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SPECIES:  Rudbeckia hirta
Blackeyed Susan. Creative Commons image by Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy.



SPECIES: Rudbeckia hirta
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Rudbeckia hirta. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].
ABBREVIATION: RUDHIR SYNONYMS: For Rudbeckia hirta var. hirta: Rudbeckia hirta var. brittonii (Small) Fernald [48,55] NRCS PLANT CODE: RUHI2 RUHIA RUHIB RUHIF RUHIP COMMON NAMES: blackeyed Susan bristly coneflower TAXONOMY: The scientific name of blackeyed Susan is Rudbeckia hirta L. [28,35]. It is in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Recognized varieties are as follows: Rudbeckia hirta var. hirta Rudbeckia hirta var. angustifolia (Moore) Perdue [12,55] Rudbeckia hirta var. floridana (Moore) Perdue [55,61] Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima Farwell [35,55] LIFE FORM: Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No special status OTHER STATUS: NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Rudbeckia hirta
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Blackeyed Susan is found throughout most of North America, particularly east of the Rocky Mountains [45,51]. It has been sporadically introduced into the Pacific Northwest [35]. Blackeyed Susan has also been introduced in Europe as an ornamental and has naturalized [57].
Distribution of blackeyed Susan. Map courtesy of USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC [2018, January 29] [55].
Rudbeckia hirta var. hirta occurs from Pennsylvania to Georgia and
sparingly north to Maine and west to Illinois [26].  Rudbeckia hirta
var. angustifolia is in the South [28].  Rudbeckia hirta
var. floridana is found in central Florida [61].  Rudbeckia hirta var.
pulcherrima is widespread, especially in disturbed habitats [26].

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES11  Spruce - fir
   FRES12  Longleaf - slash pine
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES14  Oak - pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES18  Maple - beech - birch
   FRES19  Aspen - birch
   FRES20  Douglas-fir
   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce
   FRES30  Desert shrub
   FRES35  Pinyon - juniper
   FRES37  Mountain meadows
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES39  Prairie
   FRES41  Wet grasslands

     AL  AR  CA  CO  CT  FL  GA  IL  IN  IA
     KS  KY  LA  ME  MD  MA  MI  MN  MS  MO
     MT  NE  NH  NJ  NM  NY  NC  ND  OH  OK
     PA  SC  SD  TN  TX  VT  VA  WA  WV  WI
     WY  AB  BC  MB  NB  NF  NS  ON  PQ  SK

    2  Cascade Mountains
    3  Southern Pacific Border
    5  Columbia Plateau
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
   10  Wyoming Basin
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont
   14  Great Plains
   15  Black Hills Uplift
   16  Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

   K005  Mixed conifer forest
   K007  Red fir forest
   K012  Douglas-fir forest
   K015  Western spruce - fir forest
   K017  Black Hills pine forest
   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K023  Juniper - pinyon woodland
   K040  Saltbush - greasewood
   K066  Wheatgrass - needlegrass
   K072  Sea oats prairie
   K073  Northern cordgrass prairie
   K074  Bluestem prairie
   K081  Oak savanna
   K082  Mosaic of K074 and K100
   K083  Cedar glades
   K084  Cross Timbers
   K095  Great Lakes pine forest
   K096  Northeastern spruce - fir forest
   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K099  Maple - basswood forest
   K100  Oak - hickory forest
   K102  Beech - maple forest
   K104  Appalachian oak forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K107  Northern hardwoods - fir forest
   K110  Northeastern oak - pine forest
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest
   K112  Southern mixed forest

     1  Jack pine
    14  Northern pin oak
    15  Red pine
    16  Aspen
    19  Gray birch - red maple
    20  White pine - northern red oak - red maple
    26  Sugar maple - basswood
    31  Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
    32  Red spruce
    33  Red spruce - balsam fir
    37  Northern white-cedar
    40  Post oak - blackjack oak
    42  Bur oak
    45  Pitch pine
    46  Eastern redcedar
    52  White oak - black oak - northern red oak
    53  White oak
    55  Northern red oak
    60  Beech - sugar maple
    62  Silver maple - American elm
    70  Longleaf pine
    71  Longleaf pine - scrub oak
    76  Shortleaf pine - oak
    78  Virginia pine - oak
    80  Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
    83  Longleaf pine - slash pine
    84  Slash pine
   107  White spruce
   110  Black oak
   207  Red fir
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   220  Rocky Mountain juniper
   237  Interior ponderosa pine
   239  Pinyon - juniper
   251  White spruce - aspen


In southwest Michigan blackeyed Susan occurs in wet prairie in
association with goldenrods (Solidago spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), Indian
grass (Sorghastrum nutans), marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris),
queen-of-the-prairie (Filipendula rubra), purple meadowrue (Thalictrum
dasycarpum), prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), and cowbane
(Oxypolis pectinata) [40].

Associates of blackeyed Susan in tallgrass prairie in central Illinois
include leadplant (Amorpha canescens), sawtooth sunflower (Helianthus
grosseserratus), stiff sunflower (Helianthus rigidus), rattlesnake
master (Eryngium yuccifolium), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus),
and flowering spurge (Euphorbia corollata) [38].

Associates of blackeyed Susan in remnant upland tallgrass prairie in
west-central Missouri include eastern red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana),
dewberry (Rubus flagellaris), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), buck
brush (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus), leadplant (Amorpha canescens), and
wild snowball (Ceanothus americanus) [37].

Associates of blackeyed Susan in montane meadow grasslands within the
Rocky Mountain, Sierran, and Madrean montane conifer forests include
bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), California false-hellebore (Veratrum
californicum), monkey flower (Mimulus nasutum), mountain brome (Bromus
marginatus), and iris (Iris missouriensis) [10].

Associates of blackeyed Susan in Sequoia National Park, California, on
sites adjacent to a giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) grove
include California wood fern (Dryopteris arguta), beaked hazel (Corylus
cornuta), American trailplant (Adenocaulon bicolor), incense-cedar
(Libocedrus decurrens), bush chinquapin (Chrysolepis sempervirens),
Richardson geranium (Geranium richardsonii), California buckeye
(Aesculus californica), white hedgenettle (Stachys albens), white fir
(Abies concolor), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), Sierra gooseberry
(Ribes roezlii), and western cowbane (Oxypolis occidentalis) [3].


SPECIES: Rudbeckia hirta
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY: In the western Cross Timbers of northern Texas in 1944, blackeyed Susan was lightly grazed by cattle during the last half of April, heavily grazed during May, and lightly grazed during the first half of June. It was not grazed at any other time [20]. In southeastern Minnesota white-tailed deer grazed blackeyed Susan plants which had been transplanted as seedlings into test plots in the spring of 1983. Thirty-six percent of blackeyed Susan plants were grazed in 1983, and 8 percent in 1984. No plant was grazed more than once. Eastern cottontails and thirteen-lined ground squirrels were observed in the study area, but they did not make use of blackeyed Susan [21]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE: NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES: Blackeyed Susan is recommended for restoration of disturbed areas and prairies [51]. Blackeyed Susan seeds are available for restoration and conservation efforts from the USDA Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center at Corning, New York [58]. Roadside sites: Blackeyed Susan seeds or plants were used along highways in Wisconsin as part of a natural tallgrass prairie roadside restoration project. Blackeyed Susan gave excellent response to all attempted propagation methods: direct seeding on the field site; transplanting seedlings; and transplanting year-old plants [46]. Blackeyed Susan, along with other native wildflowers, was used in Massachusetts to restore a roadside site that had shallow, infertile soil, poor moisture retention, and hostile exposure. After 4 years, blackeyed Susan was one of few survivors at the site [1]. Blackeyed Susan was used in the rehabilitation of a sand and gravel borrow-pit in Greene County, Ohio in 1986 and 1987. Blackeyed Susan was inconspicuous and aboveground growth was slow the first summer, but during the second year (1987) it flowered. On the drier, less fertile sites blackeyed Susan flowered in 1988, even though it was still quite small [14]. Mine sites: Blackeyed Susan, along with other native prairie forbs and grasses, was planted on iron mine tailings in west-central Wisconsin. The tailings are sandy loam in texture, lack essential nutrients, are very low in organic matter, and have an average pH of 8.5. Seed was broadcast by hand, raked in, and mulched. No artificial watering or weeding was done. Of the blackeyed Susan seeds planted, 6.8 percent produced seedlings. Growth was slow, but by the second growing season, many of the plants were flowering. Blackeyed Susan showed very little response to any fertilizer treatment [32]. Prairie sites: Blackeyed Susan was used as a cover crop to protect other forb and grass seedlings in a north-central Illinois oldfield prairie restoration project [8]. Blackeyed Susan was used in a seeding effort on open upland and drier southwest-facing slopes around groves and draws of hickories (Carya spp.) and oaks (Quercus spp.) in degraded tallgrass savanna in northwest Illinois. In October and November of 1988, seeds were hand broadcast. By fall, 1991, there were seedlings and mature blackeyed Susan plants [9]. OTHER USES AND VALUES: Blackeyed Susan is used as a garden ornamental [51]. The leaves of blackeyed Susan are used to make a tea that is said to be a diuretic, with some cardiac stimulation properties [45]. The Forest Potawatomis treated colds with a tea prepared from the roots of blackeyed Susan [4]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Blackeyed Susan may be an indicator of range condition. In the western Cross Timbers of northern Texas on fine sandy loam soil, blackeyed Susan was not present on range in excellent and good condition, had coverage of 2 percent on range in fair condition, and had coverage of 4 percent on range in poor condition [20]. The Missouri grass glades were overgrazed from the late 1800's until the 1960's. By the 1930's on overgrazed open range the composition of the once productive prairie glades had changed to a community of soft chess (Bromus mollis) and blackeyed Susan [42]. Tallgrass prairie in north-central Oklahoma was subjected to short-duration grazing schedules from 1985 to 1988. Blackeyed Susan did not respond to different grazing schedules, but did fluctuate in numbers in response to environmental conditions influencing its establishment [25]. Blackeyed Susan was grazed by white-tailed deer in southeastern Minnesota in 1983 and 1984. The grazing did not significantly affect seedling survival in wet years. However, under drought conditions grazed plants might not be able to resume growth sufficiently to survive winter or compete successfully with annuals the following spring [21]. Herbivory may decrease seed yield from blackeyed Susan. Blackeyed Susan plants in a pasture in southern Oklahoma were infested with the silvery checkerspot butterfly (Nymphalidae) caterpillar during the summer of 1981. Heads from infested plants produced 50 percent fewer seeds than did heads from uninfested plants. Dispersion of blackeyed Susan plants may decrease infestation because of the limited distances the caterpillars can travel [47]. Fertilization of blackeyed Susan is probably not effective [27,32]. Blackeyed Susan may be extremely sensitive to ozone exposure. More than 50 percent of blackeyed Susan plants showed foliage injury in response to the ambient ozone levels which occurred in the Great Smoky Mountains in 1989. With ozone exposure twice ambient level, injury was greater than 90 percent [30]. Blackeyed Susan may be a good indicator species for soil cadmium. In northwestern Indiana urban-industrial regions the soil is contaminated with cadmium and other heavy metals. Blackeyed Susan seed germination was reduced in proportion to additions of soil cadmium [62].


SPECIES: Rudbeckia hirta
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Blackeyed Susan is a native, warm-season, annual, biennial or short-lived perennial forb [26,34]. It has one to a few stems [4] 12 to 40 inches (0.3-1.0 m) tall [26], which are erect and sometimes sparingly branched [33]. The lower leaves are 2 to 6 inches (5-15 cm) long [28], alternate and petioled [34]. The upper leaves are mostly sessile [26]. The inflorescences are few to many flower heads on peduncles 2 to 8 inches (5-20 cm) long [34]. The fruit is an achene 0.06 inches (1.5 mm) long; there is no pappus [33]. Blackeyed Susan has a taproot or a cluster of fibrous roots [28]. It is a mycorrhizal species [43]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Blackeyed Susan reproduces sexually by seed [4,28]. It is pollinated by bees and flies [15,22]. It also reproduces vegetatively [56] by sprouting from the root crown [48]. In remnant tallgrass prairie in central Illinois, blackeyed Susan seeds made up 2.4 percent of germinable seeds found in the seedbank. Fifty percent of blackeyed Susan seeds were in the upper 0.8 inches (2 cm) of soil; the rest were in the next 3 inches (8 cm) of soil. The seeds occurred in high-density clumps rather than being randomly dispersed. Blackeyed Susan was a very minor component of the vegetational cover. There were more blackeyed Susan seeds in the seedbank than would be predicted by its importance value [38]. Blackeyed Susan seed germination varies with area and time of collection, and with germination conditions. Blackeyed Susan seeds were collected from wild seed sources in central Wisconsin in the fall of 1976. The seeds were given cold, dry stratification for at least 2 months, before germination testing. Germination ranges were 0 to 38 percent. When grown in soil in 1977, none germinated; in 1978, germination in soil ranged from 10 to 24 percent. The higher rate in 1978 was probably due to reduction in dormancy and to higher germination temperatures than in 1977. Light had no marked effect on the germination of blackeyed Susan seeds in this study. Wild blackeyed Susan had a very wide range of Pure Live Seed values [31]. In a germination study of Wisconsin tallgrass prairie plants, seeds were collected from the southern tier of Wisconsin counties. With 3 months cold stratification, blackeyed Susan had a maximum of 46 percent germination. However, germination values for seeds collected in different years fluctuated greatly. In some years seeds would germinate even though unstratified [29]. In trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)-dominated vegetation in western Colorado, blackeyed Susan seeds were collected September 2-3, 1981. Germination tests were conducted within 6 months of collection. Germination rates were very low in the absence of light and without stratification. Germination rates ranged from 24 to 36 percent for moistened seeds grown in light and stratified 30 to 120 days [36]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Blackeyed Susan is found on clayey loam to sandy loam soils. It has low to moderate water requirements, and grows in full sun to partial shade [51]. It is found in plains and open woods [18,19], sunny roadsides and meadows [57], sandhills and bogs [12], and disturbed places [35]. Blackeyed Susan occurs at the following elevations: Elevation (feet) Elevation (meters) CA 328-3,937 100-1,200 [34] CO 5,000-9,500 1,524-2,896 [17,33] WY 8,200 2,500 [17]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Blackeyed Susan is considered a pioneer species [31], and can be dominant in early stages of succession [50]. Blackeyed Susan is part of the weed stage of abandoned fields in central Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas [59]. At the establishment of the Curtis Prairie in south-central Wisconsin between 1936 and 1941, blackeyed Susan plants were left intact, as they already occurred in some fields. They persisted a short time, spreading opportunistically into other areas. Areas originally dominated by blackeyed Susan were invaded extensively by various more aggressive species [52]. In a tallgrass prairie establishment effort in southern Wisconsin, begun in 1974, blackeyed Susan appeared in 1975, though it had not been seeded. It was abundant in the surrounding area, however [60]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Blackeyed Susan is able to flower its first year [28], but flowers more prolifically its second year. By the end of the first year it may begin vegetative reproduction, and show a distinct "bunching" effect with 2 or more shoots [46]. Topgrowth dies back each year [36,42]. Biennial and perennial forms sprout the next spring from the root crown [48]. Blackeyed Susan initiates growth in late spring and becomes dormant by early fall [2]. Blackeyed Susan flowering times are: Begin Peak End Flowering Flowering Flowering FL May ---- October [12] IL June ---- September [44] KS June ---- August [4] MI June ---- August [22] MN June July July [15] MO June ---- August [37] NC May ---- July [48] ND July July August [11] SC May ---- July [48] TX June ---- ---- [20] WI June ---- August [16] Great Plains May ---- September [28] Northeast US June ---- October [26].


SPECIES: Rudbeckia hirta
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Blackeyed Susan probably has good fire tolerance in the dormant state, since it reproduces vegetatively from the root crown [48,56]. It produces numerous small seeds [11] and can establish on burned sites. Blackeyed Susan thrives in the open, sunny conditions [31,51] created by fire. It may be an initial on-site colonizer since its seeds are found up to 4 inches (10 cm) or deeper in the seedbank [38]. However, no information was available on seed tolerance to heat or length of seed viability in the seedbank. FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Caudex, growing points in soil


SPECIES: Rudbeckia hirta
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Blackeyed Susan is probably top-killed by fire during the growing season. It may survive by sprouting from the root crown [56]. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Blackeyed Susan does not respond uniformly to burning. Depending on season of burning and local conditions, it often establishes successfully; existing populations may either increase or decrease in abundance. In south-central New York wildfires burned goldenrod (Solidago spp.)- poverty oatgrass (Danthonia spicata) fields in the springs of 1962, 1963, and 1964. Adjacent burned and unburned areas were measured for vegetative response 10 to 26 months after the fires. The average frequency of blackeyed Susan in unburned areas was 29 percent; in burned areas it was 2 percent [54]. In southwestern Missouri after a decade of prescribed burning on glade grasslands blackeyed Susan had decreased in abundance [42]. Blackeyed Susan seeds were broadcast in the fall of 1988 on sites in tallgrass oak savanna in northwestern Illinois. Consecutive spring prescribed fires were conducted in 1989, 1990, and 1991. By the fall of 1991 there were both seedlings and mature plants of blackeyed Susan on burned sites [9]. Blackeyed Susan decreased with repeated dormant season prescribed fire on one test plot in south-central Wisconsin, but increased every year in another field subjected to the same treatment [39]. In south-central Wisconsin the Curtis Prairie has had a biennial burning schedule since 1950, one-third being burned one year and the other two-thirds the following year. Blackeyed Susan was not present in 1951, but had appeared in small numbers by 1961. An extended growing season on the burned prairie appears to enhance presence of blackeyed Susan. During the spring, daytime temperatures are substantially warmer on the burned than on the unburned prairie, where the litter layer retards soil warming. The burned surface also cools faster at night. These effects are most pronounced in May and June [2] Blackeyed Susan in tallgrass prairie in eastern Nebraska on silty clay loam was burned in early May, early July, and mid-September, 1983. Plots were sampled in the fall of 1983, 1984, and 1986. Burning, particularly summer and fall burning in years with adequate precipitation, resulted in higher blackeyed Susan seedling establishment than occurred without burning. In dry years burning reduced seedling establishment. Blackeyed Susan cover also increased with summer and fall burning; cover decreased without burning [7]. Blackeyed Susan on a poor condition prairie range site in north-central Oklahoma was burned April 1, 1965-1967, in conditions where the soil was moist and the fire burned against a 5 to 10 mile-per-hour (8-16 k/h) breeze. Matched unburned plots were mowed earlier in the spring, and the residue removed. In the spring of 1966, blackeyed Susan flowered profusely on unburned plots, but was absent on burned plots [27]. The Research Project Summary, Herbaceous responses to seasonal burning in experimental tallgrass prairie plots provides information on postfire response of blackeyed Susan in experimental prairie plots that was not available when this species review was originally written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Rudbeckia hirta
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[434] 6. Betz, Robert F.; Lamp, Herbert F. 1989. Species composition of old settler silt-loam prairies. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 33-39. [14016] 7. Bragg, Thomas B. 1991. Implications for long-term prairie management from seasonal burning of loess hill and tallgrass prairie. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 34-44. [16631] 8. Branhagen, Alan J. 1990. Gravel prairie, sedge meadow and fen restoration underway at Kieselberg Forest Preserve. Restoration & Management Notes. 8(2): 102-103. [14157] 9. Bronny, Christopher. 1992. Successional restoration of an oak opening. Restoration & Management Notes. 10(1): 77-78. [19498] 10. Brown, David E. 1982. Montane meadow grassland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 113-114. [8895] 11. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450] 12. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124] 13. Collins, Scott L.; Uno, Gordon E. 1983. The effect of early spring burning on vegetation in buffalo wallows. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 110(4): 474-481. [4352] 14. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene County, Ohio. 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[820] 19. Dorn, R. D. 1977. Manual of the vascular plants of Wyoming. New York: Garland Publ. 2 vols. [21082] 20. Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western Cross Timbers. Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 326-376. [3683] 21. Englund, Judy Voigt; Meyer, William J. 1986. The impact of deer on 24 species of prairie forbs. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 210-212. [3575] 22. Evans, Francis C. 1986. Bee-flower interactions on an old field in southeastern Michigan. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 103-109. [3538] 23. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 24. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 25. Gillen, Robert L.; McCollum, F. Ted; Hodges, Mark E.; [and others]. 1991. Plant community responses to short duration grazing in tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range Management. 44(2): 124-128. [14135] 26. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329] 27. Graves, James E.; McMurphy, Wilfred E. 1969. Burning and fertilization for range improvement in central Oklahoma. Journal of Range Management. 22(3): 165-168. [3717] 28. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. 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