
and increases soil nitrogen which the Bermudagrass then utilizes during
the summer growing season .
Bermudagrass increases streambank substrate stability during floods; it
grows weel in sand and resists scouring . In Arizona riparian areas,
Bermudagrass enhanced postflood development of aquatic macrophyte
OTHER USES AND VALUES:
Bermudagrass is used as a turf grass for lawns, athletic fields, and
golf courses [64,75,81].
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Bermudagrass is a widely planted turf, hay, and pasture grass in the
southern United States. Many cultivars have been developed for
increased drought resistance, cold hardiness, disease resistance, and
forage production. Quisenberry  reviewed the research conducted in
the southeastern United States relevant to the resistance of Bermuda
grass cultivars to insects and mites.
Bermudagrass requires regular fertilizing to maintain high yields and
turf quality. Bermudagrass pastures can be safely and adequately
fertilized with municipal sewage sludge .
Bermudagrass is considered a weed in corn, alfalfa, citrus, grape,
cotton, sugarcane, and other crops, as well as in landscaping and
nonBermudagrass lawns . Bermudagrass is a troublesome weed in
native plant restoration projects [1,35]. In Everglades National Park
in Florida, Bermudagrass primarily colonizes disturbed sites and is not
considered a threat to native vegetation . No information was found
concerning the ability of Bermudagrass to invade and outcompete
undisturbed native vegetation.
Bermudagrass is difficult to eradicate without herbicides. Numerous
herbicides have been tested on Bermudagrass and its various cultivars.
Herbicide application rates and effectiveness are described
[4,22,46,47,66]. Soil solarization is only partially effective at
killing Bermudagrass . The phytotoxins of several fungi which
utilize Bermudagrass have been isolated. Investigations of their
possible use as a control are ongoing .
Bermudagrass is widely used in timber pastures. Timber pastures are
usually fertilized annually. Bermudagrass is tolerant of competition
from a periodically thinned pine overstory. However, pine litter
restricts Bermudagrass reproduction by stolons. Use of prescribed
burning to enhance Bermudagrass by removing litter without damaging
young pines is described . Shade reduces Bermudagrass forage
yields, but as long as pines are small and spaced so that direct
sunlight reaches grass during a portion of each day, yields are
Bermudagrass is suspected of having allelopathic qualities [54,84]. It
inhibited the growth of newly planted peach (Prunus persica) .
Bermudagrass produces cyanogenic compounds .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Bermudagrass is an introduced, perennial, mat-forming, warm season
grass. It is both rhizomatous and stoloniferous. Erect or ascending
culms grow 0.3 to 1.3 feet (0.1-0.4 m) tall. The panicle has two to
seven digitate branches . Rhizomes are hard, scaly, and 0.06 to
0.13 inch (1.5-3.3 mm) in diameter. Stolons are flattened and several
feet long, rooting at nodes . Main root length per plant of four
cultivars ranged from 2.3 to 37.1 feet (0.7-11.3 m) while total root
length ranged from 43 to 4,854 feet (13.0-1,480 m). Root hairs
contributed 64 to 95 percent of the total root length .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM:
Although Bermudagrass reproduces by seeds, it spreads most rapidly by
stolons and rhizomes. Both stolon and rhizome branching intensities
were reduced in response to lower light and lower nutrient levels.
Average stolon and rhizome internode and total lengths are reported
under differing light and nutrient conditions . In a study of six
Bermudagrass variants present in southern Africa, vegetative
reproduction was greater by rhizomes than by stolons .
Seeds, eaten by animals, are widely dispersed. Bermudagrass seeds
present in domestic sheep dung germinated in "large numbers" .
Fernald  stated that seeds are rarely perfect. Seed viability of
the six variants from southern Africa ranged from 0 to 3.5 percent .
Germination of viable seeds is low unless scarification occurs. Seeds
treated with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes had 68 percent germination
after 4 days, but untreated seeds had only 4.5 percent germination after
10 days . Prolonged exposure to acidic conditions decreases seed
germination. Bermudagrass seeds did not germinate in sulfuric acid
solutions of pH 3 or less. In pH 4 and 5 solutions, germination was
about 5 and 10 percent, respectively, after 12 days .
Bermudagrass seeds were present in intact soil/litter samples collected
for a germination study from an upland site in Arizona; seeds may have
come from an aerial seeding of an adjacent property. Equal amounts of
Bermudagrass seeds germinated in the control sample and in the
scarified soil surface treatment. No seeds germinated from soil samples
which had the litter manually removed or burned .
Although adaptable to most soil types, Bermudagrass grows best on
fertile, sandy to silty soils or alluvium [75,81].
Bermudagrass occurs in regions that receive more than 16 inches (410
mm) of rainfall a year. In areas with less rainfall, it requires a
surface source of water or irrigation . Bermudagrass is classified
as a facultative to facultative upland species . In the
southwestern United States, Bermudagrass occurs in irrigated areas and
along streambanks [40,85]. Bermudagrass can expand a short distance
into the upland by transferring water via stolons. In a laboratory
study, Bermudagrass plants in separate moist and dry-soil compartments
transferred water from one compartment to the other . In Organ Pipe
National Monument, Arizona, Bermudagrass occurs in damp areas but shows
no tendency to spread .
Bermudagrass has deep roots and is capable of extending roots during
drought stress. Ten cultivars distributed at least some roots 47 to 59
inches (120-150 cm) deep during a drought stress laboratory test. The
bulk of the root mass was within the top 24 inches (60 cm) .
Bermudagrass is susceptible to cold temperatures, especially those
occurring in the early winter. Anderson and others  studied the
freeze tolerance of six cultivars grown in containers and held
overnight at freezing temperatures. The temperature resulting in fifty
percent mortality ranged from 15 degrees Fahrenheit (-9.6 deg C) to 18
degrees Fahrenheit (-7.7 deg C) for the six cultivars . A winter
hardy cultivar survived three winters in Morgantown, West Virginia, even
though temperatures reached as low as -8 degrees Fahrenheit (-22 deg C)
Bermudagrass is generally tolerant of low soil pH and high salt
concentration. Six strains collected from southern Africa survived at
soil pH of 2.7 . Vogel  reported Bermudagrass growing in soil
with pH as low as 3.2. Bermudagrass dry matter yields were unaffected
by one growing season of irrigation with brackish water, but were
reduced in the second season . Although tolerant of salty soils
[75,81], Bermudagrass does not appear to occur in saltwater wetlands.
It occurs only in the freshwater vegetation type in the Louisiana
coastal region . Although common in the lower Sacramento River
valley, Bermudagrass does not occur in the tidal streambank community
In California Bermudagrass occurs below 2,950 feet (900 m) elevation
. In Colorado it occurs from 4,200 to 5,300 feet (1,280-1,620 m)
elevation . In Utah it occurs along waterways below 465 feet (1,525
Bermudagrass is an early successional species. Shade reduces Bermuda
grass vigor, and complete canopy closure may eliminate Bermudagrass
. It inhabits open locations subject to frequent disturbances such
as grazing, flooding, and fire . After a major flood in March on
the Hassayampa River in Arizona, Bermudagrass cover increased to near
preflood levels by September . In a study of unreclaimed lignite
mines, Bermudagrass was most frequent on recently abandoned sites. It
was not present on sites 20 years old or older .
On the Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge in southern Texas,
Rooseveltweed (Baccharis neglecta), buffel grass (Pennisetum ciliare),
and Bermudagrass were the dominant species after 5 years of old-field
succession. The two grasses may have inhibited the establishment of
other species by successfully competing for moisture and light .
In central Utah, Bermudagrass was present in young saltcedar
communities (age 2 to 3.1 years) but was absent from older communities,
possibly because saltcedar lowers the water table . Horton 
observed that spaces between individual saltcedar are usually dominated
by Bermudagrass or salt grass (Distichlis spicata) if the water table
is 5 feet (1.5 m) deep or less.
Bermudagrass begins growth late in the spring, continues to grow during
the hot summer months, and becomes dormant when the weather cools in the
fall . Near Bakersfield, California, Bermudagrass emerged when
soil temperatures at a depth of 2 inches (5 cm) reached 63 degrees
Fahrenheit (17 deg C) . In Morgantown, West Virginia, growth did
not begin until mid- to late May . Bermudagrass flowers from July
to October .
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS:
In its native Africa, Bermudagrass occurs in grassland communities that
regularly experience fire . In North America, Bermudagrass has
established in plant communities that experience fire such as grasslands
and pine and oak forests. Grassland fires tend to burn quickly,
consuming aboveground fuels but usually not heating the soil enough to
damage rootstocks . The ability of Bermudagrass to reproduce from
rhizomes probably enables it to survive most fires .
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find Fire Regimes".
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY:
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Secondary colonizer - on-site seed
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT:
Fire top-kills Bermudagrass but rhizomes probably remain undamaged
except during severe fire that burns organic soil . Cultivars that
are strongly stoloniferous may be more damaged by fire than those that
are predominantly rhizomatous . Soil- or litter-stored Bermuda
grass seed did not germinate after litter was removed by fire; seeds may
have been destroyed by fire .
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE:
Bermudagrass productivity and cover have both increased and decreased
after early spring fires. Bermudagrass response depends on postfire
moisture conditions and nutrient levels [34,56,57,63].
Four treatments (fertilized, burned in early April, burned and
fertilized, and control) were applied to an Oklahoma grassland of
prairie threeawn (Aristida oligantha), Bermudagrass, little bluestem
(Schizachyrium scoparium), and paintbrush bluestem. Bermudagrass cover
increased significantly (P<0.05) over control levels with fertilization
and the burning-fertilizing combination, but increased only slightly
with burning alone. The burning-fertilizing treatment resulted in
slightly higher cover than the fertilized treatment .
A March 5 fire on a Georgia old field resulted in a decrease in Bermuda
grass yield. The control produced 14.7 grams per square meter and the
burned area produced 0.24 gram per square meter in the summer after the
fire. Bermudagrass was a minor species on the site . Postfire
moisture conditions were not reported.
No change was detected in Bermudagrass cover after a dormant season
fire in a mid-grass community in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania,
Spring burning stimulates seed production of Bermudagrass. In Georgia
Bermudagrass burned on March 29 produced 46 pounds of seeds per acre
compared to 16 pounds per acre on the unburned control. The following
year the site was burned on April 15, and Bermudagrass produced 29
pounds per acre on the burn compared to 3 pounds per acre on the control
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
Early spring prescribed burning is regularly used in Bermudagrass
pastures to remove old stubble and manure, reduce insects and disease,
control woody sprouts, and reduce weeds [34,36,45,56,57,62]. Prescribed
burning of Bermudagrass may control leaf spot and stem blight caused by
Helminthosporium spiciferum and H. rostratum . Hamilton 
recommended burning only in years with sufficient soil moisture to
promote rapid postfire growth. However, in areas with high rainfall (30
to 40 inches [760-1,020 mm]) or where irrigation is available, burning
can be done on an annual basis . Pinkerton and Rice  reported
that some cultivars can be burned as often as needed with either
headfires or backfires. Burning should take place while plants are
still dormant. The recommended time is 1 week before the average date
of the last killing frost [34,56].
Average dry matter yield of Bermudagrass pasture burned March 1 in
Georgia was 832 pounds per acre (1,000 kg/ha) higher than yields of
unburned controls. Digestibility and crude protein content of the
Bermudagrass were not affected by burning. Because of an increase in
absorbed solar radiation, burning increased the soil temperatures at 1-,
2-, and 4-inch (2.5, 5, and 10 cm) depths for 2 to 3 weeks after
burning. Dry matter yields were positively related to soil
temperatures, but the relationship was subject to the modifying
influences of rainfall, air temperature, and soil fertility .
Morris  reported that burning Bermudagrass pastures had differing
effects on forage yields depending on fertilization levels. Yields
increased by 1,017 pounds per acre (1,140 kg/ha) after annual spring
burning followed by a high level of fertilization on a Georgia site, but
yields remained unchanged with medium and low levels of fertilization.
Burning reduced weeds regardless of fertilization level. Burning on
April 1 provided better weed control than burning on January 1 or March
The effects of fire on Bermudagrass yield vary among cultivars.
Pinkerton and Rice  investigated the effects of annual March
backfires and headfires on the yields of six Bermudagrass cultivars.
After 3 years of annual burning, yields of `Coastal,' `Common,'
`Brazos,' and `Tifton 44' were unaffected by either backfire or
headfire; `Tifton 78' was reduced by backfire only; and `Grazer' was
reduced by both backfire and headfire. Fire-related yield reductions
occurred during only the first two of the five yearly harvests. Yield
reductions appeared to be related to how stoloniferous the cultivar was,
with the more stoloniferous cultivars showing greater reductions,
particularly when burned with backfires which traveled more slowly than
Spring burning prior to urea application may decrease the amount of
gaseous ammonia lost when urea reacts with organic matter. In a Georgia
study Bermudagrass yields from fields burned and fertilized with urea
did not differ significantly from fields fertilized with ammonium
nitrate fertilizer .
SPECIES: Cynodon dactylon
1. Anderson, Bertin W.; Disano, John; Brooks, Donald L.; Ohmart, Robert D.
1984. Mortality and growth of cottonwood on dredge-spoil. In: Warner,
Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems:
Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of the
conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press: 438-444. 
2. Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Taliaferro, Charles M.; Martin, Dennis L. 1993.
Evaluating freeze tolerance of bermudagrass in a controlled environment.
HortScience. 28(9): 955. 
3. Bainbridge, David A. 1990. Soil solarization for restorationists.
Restoration & Management Notes. 8(2): 96-98. 
4. Bedmar, F. 1992. Evaluation on postemergence grass herbicides against
Cynodon dactylon in sunflower. Annals of Applied Biology. 120(Supp):
5. Belesky, D. P.; Perry, H. D.; Windham, W. R.; [and others]. 1991.
Productivity and quality of bermudagrass in a cool temperate
environment. Agronomy Journal. 83(5): 810-813. 
6. Bennett, Peter S.; Kunzmann, Michael R. 1989. A history of the
Quitobaquito Resource Management Area, Organ Pipe Cactus National
Monument, Arizona. Tech. Rep. No. 26. San Francisco, CA: U.S. Department
of the Interior, National Park Service, Western Region. 77 p. 
7. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,
reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's
associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.
8. Boeer, William J.; Schmidly, David J. 1977. Terrestrial mammals of the
riparian corridor in Big Bend National Park. In: Johnson, R. Roy; Jones,
Dale A., tech. coords. Importance, preservation and management of
riparian habitat: a symposium: Proceedings; 1977 July 9; Tucson, AZ.
General Technical Report RM-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment
Station: 212-217. 
9. Bogle, Laurie A.; Engle, David M.; McCollum, F. Ted. 1989. Nutritive
value of range plants in the Cross Timbers. Report P-908. Stillwater,
OK: Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station. 29 p. 
10. Brotherson, Jack D.; Carman, John G.; Szyska, Lee A. 1984. Stem-diameter
age relationships of Tamarix ramosissima in central Utah. Journal of
Range Management. 37(4): 362-364. 
11. Brown, David E.; Lowe, Charles H.; Hausler, Janet F. 1977. Southwestern
riparian communities: their biotic importance and management in Arizona.
In: Johnson, R. Roy; Jones, Dale A., tech. coords. Importance,
preservation and management of riparian habitat: a symposium:
Proceedings; 1977 July 9; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-43. Fort
Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky
Mountain Forest and Range Experiment 201-211. 
12. Bryan, W. E. 1918. Hastening the germination of bermuda grass seed by
the sulfuric acid treatment. Journal of the American Society of
Agronomy. 10: 279-281. 
13. Burton, Glenn W. 1944. Seed production of several southern grasses as
influenced by burning and fertilization. Journal of the American Society
of Agronomy. 36: 523-529. 
14. Burton, Glenn W.; Jackson, James E.; Knox, F. E. 1959. The influence of
light reduction upon the production, persistence and chemical
composition of coastal bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon. Agronomy Journal.
51: 537-542. 
15. Chabreck, Robert H. 1972. Vegetation, water and soil characteristics of
the Louisiana coastal region. Bulletin 664. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana
State University, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station. 72 p.
16. Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen,
Karen C. 1990. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands
National Park. Tech. Rep. No. 42. Davis, CA: University of California at
Davis, Institute of Ecology, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies
Unit. 93 p. 
17. Clason, Terry R. 1985. Prescribed burning to improve timber-pastures.
Louisiana Agriculture. 29(1): 20-21. 
18. Conard, Susan G.; MacDonald, Rod L.; Holland, Robert F. 1980. Riparian
vegetation and flora of the Sacramento Valley. In: Sands, Anne, editor.
Riparian forests in California: Their ecology and conservation:
Symposium proceedings; 1977 May 14; Davis, CA. Davis, CA: University of
California, Division of Agricultural Sciences: 47-55. 
19. D'Antonio, Carla M.; Vitousek, Peter M. 1992. Biological invasions by
exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review
of Ecological Systems. 23: 63-87. 
20. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information
network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and
Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
21. Dong, Ming; de Kroon, Hans. 1994. Plasticity in morphology and biomass
allocation in Cynodon dactylon, a grass species forming stolons and
rhizomes. Oikos. 70(1): 99-106. 
22. Edwards, M. B.; Dougherty, P. M. 1988. Controlling bermudagrass to
establish loblolly pines. In: Environmental legislation and its effects
on weed science: Proceedings, 41st annual meeting of the Southern Weed
Science Society; 1988 January 18-20; Tulsa, OK. 41: 202-209. 
23. Everitt, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. L.; Scott, G.; Dahl, B. E. 1981. Seasonal
food preferences of cattle on native range in the south Texas plains.
Journal of Range Management. 34(5): 384-388. 
24. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
25. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections
supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p.
(Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny
Series; vol. 2). 
26. Fuls, E. R.; Bosch, O. J. H. 1990. Environmental stress resistance and
propagation studies of six Cynodon dactylon strains to assess
reclamation suitability. Landscape and Urban Planning. 19: 281-289.
27. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].
1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range
ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
28. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of
northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New
York Botanical Garden. 910 p. 
29. Glendenington, G. E.; Pase, C. P. 1964. Effects of litter treatment on
germination of species found under manzanita. Journal of Range
Management. 17: 265-266. 
30. Golley, Frank B. 1965. Structure and function of an old-field broomsedge
community. Ecological Monographs. 35(1): 113-137. 
31. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. 
32. Green, R. L.; Beard, J. B.; Oprisko, M. J. 1991. Root hairs and root
lengths in nine warm-season turfgrass genotypes. Journal of the American
Society for Horticultural Science. 116(6): 965-969. 
33. Hamilton, K. C.; Arle, H. F.; McRae, G. N. 1960. Control and
identification of crop weeds in southern Arizona. Bulletin 296. Tucson,
AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 67 p.
34. Hamilton, Wayne T. 1980. Prescribed burning of improved pastures. In:
Hanselka, C. Wayne, ed. Prescribed range burning in the coastal prairie
and eastern Rio Grande Plains of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980
October 16; Kingsville, TX. College Station, TX: The Texas A&M
University System, Texas Agricultural Extension Service: 114-128.
35. Harcomb, P. A. 1989. Reports progress of three prairie
restoration/management projects in Houston area (Texas). Restoration and
Management Notes. 7(1): 35. 
36. Hardison, John R. 1980. Role of fire for disease control in grass seed
production. Plant Disease. July: 641-645. 
37. Harris, Pamela A.; Zuberer, David A. 1993. Subterranean clover enhances
production of `coastal' bermudagrass in the revegetation of lignite mine
spoil. Agronomy Journal. 85: 236-241. 
38. Hays, K. L.; Barber, J. F.; Kenna, M. P.; McCollum, T. G. 1991. Drought
avoidance mechanisms of selected bermudagrass genotypes. HortScience.
26(2): 180-182. 
39. Heady, Harold F. 1954. Viable seed recovered from fecal pellets of sheep
and deer. Journal of Range Management. 7: 259-261. 
40. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of
California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.
41. Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Misc.
Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Administration. 1051 p. [2nd edition revised by
Agnes Chase in two volumes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.]. 
42. Horton, Jerome S. 1977. The development and perpetuation of the
permanent tamarisk type in the phreatophyte zone of the Southwest. In:
Johnson, R. Roy; Jones, Dale A., tech. coords. Importance, preservation
and management of riparian habitat: a symposium: Proceedings; 1977 July
9; Tucson, AZ. General Technical Report RM-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and
Range Experiment Station: 124-127. 
43. Hossner, L. R.; Woodard, H. J.; Bush, Janis. 1992. Growth and selenium
uptake of range plants propagated in uranium mine spoils. Journal of
Plant Nutrition. 15(12): 2743-2761. 
44. Huston, J. E.; Rector, B. S.; Merrill, L. B.; Engdahl, B. S. 1981.
Nutritional value of range plants in the Edwards Plateau region of
Texas. Report B-1375. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University System,
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 16 p. 
45. Jackson, James E.; Burton, Glenn W. 1962. Influence of sod treatment and
nitrogen placement on the utilization of urea nitrogen by coastal
bermudagrass. Journal of Range Management. 54: 47-49. 
46. Johnson, B. J. 1983. Effects of edging herbicide treatments on
bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and woody ornamentals. Weed Science. 31:
47. Johnson, B. J. 1988. Herbicide control of bermudagrass in tall fescue,
centipedegrass, and zoysia turfgrasses. Research Bulletin 379. Athens,
GA: The University of Georgia, College of Agriculture, Georgia
Agricultural Experiment Station. 23 p. 
48. Johnston, David W.; Odum, Eugene P. 1956. Breeding bird populations in
relation to plant succession on the Piedmont of Georgia. Ecology. 37(1):
49. Keeley, Paul E.; Thullen, Robert J. 1989. Influence of planting date on
growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Weed Science. 37(4): 531-537.
50. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation
of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:
American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
51. Lane, Robert A. 1988. The effect of sewage sludge application to
bermudagrass on forage production, and metal accumulation. Agriculture,
Ecosystems and Environment. 20: 209-219. 
52. Lugg, D. G.; Watson, C. E. 1983. Forage production and crude protein
percentages of bermudagrass in southern New Mexico. Research Report 516.
Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment
Station. 5 p. 
53. Mathias, E. L.; Bennett, O. L.; Lundberg, P. E. 1973. Effect of rates of
nitrogen on yield, nitrogen use, and winter survival of midland
bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (l.) Pers.] in Appalachia. Agronomy
Journal. 65: 67-68. 
54. McDonald, Philip M. 1986. Grasses in young conifer
plantations--hindrance and help. Northwest Science. 60(4): 271-278.
55. Minckley, W. L.; Clark, Thomas O. 1981. Vegetation of the Gila River
Resource Area, eastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 3(3): 124-140. 
56. Monson, Warren G.; Burton, Glenn W.; Williams, E. Jay; Butler, James L.
1974. Effects of burning on soil temperature and yield of coastal
bermudagrass. Agronomy Journal. 66: 212-214. 
57. Morris, H. D. 1968. Effect of burning on forage production of `coastal'
bermudagrass at varying levels of fertilization. Agronomy Journal. 60:
58. Northam, F. E.; Callihan, R. H.; Old, R. R. 1991. Range extensions of
four introduced grasses in Idaho. Journal of the Idaho Academy of
Science. 27(1): 19-21. 
59. O'Reagain, Peter J. 1993. Plant structure and the acceptability of
different grasses to sheep. Journal of Range Management. 46: 232-236.
60. Odum, Eugene P.; Pomeroy, Steven E.; Dickinson, J. C., III; Hutcheson,
Kermit. 1974. The effects of late winter litter burn on the composition,
productivity and diversity of a 4-year old fallow-field in Georgia. In:
Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1973 March
22-23; Tallahassee, FL. No. 13. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research
Station: 399-419. 
61. Pasternak, D.; Nerd, A.; De Malach, Y. 1993. Irrigation with brackish
water under desert conditions. IX. The salt tolerance of six forage
crops. Agricultural Water Manangement. 24(4): 321-334. 
62. Pinkerton, B. W.; Rive, J. S. 1992. Differential response of
bermudagrass cultivars to headfires and backfires. Journal of Production
Agriculture. 5(4): 562-565. 
63. Powell, J.; Zawl, H. T.; Crockett, J. J.; [and others]. 1979. Central
Oklahoma rangeland response to fire, fertilization and grazing by sheep.
Bulletin B-744. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Agricultural
Experiment Station, Division of Agriculture. 25 p. 
64. Quisenberry, S. S. 1990. Plant resistance to insects and mites in forage
and turf grasses. In: Plant resistance to insects: Symposium
proceedings. In: Florida Entomolgist. Gainesville, FL: Entomological
Society. 73(3): 411-421. 
65. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant
geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
66. Reber, L. J.; Miller, R. K.; Tweedy, J. A.; Butler, J. D. 1971.
Herbicidal effects of picloram on bermudagrass. Weed Science. 19(5):
67. Reed, Porter B., Jr. 1988. National list of plant species that occur in
wetlands: California (Region O). Biological Report 88(26.10).
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife
Service. In cooperation with: National and Regional Interagency Review
Panels. 135 p. 
68. Ryan, John; Miyamoto, Seiichi; Stroehlein, J. I. 1975. Effect of acidity
on germination of some grasses and alfalfa. Journal of Range Management.
28(2): 154-155. 
69. Skousen, J. G.; Call, C. A. 1987. Grass and forb species for
revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in east central Texas.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 42(6): 438-442. 
70. Skousen, J. G.; Call, C. A.; Knight, R. W. 1990. Natural revegetation of
an unreclaimed lignite surface mine in east-central Texas. Southwestern
Naturalist. 35(4): 434-440. 
71. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern
Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire
Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. 
72. Strobel, Gary A. 1991. Biological control of weeds. Scientific American.
265(1): 72-78. 
73. Stromberg, J. C.; Richter, B. D.; Patten, D. T.; Wolden, L. G. 1993.
Response of a Sonoran riparian forest to a 10-year return flood. Great
Basin Naturalist. 53(2): 118-130. 
74. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North
American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska
Press. 465 p. 
75. Thornburg, Ashley A. 1982. Plant materials for use on surface-mined
lands. SCS-TP-157. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil
Conservation Service. 88 p. 
76. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1957.
Grasses and legumes for forage and conservation. ARS 22-42. Washington,
DC. 32 p. 
77. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.
2018. PLANTS Database, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural
Resources Conservation Service (Producer). Available: https://plants.usda.gov.
78. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP
Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National
Biological Survey. 
79. Van Bavel, C. H. M.; Baker, J. M. 1985. Water transfer by plant roots
form wet to dry soil. Naturwissenschaften. 72: 606-607. 
80. Van Rensburg, H. J. 1972. Fire: its effect on grasslands, including
swamps--southern, central and eastern Africa. In: Proceedings, annual
Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1971 April 22-23; Tallahassee, FL.
No. 11. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 175-199.
81. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the
eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest
Experiment Station. 190 p. 
82. Vogl, Richard J. 1974. Effects of fire on grasslands. In: Kozlowski, T.
T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press:
83. Vora, Robin S.; Messerly, John F. 1990. Changes in native vegetation
following different disturbances in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas.
Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 151-158. 
84. Weller, Stephen C.; Skroch, Walter A.; Monaco, Thomas J. 1985. Common
bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) interference in newly planted peach
(Prunus persica) trees. Weed Science. 33: 50-56. 
85. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry
C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,
UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
86. Whiteaker, Louis D.; Doren, Robert F. 1989. Exotic plant species
management strategies and list of exotic species in prioritized
categories for Everglades National Park. Research/Resources Management
Report SER-89/04. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National
Park Service, Southeast Region, Science and Natural Resources Division.
21 p. 
87. Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition
and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian
woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.;
Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,
conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;
1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press: 642-651. 
88. Wilson, Robert E. 1989. The vegetation of a pine-oak forest in Franklin
County, Texas, and its comparison with a similar forest in Lamar County,
Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 41(2): 167-176. 
FEIS Home Page