Index of Species Information
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION :
Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Ratibida columnifera. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
Ratibida columnaris (Sims) D. Don [34,48,52]
SCS PLANT CODE :
COMMON NAMES :
upright prairie coneflower
columnar prairie coneflower
long headed coneflower
The currently accepted scientific name of upright prairie coneflower is
Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. and Standl. (Asteraceae) [1,26,30,51].
There is one recognized form as follows:
R. c. forma pulcherrima (DC.) Fern. [1,26]
Upright prairie coneflower hybridizes with prairie coneflower (Ratibida
tagetes) in Colorado .
LIFE FORM :
FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS :
No special status
OTHER STATUS :
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION :
Upright prairie coneflower is predominantly a Great Plains species which
extends from southeastern British Columbia  to Manitoba  and
Michigan , south through Illinois  to Louisiana, and west
through Texas and northern Mexico  to Arizona . Naturalized
populations occur east of the Cascades  and in New England .
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES23 Fir - spruce
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon - juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES38 Plains grasslands
AZ AR CO IL IA KS LA MI MN MO
MT NE NM ND OK SD TN TX UT WI
WY AB BC MB SK MEXICO
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS :
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest
K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland
K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K040 Saltbush - greasewood
K045 Ceniza shrub
K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
K060 Mesquite savanna
K062 Mesquite - live oak savanna
K063 Foothills prairie
K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
K065 Grama - buffalograss
K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie
K074 Bluestem prairie
K077 Bluestem - sacahuista prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K084 Cross Timbers
K086 Juniper - oak savanna
K098 Northern floodplain forest
SAF COVER TYPES :
14 Northern pin oak
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
62 Silver maple - American elm
66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper
67 Mohrs (shin) oak
206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
237 Interior ponderosa pine
239 Pinyon - juniper
241 Western live oak
SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES :
HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES :
Upright prairie coneflower is widespread throughout the Great Plains.
It is not listed as an indicator species in available publications. It
occurs with a variety of associated species, depending on geographic
location and site conditions.
Lists of associated species are available for the following areas
outside the main range of upright prairie coneflower: the "hard lands"
of northeastern and east-central Colorado , the Edwards Plateau of
west-central Texas , the lower Rio Grande Valley of south Texas
, and the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas .
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE :
In a 1-year study in the central Black Hills of South Dakota, upright
prairie coneflower made up 0.4 percent of cattle diets in June but was
not utilized from July through October .
Another 1-year study showed that upright prairie coneflower was an
important species in the diets of white-tailed deer in southeastern
Texas from early spring through summer . However, upright prairie
coneflower seedlings in restored native prairie in southeastern
Minnesota were not grazed by white-tailed deer, although seedlings of
other forbs were eaten .
Upright prairie coneflower seeds were eaten by wild turkeys in
south-central South Dakota. In September and October these seeds made
up 1.2 percent of the volume of crop contents and were used by 10
percent of wild turkeys studied .
Prior to heading upright prairie coneflower is palatable to livestock
Upright prairie coneflower palatability is rated poor to fair for cattle
and horses, and fair for sheep .
NUTRITIONAL VALUE :
Upright prairie coneflower energy value and protein value for livestock
is poor .
The food value of upright prairie coneflower is listed as follows :
Elk poor ----
Mule deer poor poor
White-tailed deer fair poor
Pronghorn ---- poor
Upland game birds good ----
Small nongame birds fair ----
Small mammals fair ----
COVER VALUE :
The cover value of upright prairie coneflower for wildlife in North
Dakota is fair for mule deer and pronghorn, and poor for white-tailed
VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES :
Upright prairie coneflower is suggested for use on roadsides, park and
recreation areas, and prairie restoration projects where annual
precipitation is from 10 to 30 inches (254-762 mm) . Plant vigor
and seed quality are rated excellent . Upright prairie coneflower
has been established successfully from seed [3,17,42], greenhouse stock
, and tissue culture . Research from southeastern Montana,
however, indicates that moisture stress can reduce growth of seedlings.
The potential for for vigorous establishment during extended drought was
rated as low to moderate .
Prairie hay harvested from natural grassland in 1978 was used
successfully as a source of upright prairie coneflower seeds in central
North Dakota. This method was used to establish vegetation in the
Central Great Plains after the drought of the 1930's. Both recently
harvested and stored hay produced seedlings in greeenhouse tests .
Upright prairie coneflower seeds were collected locally in southwestern
Ohio, and raked into the soil of a prairie reclamation site on a sand
and gravel borrow-pit. The seeds germinated and the plants flowered .
Upright prairie coneflower seeds collected in the Badlands of western
North Dakota were grown on raw coal spoil material. Upright prairie
coneflower had good emergence of seedlings. Seedlings and greenhouse
transplants showed vigorous growth for 2 years. Upright prairie
coneflower developed substantially more cover on the plots than did most
of the other species tested .
In southeastern Montana, upright prairie coneflower was recommended for
inclusion in seed mixtures for strip mine reclamation. Seeds germinated
well even under high water stress and with high sodium chloride
concentration in the soil. Seedling performance was favorable .
OTHER USES AND VALUES :
Cheyenne Indians boiled upright prairie coneflower leaves and stems to
make a solution applied externally to draw poison from rattlesnake
bites. The solution was also applied for relief from poison-ivy
(Toxicodendron spp.) .
OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
Upright prairie coneflower responds variably to grazing. It often
increases in mixtures with more palatable species, but decreases in
mixed-grass prairies lacking more palatable forbs . On mixed-grass
prairie in east-central South Dakota, upright prairie coneflower
increases when cattle grazing reduces more palatable species .
In southwestern Texas, upright prairie coneflower occurred on severely
overgrazed shortgrass pasture . A 1-year study in southeastern
Texas showed no significant difference in upright prairie coneflower
cover between short-duration and continuous grazing pastures .
Upright prairie coneflower increased slightly following mechanical brush
removal in west-central Texas .
A northeastern Kansas tallgrass prairie containing upright prairie
coneflower was mowed with different schedules on matched plots. Upright
prairie coneflower canopy cover after mowing was less than 1 percent on
all plots. Frequency ranged from 0 to 45 percent, varying with soil and
mowing treatment .
Upright prairie coneflower seeds can be planted in the fall. If they
are placed in winter storage for spring planting, they should be
stratified with a cold dry treatment .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
Upright prairie coneflower is a native  warm-season  perennial
forb [1,27,30,51]. It has one to several stems 12 to 47 inches (0.3-1.2
m) tall , often branched in the upper part [24,55]. Leaves are up
to 6 inches (15 cm) long  and pinnately divided . Flowerheads
are borne singly  at the ends of naked peduncles [1,26]. The floral
disk is columnar, 0.6 to 1.6 inches (1.5-4 cm) long , and about 0.4
inches (1 cm) across. The fruit is a small achene ; the pappus is
reduced to one or two prominent awn-teeth [1,30]. Upright prairie
coneflower has a caudex and a stout taproot [26,55] with branch roots
. It is an obligate mycotroph .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :
REGENERATION PROCESSES :
The most frequent pollinator of upright prairie coneflower in
northeastern Kansas is an andrenid bee (Andrena rudbekii) .
Requirements for optimum germination of upright prairie coneflower seeds
According to research conducted in east-central South Dakota, upright
prairie coneflower seeds have an impermeable membrane which completely
inhibits germination. Moist-cold stratification produced 11 percent
germination. If the seed membrane was punctured with a probe,
germination increased to 95-100 percent without stratification. Filled
seed constituted 47.5 percent of the seed collected .
Upright prairie coneflower seeds from southeastern Montana outlier
stands of tallgrass prairie were tested for viability, germination, and
seedling vigor. Seeds had good germination over a broad range of
temperatures and pretreatments; optimum germination temperatures were 68
to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (20-30 deg C). At 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20
deg C), 50 percent germination was achieved in 2 days. Seedling
survival was excellent .
Germination rates of upright prairie coneflower seeds from western North
Dakota were tested. Maximum germination occurred with dry cold storage
(29%, occurring in January) .
Upright prairie coneflower can regrow until seasonal maturity if
partially defoliated by mowing or grazing .
SITE CHARACTERISTICS :
Upright prairie coneflower grows well on sandy loam, loam, and clayey
loam soils . It can also be found growing on thin, rocky, gravelly
and sandy soils. It is tolerant of weakly acidic to moderately alkaline
soils and weakly saline soils . Optimum soil depth for upright
prairie coneflower growth is 20 or more inches (51 cm) . It has low
to moderate water requirements  and grows in full sun . It is
found on dry plains, prairies , hillsides , and also roadsides,
railway grades and other "waste places" .
A field survey of minimally disturbed native grassland of the Coastal
Sand Plain of south Texas was conducted in May, 1987. Upright prairie
coneflower occurred in five of ten sites on dune ridges and well-drained
flats, with mean absolute frequency of 14 percent and relative cover of
3 percent. In swales and on moderately drained flats it occurred on
only one of five sites, with absolute frequency of 5 percent and trace
relative cover .
Upright prairie coneflower occurs at the following elevations:
Elevation (feet) Elevation (meters)
CO 3,500-7,000 1,067-2,134 
MT 3,200-5,200 975-1,585 
SD 3,600-5,000 1,097-1,524 
UT 4,500-8,416 1,372-2,565 [14,55]
WY 3,700-8,000 1,128-2,434 
SUCCESSIONAL STATUS :
Facultative Seral Species
Upright prairie coneflower is listed as an early seral species in
southeastern Montana . It shows weak shade tolerance and is usually
found on open or exposed sites .
After the drought of the 1930's, upright prairie coneflower was
particularly common in mixed-grass prairie of the Great Plains as bare
areas were colonized. It was one of only five species that showed
marked recovery from the drought by 1943 .
Upright prairie coneflower was not present on a range site in
southwestern North Dakota that had been ungrazed for 39 years. A
similar grazed site had an average of 1.3 upright prairie coneflower
stems per square meter .
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT :
Upright prairie coneflower resumes growth in spring . In
north-central Texas, it broke dormancy in early March, bloomed in June,
and shed seed in July . In southwestern North Dakota, upright
prairie coneflower resumed growth in late April, bloomed during the
latter part of July, and obtained maximum height by the end of July.
Mature height, averaged over 8 years (1955-1962), was 11.3 inches (28.7
cm) . Upright prairie coneflower bloomed an average of 41 days a
year in central North Dakota .
Upright prairie coneflower flowering times are:
Begin Peak End
Flowering Flowering Flowering
CO June July September 
KS June July September 
ND June July August 
North TX June ---- ---- 
South TX April ---- ---- 
UT June ---- August 
WY July July September 
Great Plains June ---- September 
N. Great Plains July ---- September 
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS :
Upright prairie coneflower is fire sensitive when actively growing, but
has good fire tolerance in the dormant state  since it sprouts from
the caudex [26,55]. In the central Great Plains tallgrass prairie,
upright prairie coneflower was reported to be harmed by fire .
Upright prairie coneflower produces numerous small seeds  and can
establish on burned sites, since it thrives in the open, sunny
conditions  created by fire. It may be an initial on-site
colonizer, but no information was available on presence in the seedbank.
FIRE REGIMES :
Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
"Find Fire Regimes".
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :
Caudex, growing points in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT :
Upright prairie coneflower is probably top-killed by fire during the
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT :
PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE :
Upright prairie coneflower response to fire varies considerably,
depending to some extent on geographic area and season of burning.
Upright prairie coneflower was studied in tallgrass prairie of
northeastern Kansas, where it was abundant. Plants from sites not
burned for 9 years or more were 2.6 times larger, produced 50 percent
more stems, and had more flowerheads and seeds than did plants from
recently burned sites. Reproductive effort (the ratio of inflorescence
biomass to total vegetative biomass) was 33 percent lower in annually
burned prairie than in prairies with longer fire intervals. However,
percent cover and frequency were not significantly different between
burned and unburned sites. Variation in upright prairie coneflower
response to fire is probably due to changes in its competitive status
relative to the dominant perennial grasses and to changes in abiotic
conditions after fire . Another study in northeastern Kansas
reported that upright prairie coneflower cover was not significantly
correlated with years since burning at postfire years 1 to 4 .
Upright prairie coneflower was less prevalent on north-central Nebraska
sand hills 2 to 3 months after an early May wildfire than on similar
unburned sites .
Changes in upright prairie coneflower flowering were not significant
after May prescribed fires in northwestern Minnesota . A survey of
literature on plant response to fire indicates that upright prairie
coneflower decreased or showed no change in response to spring fires
Upright prairie coneflower in a south Texas chaparral-bristlegrass
(Setaria spp.) community had varying responses to fire. Plots burned in
September produced 3 pounds of upright prairie coneflower herbage per
acre; plots burned the December of the next year produced 8 pounds per
acre; plots burned at both times produced 3 pounds per acre. Unburned
plots produced 2 pounds per acre . Percent cover of upright prairie
coneflower was 3 percent or less on all burned and unburned plots, some
of which were also mechanically treated by shredding, chopping, or
Upright prairie coneflower in tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas
was burned on different schedules on matched plots. Cover was less than
1 percent on all treatments, burned and unburned. Frequency varied with
soil type, fire frequency, and season of burning .
DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE :
FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS :
SPECIES: Ratibida columnifera
1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The
Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. 
2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,
reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's
associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.
3. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for
wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great
Plains. In: Western proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western
Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas,
Nevada. [Place of publication unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 257-271. On
file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain
Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 
4. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for
seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W.,
compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the
conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land
Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262. 
5. Box, Thadis W.; Powell, Jeff; Drawe, D. Lynn. 1967. Influence of fire on
south Texas chaparral communities. Ecology. 48(6): 955-961. 
6. Box, Thadis W.; White, Richard S. 1969. Fall and winter burning of south
Texas brush ranges. Journal of Range Management. 22(6): 373-376.
7. Brand, M. D.; Goetz, H. 1978. Secondary succession of a mixed grass
community in southwestern North Dakota. Annual Proceedings of the North
Dakota Academy of Science. 32(2): 67-78. 
8. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First
flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth,
North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. 
9. Cohen, Will E.; Drawe, D. Lynn; Bryant, Fred C.; Bradley, Lisa C. 1989.
Observations on white-tailed deer and habitat response to livestock
grazing in south Texas. Journal of Range Management. 42(5): 361-365.
10. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on
a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene
County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 89(3): 42-44. 
11. Cottle, H. J. 1931. Studies in the vegetation of southwestern Texas.
Ecology. 12(1): 105-155. 
12. Coupland, Robert T. 1958. The effects of fluctuations in weather upon
the grasslands of the Great Plains. Botanical Review. 24(5): 273-317.
13. Diamond, David D.; Fulbright, Timothy E. 1990. Contemporary plant
communities of upland grasslands of the Coastal Sand Plain, Texas.
Southwestern Naturalist. 35(4): 385-392. 
14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information
network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and
Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior,
Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. 
15. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain
West Publishing. 276 p. 
16. Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western Cross Timbers.
Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 326-376. 
17. Eddleman, Lee E.; Doescher, Paul S. 1978. Selection of native plants for
spoils revegetation based on regeneration characteristics and
successional status. In: Land Reclamation Program, Annual Report July
1976-October 1977. ANL/LRP-2. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory,
Energy & Environmental Systems Division: 132-138. 
18. Eddleman, Lee E.; Meinhardt, Patricia L. 1981. Seed viability and
seedling vigor in selected prairie plants. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.;
Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of
Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978
August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No.
15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences:
19. Englund, Judy Voigt; Meyer, William J. 1986. The impact of deer on 24
species of prairie forbs. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds.
The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American
prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND:
Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 210-212.
20. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. 
21. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections
supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p.
(Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny
Series; vol. 2). 
22. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].
1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range
ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. 
23. Gibson, David J. 1989. Hulbert's study of factors effecting botanical
composition of tallgrass prairie. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck,
James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings,
11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE.
Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 115-133. 
24. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of
northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New
York Botanical Garden. 910 p. 
25. Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in
the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota
State University. 141 p. Thesis. 
26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. 
27. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed.
Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. 
28. Hartnett, David C. 1991. Effects of fire in tallgrass prairie on growth
and reproduction of prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera:
Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany. 78(3): 429-435. 
29. Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Todd, T. C. 1992. Relationships of
mycorrhizal symbiosis, rooting strategy, and phenology among tallgrass
prairie forbs. Canadian Journal of Botany. 70: 1521-1528. 
30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific
Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. 
31. Holden, D. J.; Ellis, B. E.; Chen, C. H. 1978. Cloning native prairie
plants by tissue culture. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q.,
Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August
22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 92-95. 
32. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of
prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K.,
ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North
Dakota Press: 395-404. 
33. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota
grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota
State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. 
34. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of
the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume
II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North
Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie
Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. 
35. Kruse, Arnold D.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1990. Effects of prescribed fire
upon wildlife habitat in northern mixed-grass prairie. In: Alexander, M.
E.; Bisgrove, G. F., technical coordinators. The art and science of fire
management: Proceedings, 1st Interior West Fire Council annual meeting
and workshop; 1988 October 24-27; Kananaskis Village, AB. Inf. Rep.
NOR-X-309. Edmonton, AB: Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern
Forestry Centre: 182-193. 
36. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation
of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:
American Geographical Society. 77 p. 
37. Laudenslager, Scott L.; Flake, Lester D. 1987. Fall food habits of wild
turkeys in south central South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 19(1): 37-40.
38. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank
W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage
production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College,
Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. 
39. McGinnies, William J.; Shantz, Homer L.; McGinnies, William G. 1991.
Changes in vegetation and land use in eastern Colorado: A photographic
study, 1904-1986. ARS-85. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 165 p. 
40. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific
variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a
northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J.,
eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings,
6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH.
Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio
State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. 
41. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant
geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. 
42. Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. 1983. Number of seedlings established from
stored prairie hay. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North
American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo,
MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 3-4. 
43. Rollins, Dale; Bryant, Fred C. 1986. Floral changes following mechanical
brush removal in central Texas. Journal of Range Management. 39(3):
44. Schripsema, Janet R. 1978. Ecological changes on pine-grassland burned
in spring, late spring and winter. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota State
University. 99 p. Thesis. 
45. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo,
TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. 
46. Sorensen, J. T.; Holden, D. J. 1974. Germination of native prairie forb
seeds. Journal of Range Management. 27(2): 123-126. 
47. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern
Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire
Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. 
48. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North
American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska
Press. 465 p. 
49. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.
National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.
SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. 
50. Uresk, Daniel W.; Lowrey, Dennis G. 1984. Cattle diets in the central
Black Hills of South Dakota. In: Noble, Daniel L.; Winokur, Robert P.,
eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great
Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great
Plains Agricultural Council Pub. No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota
School of Mines and Technology: 50-52. 
51. Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the
Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
336 p. 
52. Vora, Robin S. 1990. Plant phenology in the lower Rio Grande Valley,
Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 137-142. 
53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful
in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p.
54. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO:
Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. 
55. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry
C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,
UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. 
56. Wolfe, Carl W. 1973. Effects of fire on a sandhills grassland
environment. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology
conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall
Timbers Research Station: 241-255. 
57. Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Fire
management: Prairie plant communities: Proceedings of a symposium and
workshop; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication
unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: V-1 to V-12. On file with: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research
Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 
58. Gibson, David J. 1988. Regeneration and fluctuation of tallgrass prairie
vegetation in response to burning frequency. Bulletin of the Torrey
Botanical Club. 115(1): 1-12. 
FEIS Home Page