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SPECIES:  Carex garberi

Introductory

SPECIES: Carex garberi
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Carex garberi. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/cargar/all.html [].
ABBREVIATION: CARGAR SYNONYMS: Carex garberi subsp. garberi Carex garberi subsp. bifaria (Fern.) Hulten [1,7] NRCS PLANT CODE: CAGA3 COMMON NAMES: elk sedge Garber sedge TAXONOMY: The scientific name of elk sedge is Carex garberi Fern. (Cyperaceae) [7,8,15]. LIFE FORM: Graminoid FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY


DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Carex garberi
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Elk sedge occurs from Quebec south to New York and west to Indiana. From Quebec it extends west to British Columbia and north to Alaska. In the western cordillera elk sedge extends from British Columbia east to Alberta and south to California, Nevada, and Idaho [1,4,6]. ECOSYSTEMS: FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES44 Alpine STATES: AK CA ID IN ME MI NV NY ND OH OR PA UT WA AB BC MB NB ON PQ SK YT BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS: 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS: K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K025 Alder - ash forest K052 Alpine meadows and barren K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K098 Northern floodplain forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K106 Northern hardwoods SAF COVER TYPES: 13 Black spruce - tamarack 16 Aspen 18 Paper birch 19 Gray birch - red maple 24 Hemlock - yellow birch 46 Eastern redcedar 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 62 Silver maple - American elm 95 Black willow 217 Aspen 221 Red alder 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 252 Paper birch HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: NO-ENTRY

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Carex garberi
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: No information was available on this topic. PALATABILITY: No information was available on this topic. NUTRITIONAL VALUE: No information was available on this topic. COVER VALUE: No information was available on this topic. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: No information was available on this topic. OTHER USES AND VALUES: No information was available on this topic. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: No information was available on this topic.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Carex garberi
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Elk sedge is a native, perennial, monoecious graminoid. It is loosely caespitose. Culms are 19.7 to 27.6 inches (0.5-0.7 m) tall [1], firm, and triangular [6]. Leaves are shorter to much taller than the culms [4], and 0.8 to 0.16 inches (2-4 mm) wide. The terminal inflorescence is 0.24 to 0.79 inches (6 to 20 mm) long [1]. The achene is 0.06 inches (1.5 mm) long. The perigynia surrounding the achene is lenticular and 0.8 to 0.12 inches (2-3 mm) long [1]. Elk sedge is stoloniferous or rhizomatous, the rhizome being elongated [1,6]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Hemicryptophyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Elk sedge sprouts from perennating buds at the base of the culms [6] and it reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes [1]. It also reproduces by seed [6]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Elk sedge is found in swamps, on the margins of ponds [6], and in wet places [7]. It is found on calcareous sands, gravels, and ledges, especially near the Great Lakes [4,10,15]. In Michigan it occurs on wet sandy, gravelly, or marly shores, interdunal flats, rock crevices, and at the edges of northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) thickets [15]. In Maine it occurs on riverbanks [12]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: No information was available on this topic. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Elk sedge blooms from June to August, depending on location [4,10,12].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Carex garberi
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Although culms are probably killed by fire during the growing season, elk sedge probably sprouts from rhizomes [6] after the aerial portions are burned. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil Tussock graminoid

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Carex garberi
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Elk sedge culms are probably killed by fire during the growing season. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: No information was available on this topic. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: No information was available on this topic.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Carex garberi
REFERENCES: 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 4. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 5. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 6. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 7. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 8. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 9. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 10. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383] 11. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 12. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604] 13. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 14. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 15. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471]

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