Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page

Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Xerophyllum tenax
Common beargrass in a Sierran mixed-conifer forest on the Plumas National Forest. Photo with permission of Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences.


SPECIES: Xerophyllum tenax
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Crane, M. F. 1990. Xerophyllum tenax. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION : XERTEN SYNONYMS : Xerophyllum douglasii Helonias tenax NRCS PLANT CODE : XETE COMMON NAMES : common beargrass bear grass bear-grass Indian basket grass Quip-Quip soap-grass TAXONOMY : The scientific name of common beargrass is Xerophyllum tenax (Pursh) Nutt. [54]. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Xerophyllum tenax
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Common beargrass grows from British Columbia east to southwestern Alberta. It extends south through the Coast Ranges and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada to central California. It also extends south in the Rocky Mountains into Idaho, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming [51,70]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES25 Larch FRES26 Lodgepole pine STATES : CA ID MT OR WA WY AB BC BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 4 Sierra Mountains 8 Northern Rocky Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K005 Mixed conifer forest K007 Red fir forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K009 Pine - cypress forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K029 California mixed evergreen forest SAF COVER TYPES : 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 207 Red fir 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 212 Western larch 213 Grand fir 215 Western white pine 218 Lodgepole pine 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 231 Port Orford-cedar 234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Within its range, common beargrass is often a dominant on upper slope sites under subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), Shasta red fir (A. shastensis), grand fir (A. grandis), western white pine (Pinus monticola), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) [10,11,18,22,80]. In southern Oregon it is a useful indicator of cool summer soil temperatures [65]. In the Cascade Mountains of Oregon common beargrass is an indicator of cold and dry forest sites [48,49]. The grand fir/common beargrass habitat type indicates the cool-dry limits of the grand fir zone in Idaho [18,79]. Published classification schemes listing common beargrass as an indicator species or a dominant part of vegetation in habitat types (hts), community types (cts), or plant associations (pas) are presented below: Area Classification Authority WY forest hts Alexander 1986 CA, OR: Siskiyou forest pas Atzet and Wheeler 1984 Mountain Province sw OR: Siskiuou Region forest pas Atzet and others 1984 n ID forest hts, cts Cooper and others 1987 e Wa, n ID forest hts, cts Daubenmire and Daubenmire 1968 WA: Cedar River montane forest cts Del Moral and Long 1977 Drainage OR: c Cascades forest pas, cts Dyrness and others 1974 Pacific Northwest general veg. pas Hall 1984 w OR forest pas Halverson and others 1986 OR: w Cascades forest hts, cts, pas Hawk 1979 OR: Willamette NF general veg. pas Hemstrom and others 1987 w OR forest pas Hemstrom and others 1982 WA: Mount Rainier NP forest hts, cts Moir and others 1976 MT forest hts Pfister and others 1977 e ID, w WY forest hts Steele and others 1983 c ID forest hts Steele and others 1981 c OR general veg. pas Volland 1985a


SPECIES: Xerophyllum tenax
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Common beargrass flower stalks are a delicacy for deer and elk and are eaten by other big game animals as well [18,90]. Common beargrass foliage is of low forage value. Elk eat common beargrass during early summer in Montana [31,57,90]. Thick mats of common beargrass and sedge (Carex spp.) provide excellent feeding sites for pocket gophers [48] and other rodents which attract raptors [10]. Sometimes grizzly bears use common beargrass leaves as nesting material in their winter dens [95]. PALATABILITY : The relish and degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for common beargrass in Montana is rated as poor for cattle, sheep, horses, elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer [27,35]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Common beargrass provides fair cover for small mammals but poor cover for small nongame birds and upland game birds in Montana [27]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : In Montana common beargrass has potential for erosion control and long-term revegetation, with high biomass production, good growth on gentle or moderate slopes and fair growth on steep slopes [27]. Common beargrass seed needs at least 12 to 16 weeks of cold stratification for germination; seed germinates best in vermiculite. Further propagation details are available [78]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans in the Rocky Mountain region traded this plant to tribes from other areas. Eastern prairie tribes used the boiled roots for hair tonic and as a treatment for sprains. Coastal tribes bleach and dye the leaves for decorative designs woven into baskets [58] and Southwest tribes use it in basketweaving. New common beargrass leaves produced the first year after a fire are preferred for basket weaving because they are stronger, thinner, and more pliable [53]. In recent years florists have discovered that common beargrass leaves make sturdy long-lasting greens, and some National Forests are issuing permits for common beargrass harvesting [24]. Common beargrass rhizomes may be toxic to people [58]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : West Coast Sites: Common beargrass is very frost tolerant [43,48]. When common beargrass is an understory dominant in the Pacific silver fir and mountain hemlock zones of the Oregon Cascades, the site is usually very frost-prone, often droughty, and frequently poor in nutrients [43,48]. Conifer regeneration is often difficult on these sites due to cold subsurface soil temperatures, high surface temperatures after snowmelt, rapid soil drying, common beargrass-sedge mats, pocket gophers, and a short growing season with prolonged frosts [48,49]. Management suggestions for these sites include using a shelterwood system, managing residual Pacific silver fir, or providing other types of protection [48]. On some Pacific silver fir, mountain hemlock and western white pine sites in central and southern Oregon, common beargrass cover may be very dense (60 to 75%), which creates a serious planting barrier [10,30]. Clearcutting and scarification in Oregon often produce areas with high densities of common beargrass and sedge that provide good habitat for pocket gophers which feed heavily on tree seedlings [48,49]. However, in an Oregon study of an area with low common beargrass cover, common beargrass disappeared immediately after logging and reappeared in trace amounts 4 years later [28]. On partial cuts in southwestern Oregon mixed-conifer and mixed-evergreen forest types, common beargrass presence indicates that good natural regeneration is probable [38]. In many western hemlock and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) associations of southwestern Oregon, common beargrass indicates poorer (cooler, dry) sites [10]. Rocky Mountain sites: In eastern Washington, Idaho, and western Montana, subalpine fir and mountain hemlock sites with common beargrass as an understory dominant are often too droughty in the summer for Engelmann spruce regeneration [22]. Common beargrass is generally a dominant on cool, dry sites in the Rocky Mountains where both site preparation and shade may be needed for prompt regeneration. Lodgepole pine is frequently dominant in early succession on these sites [73,79]. Common beargrass decreases sharply or may be lost completely after scarification on all Montana habitat types because of mechanical damage to its rhizomes [9,52]. Common beargrass may take 25 or more years to recover from scarification [5,9]. Other Disturbance: Because of its tough, wiry leaves and tufted growth form, common beargrass is tolerant of trampling [17]. Chemical Control: Common beargrass appears to be fairly resistant to many herbicides [26,60]. Moderate control can be achieved with bromacil, hexazinone, and terbacil, which are also associated with conifer seedling mortality. Since common beargrass roots are deeper than those of most conifer seedlings, common beargrass control may be less necessary than control of other competitors, such as long-stolon sedge (Carex pensylvanica), with shallow roots that compete directly with conifer seedling roots. Detailed information about chemical control has been reported by Dimock [26] and summarized by Miller and Kidd [64].


SPECIES: Xerophyllum tenax
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Common beargrass is a perennial, evergreen herb from the lily family with basal leaves that form dense clumps or tussocks [81]. The linear leaves arise from a short, woody rhizome and are scabrous, tough, and wiry [51]. If pulled or stepped on, the grasslike leaves easily slide out of their sheaths [58]. Any particular plant may not bloom for several years but when it does it will produce a leafy flowering stalk that may be up to 6 feet (15 dm) tall with numerous small white flowers [51]. The sequence of bloom is from the lowest flowers to the upper flowers resulting in a knob of tight buds on top of the flower cluster [42]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Colonies of common beargrass tend to bloom in 5- to 7-year cycles, possibly when environmental conditions are right [58]. After fruit set, the plants that bloom die. However, normal vegetative reproduction of offshoots has already occurred [42]. The fruit is a small three-lobed capsule containing several seeds [42]. Seeds are 0.16 inch (4 mm) long and average about 830,000 per pound (1,830,150/kg) [70,78]. The seed needs cold stratification for germination [78]. Vegetative reproduction is by offshoots of the rhizome [42]. Common beargrass is usually considered to be long-lived because of its continual production of offshoots [56]. Following disturbances, including mud flows and debris slides, common beargrass sprouts from rhizomes [2]. When buried in tephra, which forms a new surface horizon, common beargrass rhizomes do not elongate and grow into the tephra. Instead the plant continues to grow from the old rhizome for at least the first year [6]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Common beargrass is widely found as a understory dominant in cool western spruce-fir forests. It is also common under alpine larch (Larix lyallii) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)-subalpine fir stands on cold, rocky sites at upper timberline [7,34]. It is less common below the subalpine zone [56]. Common understory dominants growing with common beargrass are huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.), grouse whortleberry (Vaccinium scoparium), and sedges [22,18]. Rocky Mountain sites: At the northeastern limit of its range in Waterton Park, common beargrass is found on moderate to steep south-facing slopes on colluvial and morainal landforms with Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), subalpine fir, and whitebark pine [1,67]. Common beargrass is dominant with menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea) in subalpine forests near the border between the United States and Canada [19]. Although they grow together, common beargrass favors more xeric conditions than does menziesia [63]. In northern Idaho common beargrass grows predominantly on ridges and the upper portions of slopes [22,69]. Pure stands of common beargrass are found in treeless open parks with summer-dry soils on high ridges and southerly slopes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington [21]. In northern Idaho western redcedar (Thuja plicata) stands, common beargrass is most common at higher elevations [40]. In Montana, common beargrass may extend slightly from the forest into adjacent grasslands [76]. West Coast sites: In the Coastal Mountains of Oregon, common beargrass is found on steep sites on well-drained, frequently shallow, soils on rugged, rocky topography near ridgetops [50]. It is often in areas with active sheet erosion [50]. In the Oregon Cascades it may be dominant on cold dry ridges and mountain tops from 4,700 to 5,800 feet (1,433-1,768 m) with soils that are poorly drained in spring and excessively well drained in summer. These sites often show no sign of having been previously forested, but this community could be a prolonged seral stage [49]. While common beargrass grows on most sites in the western hemlock zone of Oregon, Washington, and northern California, it has higher cover on drier sites and grows well on talus or scree slopes [30,34,77]. In the silver fir zone it does best toward the xeric end of the moisture gradient [30]. Understories on relatively dry silver fir and mountain hemlock sites may be depauperate with little growing besides common beargrass and huckleberry [33,34]. In Oregon's subalpine fir zone it does best on upper south slopes and ridges [34]. Common beargrass is common in the mixed-evergreen and mixed-conifer zones on relatively cool, dry sites under Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), grand fir, incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), tanoak, golden chinquapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla), and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) in southern Oregon, northern California, and the Siskiyou Mountains [12,34,77]. In the pygmy forest region of California, it grows in stands of Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) and Bolander pine (P. bolanderi) [88]. Westman [88] considers common beargrass a heliophilic (sun-loving) plant which does well on these relatively unproductive, open sites. Soils: common beargrass grows on a variety of soils and is able to grow well on very shallow or rocky soils [30,43]. It does well on basaltic lava flows in southern Washington but does not grow well on pumice [33,34]. On serpentine soils in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California, common beargrass grows most vigorously on submesic to mesic sites, while on olivine gabbro soils, it is found on xeric to subxeric sites [89]. In the Siskiyous it is the most useful indicator of small serpentine outcrops [89]. It may dominate the herbaceous layer on serpentine and other ultramafic soils under Douglas-fir, western white pine, Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), huckleberry oak (Quercus vaccinifolia), and, at higher elevations, white fir (Abies concolor) [10,47,89,94]. In Montana it often occurs in association with volcanic ash soils [71]. In the Garnet Mountains of Montana, where common beargrass is prominent on soils formed from granite and quartzite, essentially no common beargrass occurs on soils formed from limestone [37]. In Montana growth is poor on gravel, sand, and dense clay; fair on clay; and good on sandy loam, loam, and clay loam [27]. Its growth is poor on organic, saline, sodic, and sodic-saline soils but good on acidic soils [27]. Elevation: Elevational ranges in some western states are [27]: Minimum Maximum feet meters feet meters Montana 5,000 1,524 8,800 2,682 Wyoming 7,200 2,195 7,200 2,195 California sea level 6,000 1,829 SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species common beargrass is moderately shade-tolerant [56,68]. It survives but seldom blooms under a forest canopy. In forest openings it grows vigorously and blooms profusely [22,42,50,58]. In the subalpine fir, silver fir, and mountain hemlock zones of Oregon, common beargrass is a fire-resistant species that becomes dominant in early succession [33,34]. In Rocky Mountain forest stands with dense overstories, cover of common beargrass will be reduced with time [59]. Following severe disturbance, common beargrass seedlings may be abundant, but regrowth is slow [59]. Common beargrass appears to be very sensitive to competition from shrubs following disturbance [56]. Frequently, growth and cover of established common beargrass plants declines for 2 to 8 years after canopy opening [56]. In the western redcedar-western hemlock zone of Glacier Park, common beargrass has very high frequency in early and mid-seral communities but becomes rare in old age forests [39]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : common beargrass blooms in July in Wyoming. In Montana buds are formed by May, and full bloom begins in July and ends in August [27]. In California flowering is from May to August [70]. In southern Oregon flowering begins in late June, bloom continues and fruit set begins in the first weeks of July, with fruiting continuing into September [75]. In Washington during 1974, common beargrass fruits were green on August 27. By September 10, half the fruits were brown and by September 25 the fruit was opening and shedding seed. On October 10 all the fruit was open [96].


SPECIES: Xerophyllum tenax
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : The primary fire adaptation of common beargrass is its ability to sprout from rhizomes following fire. Common beargrass is a survivor species that is present before a fire and regrows in place after the fire [84]. The meristematic region, or growing point, of a common beargrass rhizome is restricted to the area of the leaf base on the upper surface of the rhizome. Since this region is the only portion of the rhizome able to produce new growth, it is critical to the plant's survival [15]. The meristematic region often lies at or above the interface between organic material and mineral soil where it may be damaged by duff-consuming fires [15]. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil


SPECIES: Xerophyllum tenax
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Since the meristematic region of the rhizome usually is found near the interface of organic horizons and mineral soil, common beargrass is quite sensitive to fire [15,81]. If the basal leaves are moist, they may protect the meristem to some extent, but if they are dry they can be an added fuel source which increases the heat pulse at the base of the rosette [15]. Generally, if the fire is light enough or if the duff is moist enough for the duff layer to remain intact, the rhizomes will survive. However, if severe fire removes most or all of the duff layer, most common beargrass rhizomes will be killed [81]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Common beargrass sprouts from the root crown and/or rhizomes, providing they are not killed by fire. The response of common beargrass to fire is variable [15]. Two important factors in common beargrass recovery appear to be the impact of the fire on the soil surface and the suitability of the site for common beargrass. Common beargrass initially decreases after wildfire or relatively hot broadcast burns, although changes in its cover are variable or slight after light burns [9,48]. When slash fires in the Rocky Mountains destroy common beargrass rhizomes, common beargrass is frequently unable to recolonize the burned site quickly despite its normal ability to persist and thrive in openings [86]. Common beargrass regrowth following fire in this area is often slow [59,83,92]. However, in Oregon, while common beargrass rhizomes may be killed by hot surface fires, common beargrass is likely to invade areas with exposed soil [43].
Common beargrass sprouting in postfire year 1 after the 2017 Park Creek Fire near Lincoln, Montana. The fire killed perennating tissues in the center of this clump. Image by Garon Smith, used with permission.
Fire severity in the Rocky Mountains:  Historically, fires may have been
more frequent and less severe in Montana's relatively dry, open
subalpine fir/common beargrass habitat type and severe but infrequent in moist
subalpine areas [23].  In this habitat type common beargrass increases after
light broadcast fires but decreases after hot fires or scarification
[9].  After the Sundance wildfire in northern Idaho, common beargrass survived
on lightly burned areas.  Increases in common beargrass cover began 3 to 10
years after the fire, with a maximum cover of 11 percent [84,83].  Where
fires encourage fire-dependent shrubs, common beargrass cover changes very
little once the shrubs become dominant [82].  Following a Montana
wildfire, common beargrass reached 2 to 3 percent cover in 10 years and
remained at that level regardless of other plant community changes [61].

Site differences in the Rocky Mountains:  In the subalpine fir/common beargrass
habitat type, common beargrass increased after light broadcast burning, while
in the Douglas-fir/blue huckleberry (Vaccinium globulare) habitat type,
it decreased after light broadcast burning [9].  On colder sites in the
grand fir series in Montana, the cover of common beargrass can be much reduced
following fire [4].  After clearcutting and broadcast burning in the
grand fir/myrtle pachystima (Pachistima myrsinites) habitat type of
northern Idaho, common beargrass recovery may take up to 23 years [92].
Following severe fire on a subalpine fir/queencup beadlily (Clintonia
uniflora) habitat type, common beargrass cover and volume did not recover to
prefire levels during the first 9 postfire years [81].

Variability in common beargrass response on different sites is illustrated by a
Montana study comparing the results of different disturbances on several
habitat types.  Data from 177 plots are summarized as percent
constancy/average canopy cover of common beargrass on three subalpine fir
habitat types [91]:

                      subalpine fir  subalpine fir  subalpine fir
                       /beadlily      /menziesia     /common beargrass 

Wildfire:               47/15.3        88/18.8        93/27.2 
Clearcut & burned with
slash dozer piled:       9/00.5        50/07.0         -----
Clearcut & burned with-
out slash piling:       50/07.5        50/00.5         -----
Old growth:             31/14.4        50/01.8        62/21.6
Snowchutes:             38/15.8        50/03.0       100/37.5

Fuel Loading:  Brown and Marsden [16] have developed an equation to
estimate fuel loading of common beargrass, grass, and other grasslike plants
based on the relationship between plant height and ground cover.

West Coast Sites:  In the Pacific silver fir and mountain hemlock zones
of the Oregon Cascades, scarification or burning following clearcutting
encourages the spread of snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus), common beargrass, and
long-stolon sedge [49].  On some Pacific silver fir, mountain hemlock,
and western white pine sites in central and southern Oregon, common beargrass
may be stimulated by fire or scarification and invade clearcuts where it
competes with tree seedlings [10,11,43,48].  In the coastal
tanoak/evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum)-salal (Gaultheria
shallon) association, common beargrass can be an aggressive invader following
fire [12].

Rocky Mountain Sites:  In the Rocky Mountains, clearcutting and burning
with fire hot enough to reduce duff will reduce common beargrass cover [5,9].
common beargrass does not appear to be as invasive in this area as in the
Northwest.  If common beargrass is desirable, then shelterwood or selection
cuts are better for its growth than clearcutting and burning [56].

Prescribed Fire:  In California, prescribed fires have been used to
provide young common beargrass shoots for Native American basket makers.
Experience with these fires has shown that a fire that consumes between
90 and 100 percent of dead common beargrass foliage and 75 to 95 percent of
live foliage will stimulate new growth [53].  Flame lengths between 0.75
and 3 feet (0.2-0.9 m) with a spread rate of 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) per
minute will produce this consumption.  Traditional burning took place in
the summer and early fall.  Possible burning periods and prescription
details are given by Hunter [53].

References for species: Xerophyllum tenax

1. Achuff, Peter L. 1989. Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks. Natural Areas Journal. 9(1): 12-26. [7442]
2. Adams, A. B.; Dale, V. H.; Smith, E. P.; Kruckeberg, A. R. 1987. Plant survival, growth form and regeneration following the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Northwest Science. 61(3): 160-170. [6886]
3. Alexander, Robert R. 1977. Cutting methods in relation to resource use in central Rocky Mountain spruce-fir forests. Journal of Forestry. 75(7): 395-400. [8240]
4. Antos, Joseph Avery. 1977. Grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl.) Forbes) forests of the Swan Valley, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 220 p. Thesis. [6720]
5. Antos, Joseph A.; Shearer, Raymond C. 1980. Vegetation development on disturbed grand fir sites, Swan Valley, northwestern Montana. Res. Pap. INT-251. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. [7269]
6. Antos, Joseph A.; Zobel, Donald B. 1985. Plant form, developmental plasticity and survival following burial by volcanic tephra. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 2083-2090. [12553]
7. Arno, S. F. 1966. Alpine larch (Larix lyallii Parlatore) and its natural occurence. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry. 52 p. [8263]
8. Arno, Stephen F. 1979. Forest regions of Montana. Res. Pap. INT-218. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 39 p. [340]
9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p. [349]
10. Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1984. Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 278 p. [9351]
11. Atzet, Tom; Wheeler, David; Riegel, Gregg; [and others]. 1984. The mountain hemlock and Shasta red fir series of the Siskiyou Region of southwest Oregon. FIR Report. 6(1): 4-7. [9486]
12. Atzet, Tom; Wheeler, David; Smith, Brad; [and others]. 1985. The tanoak series of the Siskiyou region of southwest Oregon (Part 2). Forestry Intensified Research. 6(4): 7-10. [8594]
13. Barrett, Stephen W. 1982. Fire's influence on ecosystems of the Clearwater National Forest: Cook Mountain fire history inventory. Orofino, ID: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Clearwater National Forest. 42 p. [10042]
14. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
15. Bradley, Anne Foster. 1984. Rhizome morphology, soil distribution, and the potential fire survival of eight woody understory species in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 183 p. Thesis. [502]
16. Brown, James K.; Marsden, Michael A. 1976. Estimating fuel weights of grasses, forbs, and small woody plants. Res. Note INT-210. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest & Range Experiment Station. 11 p. [5030]
17. Cole, David N. 1987. Effects of three seasons of experimental trampling on five montane forest communities and a grassland in western Montana, USA. Biological Conservation. 40: 219-244. [3205]
18. Cooper, Stephen V.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Steele, Robert; Roberts, David W. 1987. Forest habitat types of northern Idaho: a second approximation. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-236. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 135 p. [867]
19. Daubenmire, R. 1969. Ecologic plant geography of the Pacific Northwest. Madrono. 20: 111-128. [740]
20. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1978. Plant geography--with special reference to North America. Physiological Ecology. New York: Academic Press. 338 p. [8949]
21. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1981. Subalpine parks associated with snow transfer in the mountains of northern Idaho and eastern Washington. Northwest Science. 55(2): 124-135. [8273]
22. Daubenmire, Rexford F.; Daubenmire, Jean B. 1968. Forest vegetation of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Technical Bulletin 60. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 104 p. [749]
23. Davis, Kathleen M.; Clayton, Bruce D.; Fischer, William C. 1980. Fire ecology of Lolo National Forest habitat types. INT-79. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 77 p. [5296]
24. Cunningham, James B.; Balda, Russell P.; Gaud, William S. 1980. Selection and use of snags by secondary cavity-nesting birds of the ponderosa pine forest. Res. Pap. RM-222. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 15 p. [15540]
25. del Moral, Roger; Long, James N. 1977. Classification of montane forest community types in the Cedar River drainage of western Washington, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 7: 217-225. [8778]
26. Dimock, Edward J., II. 1981. Herbicide and conifer options for reforesting upper slopes in the Cascade Range. PNW-292. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 14 p. [7927]
27. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
28. Dyrness, C. T. 1965. The effect of logging and slash burning on understory vegetation in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. Res. Note PNW-31. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p. [4939]
29. Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Early stages of plant succession following logging and burning in the western Cascades of Oregon. Ecology. 54(1): 57-69. [7345]
30. Dyrness, C. T.; Franklin, J. F.; Moir, W. H. 1974. A preliminary classification of forest communities in the central portion of the western Cascades in Oregon. Bulletin No. 4. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Ecosystem Analysis Studies, Coniferous Forest Biome. 123 p. [8480]
31. Edge, W. Daniel; Marcum, C. Les; Olson-Edge, Sally L. 1987. Summer habitat selection by elk in western Montana: a multivariate approach. Journal of Wildlife Management. 51(4): 844-851. [14372]
32. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
33. Franklin, J. F.; Hall, F.; Laudenslayer, W. [and others]. 1986. Interim definitions for old-growth Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests in the pacific northwest and California. PNW-447. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 7 p. [7870]
34. Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-8. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 p. [961]
35. Gaffney, William S. 1941. The effects of winter elk browsing, south fork of the Flathead River, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 5(4): 427-453. [5028]
36. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
37. Goldin, A.; Nimlos, T. J. 1977. Vegetation patterns on limestone and acid parent materials in the Garnet Mountains of western Montana. Northwest Science. 51(3): 149-160. [10675]
38. Graham, Joseph N.; Murray, Edward W.; Minore, Don. 1982. Environment, vegetation, and regeneration after timber harvest in the Hungry-Pickett area of southwest Oregon. Res. Note PNW-400. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 17 p. [8424]
39. Habeck, James R. 1968. Forest succession in the Glacier Park cedar-hemlock forests. Ecology. 49(5): 872-880. [6479]
40. Habeck, James R. 1978. A study of climax western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) forest communities in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho. Northwest Science. 52(1): 67-76. [7354]
41. Hall, Frederick C. 1998. Pacific Northwest ecoclass codes for seral and potential natural communities. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-418. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 290 p. [7650]
42. Halverson, Nancy M., compiler. 1986. Major indicator shrubs and herbs on National Forests of western Oregon and southwestern Washington. R6-TM-229. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 180 p. [3233]
43. Halverson, Nancy M.; Topik, Christopher; Van Vickle, Robert. 1986. Plant association and management guide for the western hemlock zone: Mt. Hood National Forest. R6-ECOL-232A. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 111 p. [1068]
44. Halvorson, Curtis H. 1982. Rodent occurrence, habitat disturbance, and seed fall in a larch-fir forest. Ecology. 63(2): 423-433. [8522]
45. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
46. Hawk, Glenn Martin. 1977. Comparative study of temperate Chamaecyparis forests. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 195 p. Dissertation. [9759]
47. Hawk, Glenn M. 1979. Vegetation mapping and community description of a small western Cascade watershed. Northwest Science. 53(3): 200-212. [8677]
48. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, W. H.; Halverson, Nancy M.; [and others]. 1982. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone, Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests. R6-Ecol 100-1982a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 104 p. [5784]
49. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E.; Pavlat, Warren. 1987. Plant association and management guide: Willamette National Forest. R6-Ecol 257-B-86. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 312 p. [13402]
50. Hines, William Wester. 1971. Plant communities in the old-growth forests of north coastal Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 146 p. Thesis. [10399]
51. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptograms, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 914 p. [1169]
52. Hungerford, Roger D. 1986. Vegetation response to stand cultural operations on small stem lodgepole pine stands in Montana. In: Weed control for forest productivity in the interior West; 1985 February 5-7; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 63-71. [5896]
53. Hunter, John E. 1988. Prescribed burning for cultural resources. Fire Management Notes. 49(2): 8-9. [4283]
54. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954]
55. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
56. Laursen, Steven B. 1984. Predicting shrub community composition and structure following management disturbance in forest ecosystems of the Intermountain West. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 261 p. Dissertation. [6717]
57. Lee, Lyndon C.; Pfister, Robert D. 1978. A training manual for Montana forest habitat types. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 142 p. [1434]
58. Long, R. 1981. Some Liliaceae of British Columbia. Davidsonia. 12(4): 85-88. [10669]
59. Lotan, James E. 1986. Silvicultural management of competing vegetation. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Boyd, Raymond J.; Breuer, David W.; Miller, Daniel L., compilers and eds. Weed control for forest productivity in the Interior West: Symposium proceedings; 1985 February 5-7; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 9-16. [1474]
60. Lyon, L. Jack. 1976. Vegetal development on the Sleeping Child burn in western Montana, 1961 to 1973. Res. Pap. INT-184. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [138]
61. Lyon, L. Jack. 1984. The Sleeping Child Burn--21 years of postfire change. Res. Pap. INT-330. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 17 p. [6328]
62. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]
63. Martin, Patricia A. E. 1979. Productivity and taxonomy of the Vaccinium globulare, V. membranaceum complex in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 136 p. Thesis. [9130]
64. Miller, Daniel L.; Kidd, Frank A. 1983. Shrub control in the Inland Northwest--a summary of herbicide test results. Forestry Research Note RN-83-4. Lewiston, ID: Potlatch Corporation. 49 p. [7861]
65. Minore, Don. 1972. A classification of forest environments in the South Umpqua Basin. Res. Pap. PNW-129. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 28 p. [1660]
66. Moir, W. H.; Hobson, F. D.; Hemstrom, M.; Franklin, J. F. 1979. Forest ecosystems of Mount Rainier National Park. In: Linn, Robert M., ed. Proceedings, 1st conference on scientific research in the National Parks: Vol I; 1976 Nov. 9-12; New Orleans, LA. National Park Service Transactions and Proceedings Series No. 5. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 201-207. [1674]
67. Bray, Martin Paul. 1984. An evaluation of heron and egret marsh nesting habitat and possible effects of burning. Murrelet. 65: 57-59. [6875]
68. Mueggler, W. F. 1961. Ecology of seral shrub communities in the cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Durham, NC: Duke University. 126 p. Thesis. [9981]
69. Mueggler, Walter F. 1965. Ecology of seral shrub communities in the cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Ecological Monographs. 35: 165-185. [4016]
70. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
71. Nimlos, Thomas J. 1981. Volcanic ash soils in Montana. Bulletin 45. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. 21 p. [8193]
72. Peck, Morton E. 1941. A manual of the higher plants of Oregon. Portland, OR: Binfords & Mort. 800 p. [12444]
73. Pfister, Robert D.; Kovalchik, Bernard L.; Arno, Stephen F.; Presby, Richard C. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p. [1878]
74. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
75. Roach, A. W. 1952. Phytosociology of the Nash Crater lava flows, Linn County, Oregon. Ecological Monographs. 22: 169-193. [8759]
76. Root, Robert A.; Habeck, James R. 1972. A study of high elevational grassland communities in western Montana. The American Midland Naturalist. 87(1): 109-121. [4005]
77. Sawyer, John O.; Thornburgh, Dale A.; Griffin, James R. 1977. Mixed evergreen forest. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 359-381. [7218]
78. Smart, A. W.; Minore, D. 1977. Germination of beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax [Pursh] Nutt.). Plant Propagator. 23(3): 13-15. [10672]
79. Steele, Robert; Cooper, Stephen V.; Ondov, David M.; [and others]. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-144. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 122 p. [2230]
80. Steele, Robert; Pfister, Robert D.; Ryker, Russell A.; Kittams, Jay A. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-114. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 138 p. [2231]
81. Stickney, Peter F. 1981. Vegetative recovery and development. In: DeByle, Norbert V., ed. Clearcutting and fire in the larch/Douglas-fir forests of western Montana--a multifaceted research summary. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-99. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 33-40. [7609]
82. Stickney, Peter F. 1985. Initial stages of a natural forest succession following wildfire in the northern Rocky Mountains, a case study. In: Lotan, James E.; Kilgore, Bruce M.; Fischer, William C.;Mutch, Robert W., technical coordinators. Proceedings--Symposium and workshop on wilderness fire; 1983 November 15 - November 18; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-181. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 383-384. [7367]
83. Stickney, Peter F. 1985. Data base for early postfire succession on the Sundance Burn, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-189. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 121 p. [7223]
84. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255]
85. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]
86. Vogl, Richard J.; Ryder, Calvin. 1969. Effects of slash burning on conifer reproduction in Montana's Mission Range. Northwest Science. 43(3): 135-147. [8546]
87. Volland, Leonard A. 1985. Plant associations of the central Oregon Pumice Zone. R6-ECOL-104-1985. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 138 p. [7341]
88. Westman, W. E. 1975. Edaphic climax pattern of the pygmy forest region of California. Ecological Monographs. 45: 109-135. [10695]
89. Whittaker, R. H. 1960. Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological Monographs. 30(3): 279-338. [6836]
90. Young, Vernon A.; Robinette, W. Leslie. 1939. A study of the range habits of elk on the Selway Game Preserve. Bull. No. 9. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho, School of Forestry. 47 p. [6831]
91. Zager, Peter Edward. 1980. The influence of logging and wildfire on grizzly bear habitat in northwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 131 p. Dissertation. [5032]
92. Zamora, Benjamin Abel. 1975. Secondary succession on broadcast-burned clearcuts of the Abies grandis-Pachistima myrsinites habitat type in northcentral Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 127 p. Dissertation. [5154]
93. Zobel, Donald B.; McKee, Arthur; Hawk, Glenn M.; Dyrness, C. T. 1976. Relationships of environment to composition, structure, and diversity of forest communities of the central western Cascades of Oregon. Ecological Monographs. 46: 135-156. [8767]
94. Zobel, Donald B.; Roth, Lewis F.; Hawk, Glenn M. 1985. Ecology, pathology, and management of Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana). Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-184. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 161 p. [9245]
95. Almack, Jon. 1986. Grizzly bear habitat use, food habits, and movements in the Selkirk Mountains, northern Idaho. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 150-157. [10815]
96. Minore, Don; Smart, Alan W. 1975. Sweetness of huckleberries near Mount Adams, Washington. PNW-248. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. [12489]
97. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 10 p. [20090]

FEIS Home Page