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SPECIES:  Solidago missouriensis
Missouri goldenrod in Yellowstone National Park. USDI, National Park Service image.



SPECIES: Solidago missouriensis
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Solidago missouriensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: []. Revisions: On 6 June 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS from: prairie goldenrod to: Missouri goldenrod. Images were also added.
ABBREVIATION: SOLMIS SYNONYMS: NO-ENTRY NRCS PLANT CODE: [40] SOMI2 SOMIE SOMIF SOMIT2 SOMIT COMMON NAMES: Missouri goldenrod prairie goldenrod TAXONOMY: The scientific name of Missouri goldenrod is Solidago missouriensis Nutt. [19,5,40]. It is in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Recognized varieties are as follows: Solidago missouriensis var. missouriensis [19,20,40] Solidago missouriensis var. extraria Gray [20,40] Solidago missouriensis var. fasciculata Holz. [19,20,40] Solidago missouriensis var. tenuissima (Wooton & Standl.) C.E.S. Taylor & R.J. Taylor Solidago missouriensis var. tolmieana (Gray) Cronq. [20,40] Solidago missouriensis var. fasciculata hybridizes with early goldenrod (Solidago juncea) [14]. LIFE FORM: Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Solidago missouriensis
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Missouri goldenrod is found from Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia [14] east to southern Ontario; south to Tennessee [46] and Arkansas [18]; and west to Arizona [46].  It is found elsewhere as a relict or as a weed [19].
Distribution of Missouri goldenrod. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, June 6] [40].
Solidago missouriensis var. missouriensis is found east of the Cascades,
as is S. m. var. extraria [20].  Solidago missouriensis var.
fasciculata is of the Great Plains, occasionally found as far west as
Grand Coulee, Washington [19,20]; it is also found in the northeastern
U.S. and adjacent Canada [18].  Solidago missouriensis var. tolmieana is
found west of the Cascades [19,20].

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES11  Spruce - fir
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES19  Aspen - birch
   FRES20  Douglas-fir
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce
   FRES29  Sagebrush
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES40  Desert grasslands

     AZ  AR  CO  ID  IL  IN  IA  KS  KY  MI
     MN  MO  MT  NE  NM  ND  OK  OR  SD  TN
     TX  UT  WA  WI  WY  AB  BC  MB  ON  SK

    1  Northern Pacific Border
    2  Cascade Mountains
    5  Columbia Plateau
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains
   15  Black Hills Uplift
   16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

   K011  Western ponderosa forest
   K012  Douglas-fir forest
   K015  Western spruce - fir forest
   K016  Eastern ponderosa forest
   K017  Black Hills pine forest
   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K019  Arizona pine forest
   K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K024  Juniper steppe woodland
   K031  Oak - juniper woodlands
   K037  Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub
   K038  Great Basin sagebrush
   K040  Saltbush - greasewood
   K050  Fescue - wheatgrass
   K051  Wheatgrass - bluegrass
   K055  Sagebrush steppe
   K056  Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
   K057  Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe
   K058  Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe
   K063  Foothills prairie
   K064  Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
   K065  Grama - buffalograss
   K066  Wheatgrass - needlegrass
   K067  Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
   K068  Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss
   K070  Sandsage - bluestem prairie
   K071  Shinnery
   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K075  Nebraska Sandhills prairie
   K081  Oak savanna
   K082  Mosaic of K074 and K100
   K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
   K094  Conifer bog
   K095  Great Lakes pine forest
   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest

     1  Jack pine
    13  Black spruce - tamarack
    14  Northern pin oak
    15  Red pine
    16  Aspen
    39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
    42  Bur oak
    62  Silver maple - American elm
    63  Cottonwood
    67  Mohrs (shin) oak
   201  White spruce
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   220  Rocky Mountain juniper
   237  Interior ponderosa pine
   238  Western juniper


Missouri goldenrod is widespread throughout the Great Plains.  It is not
listed as an indicator species in any plant community.  It occurs with a
variety of associated species, depending on geographic location and site

Associates of Missouri goldenrod in remnant upland tallgrass prairie in
west-central Missouri include eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana),
dewberry (Rubus flagellaris), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), buck
brush (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus), leadplant (Amorpha canescens), and
wild snowball (Ceanothus americanus) [21].

Associates of Missouri goldenrod in the sandhills tallgrass prairie of
southeastern North Dakota include sandhill bluestem (Andropogon hallii),
Penn sedge (Carex pennsylvanica), perennial ragweed (Ambrosia
psilostachya), white sage (Artemisia ludoviciana), narrow-leaved puccoon
(Lithospermum incisum), blazing star (Liatris punctata), and prairie
rose (Rosa arkansana) [47].

Associates of Missouri goldenrod on benchlands in the Cypress Hills of
southeastern Alberta include shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa),
yarrow (Achillea lanulosa), starry chickweed (Cerastium arvense),
northern bedstraw (Galium boreale), prairiesmoke avens (Geum triflorum),
kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), American pasqueflower (Anemone
patens), prairie thermopsis (Thermopsis rhombifolia), and fleabane
(Erigeron spp.) [11].

Associates of Missouri goldenrod in fluvial sand and gravel deposits of
the riparian zone in northwestern Montana include clover (Trifolium
spp.), dandelion (Taraxacum spp.), Virginia strawberry (Fragaria
virginiana), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), kinnikinnick, and
russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) [27].

Associates of Missouri goldenrod in the northern Wisconsin pine barrens
include scattered jack pine (Pinus banksiana), bur oak (Quercus
macrocarpa), and northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis) as well as
grasses (Poaceae), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), sweet fern
(Myrica asplenifolia), and lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) [43].


SPECIES: Solidago missouriensis
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Missouri goldenrod is rated slightly poisonous to livestock [12].  The leaves may be eaten by livestock while the plants are relatively immature in the spring and early summer, but it is generally considered poor forage [22] and is of limited importance as a forage plant [17]. Missouri goldenrod was available for use by domestic sheep in southeastern Montana, but was not a component of their diet in June, July, or August of 1979 [2]. Missouri goldenrod was eaten by mule deer in east-central Idaho in February, 1976, but was a very minor component of their diet.  It was not utilized any other month [23]. Only incidental use is made of Missouri goldenrod by small mammals and birds [44]. The flowerheads of Missouri goldenrod are used by flies, bees, butterflies, and beetles for pollen and nectar [5]. PALATABILITY: Missouri goldenrod palatability for livestock in several western states is as follows [12]:                      CO       MT       ND       UT       WY         Cattle      poor     poor     fair     poor     fair         Sheep       fair     fair     fair     fair     fair         Horses      poor     poor     fair     poor     fair NUTRITIONAL VALUE: Missouri goldenrod energy value and protein value for livestock is poor [12]. The food value of Missouri goldenrod is as follows [12]:                               MT       ND       UT       WY      Elk                     fair     ----     fair     poor      Mule deer               fair     fair     fair     good      White-tailed deer       ----     ----     ----     fair      Pronghorn               fair     fair     fair     fair      Upland game birds       ----     ----     fair     fair       Waterfowl               ----     ----     poor     poor      Small nongame birds     ----     ----     fair     fair      Small mammals           ----     ----     fair     fair COVER VALUE: The cover value of Missouri goldenrod is as follows [12]:                               ND         UT         WY      Elk                     ----       poor       poor      Mule deer               fair       poor       poor      White-tailed deer       ----       ----       poor      Pronghorn               fair       poor       poor      Upland game birds       ----       fair       fair      Waterfowl               ----       poor       poor      Small nongame birds     ----       fair       poor      Small mammals           ----       fair       poor VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Missouri goldenrod has utility for revegetation of disturbed areas [36], minespoil reclamation [6,7] and soil stabilization.  It shows winter hardiness and moderate drought tolerance [44]. Missouri goldenrod seeds collected in the Badlands of western North Dakota were grown on raw coal spoil material to evaluate their use in minespoil reclamation.  Missouri goldenrod had acceptable seedling emergence and subsequent growth from direct seeding.  Greenhouse plants had almost 100 percent survival, a higher rate than that of seedlings [6,7]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: Missouri goldenrod has utility for watershed cover and wildlife plantings [44]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Missouri goldenrod shows weak competitiveness in dense grasslands, but in more open cover shows moderate aggressiveness and ability to invade and dominate.  Missouri goldenrod in shortgrass prairie of northwestern Montana had higher density in quadrats with low spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos ) density than in those with high spotted knapweed density [39].  In the Great Plains Missouri goldenrod increased with drought during the 1930's, and in some places became a major constituent of the weedy flora in tallgrass prairie [45].  Missouri goldenrod is generally reported to be an increaser with grazing [30,37], sometimes becoming a nuisance [22]. Seeding often fails, so transplanting rootstock divisions or small plants may be the only certain way of ensuring stand establishment [44]. However, prairie hay has been used successfully as a seed source and mulch [36].  Grazing or mowing established populations about 1 month before normal flowering may induce more flower buds to open and extend flowering period.  In order to maximize seed production flowers should be permitted to mature before any further defoliation occurs in the fall [44].  Rodents and grasshoppers may endanger new seedlings of Missouri goldenrod.  Dodder (Cuscuta spp.), a plant which sometimes parasitizes Missouri goldenrod stands, can be a problem in humid regions [44]. Missouri goldenrod in northeastern Kansas native tallgrass prairie was ingested by grasshoppers in relation to its availability, being neither avoided nor sought after [25].


SPECIES: Solidago missouriensis
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Missouri goldenrod is a warm-season [22] native perennial forb [12,18]. The leaves are somewhat rigid, the basal leaves being largest, petioled [41], and often early-deciduous.  The cauline leaves are progressively reduced upward.  Leaves are 0.6 to 4.9 inches (1.5-12.5 cm) long [5]. Stems are 4 to 39 inches (0.1-1.0 m) tall [5,14], arising singly or clustered.  The inflorescence is a rather rounded, compact, branched terminal panicle [19] composed of small, congested flowerheads [44]. Ray flowers are 0.16 to 0.2 inches (4-5 mm) long.  Disk flowers are 0.12 to 0.16 inches (3-4 mm) long [14].  The fruit is a small achene [5]; the pappus consists of numerous bristles [19].  Plants arise from creeping cordlike rhizomes [14] or a spreading caudex [19], or sometimes both [18].  Roots tend to be rather superficial [44], but can reach 6.6 feet (2 m) deep [5]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Hemicryptophyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Missouri goldenrod reproduces by seed and by vigorous rhizomes.  It can form dense colonies in both uplands and lowlands [22]. Missouri goldenrod stores seeds in the seedbank.  In the flora of remnant tallgrass prairie in central Missouri, Missouri goldenrod was one of the most common elements.  Missouri goldenrod seeds made up 7 percent of the seedbank and 63 percent of the seed rain from June 1 to December 5, 1978 [34]. Germination rates of Missouri goldenrod seeds from western North Dakota were tested from January through May, 1978.  With wet cold storage the highest germination rate (64%) was in January, but dropped to low levels in other months.  With room temperature storage the highest germination rate (47%) was in March.  With dry cold storage the highest germination rate (45%) was in February [7]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Missouri goldenrod inhabits rather dry, open places on the slopes of valleys and on plains, and reaches moderately high elevations in mountains [20].  It is also found in sparsely wooded areas, on grassy roadsides [5,18], on rocky slopes [14], and in open communities where sod is broken along railroads, ditches, and fences [44]. Missouri goldenrod growth is poor on gravel and dense clay, fair on sand and clay, and good on sandy to clayey loam.  It grows poorly on strongly acidic and saline soils [12], though it shows tolerance of weakly acidic to moderately basic and weakly saline soils [44].  Its optimum soil depth is 10 to 20 inches (25-51 cm) [12]. Missouri goldenrod occurs at the following elevations [12]:                    Elevation (feet)     Elevation (m)         CO          3,700-10,000         1,128-3,048         MT          3,200-9,000            975-2,743         UT          4,200-8,600          1,280-2,621         WY          3,700-10,600         1,128-3,231 SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Missouri goldenrod pioneers disturbed sites, but is also tolerant of partial shade [44] and has been characterized as a mid-seral species in northwestern Iowa [33]. During the long drought period of the 1930's in the Midwest, Missouri goldenrod colonized bare areas where grasses and other native plants had died out [5].  By 1940, after the drought, Missouri goldenrod patches had thinned out and the plants were dwarfed by competition with grasses.  By 1943, Missouri goldenrod was mostly or completely suppressed [45]. In the Konza Prairie, a tallgrass prairie preserve of northeastern Kansas, Missouri goldenrod occurred in trace amounts on disturbed soil of badger dens and also on undisturbed nearby sites.  It also occurred on pocket gopher mounds and on prairie vole burrow systems [16]. In southwestern Montana mining towns abandoned for between 45 and 77 years, Missouri goldenrod occurred on some abandoned roads (high-intensity disturbance), around old foundations of some buildings (moderate-intensity disturbance), and on some control sites (no disturbance except grazing) [24]. In contrast to the above reports of Missouri goldenrod as a pioneer species, it occurred on mesic slopes of both undisturbed virgin prairie and overgrazed prairie in northwestern Iowa, but not on the drier sites of badger disturbances [33]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Missouri goldenrod resumes growth from rhizomes and/or the caudex in spring to early summer.  Plants often shed basal leaves after flowering begins.  Seeds mature about 6 weeks after flowers bloom.  If plants are damaged they make variable regrowth in the summer until seed maturation [44]. In southwestern North Dakota Missouri goldenrod begins growth in mid-April and obtains mature height by early July to mid-August, depending on the year [17]. Missouri goldenrod flowering times are:                   Begin         Peak           End                 Flowering     Flowering     Flowering      CO         June          August        September  [12]       IL         August        ----          September  [28]      KS         July          ----          October    [5]      MO         July          ----          September  [21]      MT         June          August        September  [12]      ND         July          August        August     [9,17]      SD         ----          July          ----       [22]      UT         July          August        September  [12]      WY         June          August        September  [12] Great Plains    July          ----          October    [19]


SPECIES: Solidago missouriensis
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Missouri goldenrod has good fire tolerance in the dormant state [44]; it can reproduce by rhizomes or from a caudex [14,19].  Missouri goldenrod produces numerous small, wind-dispersed seeds [5,19] which can establish in the open, sunny conditions created by fire.  It may also be an initial on-site colonizer, since its seeds are found in the seedbank [34], but no information was available on seed tolerance of heat or length of seed viability in the seedbank. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY:    Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil    Caudex, growing points in soil    Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Solidago missouriensis
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Missouri goldenrod is probably top-killed by fire during the growing season.  However, it has good survival from fire, especially on damper sites and in the dormant state [44], due to persistent rhizomes and caudex [14,19]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Many reports of burning in communities that contain Missouri goldenrod show that frequency, cover, or flowering are enhanced after burning.  On some sites Missouri goldenrod response is variable or negative (see DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE).  Missouri goldenrod is listed as tolerant of fire in the tallgrass prairie of the Central Great Plains, even though it sometimes declines following fire.  It is listed as increasing in the Canadian Great Plains after both spring and fall fires [49]. In remnant tallgrass prairie in central Missouri burned on a 4-year rotation, Missouri goldenrod was one of the most common elements in the flora [34]. In quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) parkland of east-central Alberta, Missouri goldenrod was the forb which increased the most under annual early spring burning.  Parts of the grassland had been burned repeatedly in April for at least 24 years.  Frequency of Missouri goldenrod was 18 percent on unburned plots and 50 percent on burned plots; canopy cover was 1.7 percent on unburned plots and 27 percent on burned plots [3,4]. Missouri goldenrod in northern Wisconsin pine barrens showed a statistically significant increase on burned compared to contiguous unburned sites over all study areas [43]. Missouri goldenrod increased on rolling sands and choppy sands sites in north-central Nebraska sand hills 2 to 3 months after an early May, 1965, wildfire [48]. In central Arizona Missouri goldenrod percent frequency increased slightly on burned sites following prescribed fires in 1970 and 1971 [31]. Missouri goldenrod showed stimulation of flowering on a nearly level mesic site following prescribed fire May 2, 1972, in northwestern Minnesota [32]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: Several studies report that fire had no effect or a negative effect on Missouri goldenrod. On old fields and unplowed prairie in southeastern North Dakota, Missouri goldenrod occurred in small amounts; at no site was canopy coverage greater than 1.50 percent.  On three old fields burned in late spring, 1973, Missouri goldenrod occurred on control but not on burned sites by August, 1973.  On two unplowed prairie sites, Missouri goldenrod occurred on burned and unburned plots, with no significant difference between treatments [29]. A study of logged black spruce (Picea mariana) forests on lowland sites in southeastern Manitoba harvested during the winter of 1964-65 and burned in May, 1967, showed that Missouri goldenrod invaded after harvesting on both burned and unburned sites [10]. Response to burning on disturbed soils of the Konza Prairie was variable.  Missouri goldenrod was present on frequently burned prairie vole burrow systems and adjacent prairie.  It occurred on unburned badger den sites but not on burned sites.  It occurred on burned pocket gopher mounds, but not on unburned mounds [16]. Missouri goldenrod was listed as a decreaser in response to fire in northeastern Wisconsin.  In 1959 and 1960, Missouri goldenrod had an average frequency of 31.2 percent in undisturbed bracken fern-grassland sites; in sites subjected to prescribed fires average frequency was 19.7 percent [43]. The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species including Missouri goldenrod. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: No Entry


SPECIES: Solidago missouriensis
REFERENCES:  1.  Abrams, Marc D.; Gibson, David J. 1991. Effects of fire exclusion on        tallgrass prairie and gallery forest communities in eastern Kansas. In:        Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment:        ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international        symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69.        Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 3-10.  [16627]  2.  Alexander, Lynn E.; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hansen, Richard M. 1983. Summer        food habits of domestic sheep in southeastern Montana. Journal of Range        Management. 36(3): 307-308.  [6003]  3.  Anderson, Howard A. 1978. Annual burning and vegetation in the aspen        parkland of east central Alberta. In: Dube, D. E., compiler. Fire        ecology in resource management: Workshop proceedings; 1977 December 6-7;        [Location unknown]. Information Report NOR-X-210. Edmonton, AB:        Environment Canada; Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research        Centre: 2:3. Abstract.  [317]  4.  Anderson, Howard G.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1980. Effects of annual burning        on grassland in the aspen parkland of east-central Alberta. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 58: 985-996.  [3499]  5.  Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The        Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  [3801]  6.  Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for        wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great        Plains. In: Western proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western        Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas,        Nevada. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 257-271. On        file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain        Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT.  [2932]  7.  Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for        seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W.,        compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the        conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land        Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262.  [14354]  8.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]  9.  Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First        flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth,        North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64.  [20450] 10.  Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a        lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of        Forest Research. 6(2): 179-186.  [7280] 11.  Coupland, Robert T. 1961. A reconsideration of grassland classification        in the northern Great Plains of North America. Journal of Ecology. 49:        135-167.  [12588] 12.  Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information        network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and        Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,        Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  [806] 13.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905] 14.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p.        (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny        Series; vol. 2).  [14935] 15.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].        1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range        ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998] 16.  Gibson, David J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass        prairie vegetation. American Midland Naturalist. 121: 144-154.  [6641] 17.  Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in        the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota        State University. 141 p. Thesis.  [5661] 18.  Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of        northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New        York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  [20329] 19.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603] 20.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168] 21.  Hurd, Richard M.; Christisen, Donald M. 1975. Ecology study of Friendly        Prairie, Missouri. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view.        Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 89-102.  [4432] 22.  Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota        grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota        State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  [18501] 23.  Keay, Jeffrey A. 1977. Relationship of habitat use patterns and forage        preferences of white-tailed and mule deer to post-fire vegetation, Upper        Selway River. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 76 p. Thesis.  [1316] 24.  Knapp, Paul A. 1991. The response of semi-arid vegetation assemblages        following the abandonment of mining towns in south-western Montana.        Journal of Arid Environments. 20: 205-222.  [14894] 25.  Knutson, Herbert; Campbell, John B. 1976. Relationships of grasshoppers        (Acrididae) to burning, grazing, and range sites of native tallgrass        prairie in Kansas. In: Tall Timbers conference on ecological animal        control by habitat management: Proceedings; 1974 February 28 - March 1;        Gainesville, FL. Number 6. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research        Station: 107-120.  [17851] 26.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation        of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:        American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384] 27.  Mace, Richard D.; Bissell, Gael N. 1986. 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