Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
FEIS Home Page

Phlox hoodii


2005 James L. Reveal, University of Maryland

Gucker, Corey L. 2006. Phlox hoodii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [ ].

On 1 June 2018, the common name of this species was changed in FEIS
from: Hood's phlox
to: spiny phlox.


Phlox bryoides Nutt. [71,94,106]
    = Phlox hoodii ssp. muscoides (Nutt.) Wherry [57,70]

Phlox canescens Torr. & Gray
    = Phlox hoodii ssp. canescens [61,70,72,88]

Phlox hoodii var. canescens (Torr. & Gray) M. E. Peck [37,62]
    = Phlox hoodii ssp. canescens (Torr. & Gray) Wherry [70,94]

Phlox lantana Piper [100]
    = Phlox hoodii ssp. lantana (Piper) Munz [70,71]

Phlox muscoides Nutt. [61,106,138]
    = Phlox hoodii ssp. muscoides (Nutt.) Wherry [57,70]


spiny phlox
carpet phlox
Hood's phlox

The scientific name of spiny phlox is Phlox hoodii Richards. (Polemoniaceae) [70]. Many subspecies are recognized. Throughout this review, subspecies will be identified using scientific names.

Phlox hoodii ssp. canescens (Torr. & Gray) Wherry [61,70,72,88], woolly phlox, carpet phlox
Phlox hoodii ssp. glabrata (E. Nels.) Wherry [57,70], carpet phlox
Phlox hoodii ssp. hoodii [57,70], spiny phlox
Phlox hoodii ssp. lantana (Piper) Munz [70,71], carpet phlox
Phlox hoodii ssp. muscoides (Nutt.) Wherry [57,70], moss phlox, musk phlox
Phlox hoodii ssp. viscidula (Wherry) Wherry [57,70], carpet phlox


No special status

Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.


SPECIES: Phlox hoodii
Spiny phlox occurs in western North America and reaches its northern limit in Alaska. Its range extends east to Saskatchewan, western North and South Dakota, and western Nebraska. The southern limit is reached in Arizona, and spiny phlox occurs in the Pacific Coast states but is absent from extreme coastal locations [72,109,138].

Plants Database provides a distributional map of spiny phlox and the following subspecies: Phlox hoodii ssp. canescens, P. h. ssp. glabrata, P. h. ssp. hoodii, P. h. ssp. lantana, P. h. ssp. muscoides, P. h. ssp. viscidula. For more detailed descriptions of the distributions of P. h. ssp. canescens and P. h. ssp. muscoides, see [37,61].

FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES35 Pinyon-juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES38 Plains grasslands

STATES/PROVINCES: (key to state/province abbreviations)



2 Cascade Mountains
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
K011 Western ponderosa forest
K012 Douglas-fir forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest
K022 Great Basin pine forest
K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland
K024 Juniper steppe woodland
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K040 Saltbush-greasewood
K050 Fescue-wheatgrass
K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass
K055 Sagebrush steppe
K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe
K063 Foothills prairie
K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass
K065 Grama-buffalo grass
K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass
K069 Bluestem-grama prairie
K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

210 Interior Douglas-fir
219 Limber pine
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
237 Interior ponderosa pine
238 Western juniper
239 Pinyon-juniper

101 Bluebunch wheatgrass
102 Idaho fescue
104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
106 Bluegrass scabland
107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass
108 Alpine Idaho fescue
109 Ponderosa pine shrubland
110 Ponderosa pine-grassland
210 Bitterbrush
213 Alpine grassland
301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama
302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass
303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass
304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
305 Idaho fescue-Richardson needlegrass
306 Idaho fescue-slender wheatgrass
307 Idaho fescue-threadleaf sedge
308 Idaho fescue-tufted hairgrass
309 Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass
310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama
311 Rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass
312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue
313 Tufted hairgrass-sedge
314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue
316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue
317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue
319 Bitterbrush-rough fescue
320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass
321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue
322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass
323 Shrubby cinquefoil-rough fescue
324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue
401 Basin big sagebrush
402 Mountain big sagebrush
403 Wyoming big sagebrush
404 Threetip sagebrush
405 Black sagebrush
406 Low sagebrush
407 Stiff sagebrush
408 Other sagebrush types
412 Juniper-pinyon woodland
414 Salt desert shrub
415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany
416 True mountain-mahogany
417 Littleleaf mountain-mahogany
421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose
501 Saltbush-greasewood
504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association
601 Bluestem prairie
602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed
603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass
606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass
607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass
608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass
609 Wheatgrass-grama
610 Wheatgrass
611 Blue grama-buffalo grass
612 Sagebrush-grass
613 Fescue grassland
614 Crested wheatgrass
615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama
722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie

While spiny phlox is common in sagebrush and mountain grassland communities in the western United States, it is rarely named as a dominant in vegetation types. Below are vegetation classifications where spiny phlox is recognized as a dominant or subdominant.

prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha)-spiny phlox association, also known as the Koelerietum Phloxetosum association on glacial till in Glacier County [84]

Yukon Territory:
Spiny phlox is a subdominant in Aishihik-Sekulmun grasslands dominated by fringed sagebrush (Artemisia frigida) and threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia) in the southwestern part of the territory [133]


SPECIES: Phlox hoodii

Paul Slichter

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [5,55,57,62,67,71,79,94,138]).

Aboveground description: Hood's phlox is a small, low-growing, mat-forming, perennial [62,68]. There is considerable variability in botanical characteristics, which is only partially reduced by the recognition of subspecies. Descriptions of compact matted and loosely caespitose growth forms are described [5,55]. The woody root crown or caudex produces multiple branches [5,138]. Plants are typically hairy and measure between 2 and 12 inches (5-30 cm) across and less than 5 inches (13 cm) tall [4,68,71,79,94,95]. Plants monitored for 8 years in southwestern North Dakota averaged 1.8 inches (4.6 cm) tall. Maximum and minimum heights were 2.4 inches (6.0 cm) and 1.2 inches (3.0 cm), respectively [54]. Branches are crowded with nodes and dense with leaves [18,67,94,95]. Spiny phlox is a stress-tolerant species with slow leaf turnover [17]. Early spring growth is rapid, and plants normally mature before associated vegetation grows to an "appreciable height" [22,54].

Leaves occur opposite one another and are described as woolly or loosely pubescent, with long tangled or cobwebby hairs [5,18,67,68,137]. Leaves are narrow, firm, pungent, and needle-like with sharp points; often the mid-rib is thickened [4,62,79]. Degree of leaf overlap varies, and leaves are typically ascending [35,55,137]. Leaves normally range from 0.1 to 0.5 inch (3-13 mm) long and less than 1 mm wide at the midpoint [37,55,57,79,137]. Old leaves are persistent [4]. Flowers are most often solitary and appear at the ends of branches [5,67,94]. Petals are 5 lobed and range from white to pale blue, purple, or pink [35,57,62]. Petal lobes are typically 0.16 to 0.28 inch (4-7 mm) long, and the flower tube measures 0.24 to 0.47 inch (6-12 mm) long [18,62]. Seeds are normally 0.08 to 0.1 inch (2-3 mm) long [18].

Belowground description: Spiny phlox produces coarse woody taproots [35,57,62,95]. Roots excavated from a sagebrush-dominated site in western Colorado tested positive for mycorrhizal associations [105].

Taproots penetrate deeply if soil depth permits, and lateral roots are short. Maximum root penetration was 36 inches (91 cm) in a pristine big sagebrush/mixed grass community in southern Idaho [65]. In mixed prairie of southwestern Saskatchewan, taproots reached depths of 12 to 37 inches (30-95 cm). Root diameters were 1 to 5 mm near the soil surface but decreased to approximately 0.5 mm at 8 to 10 inch (20-25 cm) soil depths. Lateral roots occurred singly or in groups of 2 to 5 at soil depths below 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm). Lateral roots had diameters of 0.3 to 0.5 mm and were short (2 cm). Occasionally plants produced 1 to 2 large secondary taproots that penetrated as deep as the primary taproot. Penetration depths were greatest in well-developed soils on level sites or on lower slope positions. The average maximum root depths were 34 inches (86 cm) and 12 inches (30 cm) on lower and upper slopes, respectively. In shallow soils, roots did not penetrate beyond 12 inches (30 cm). In sandy soils, roots typically penetrated less than 16 inches (41 cm), but lateral roots were more dense and widely spread than those in fine textured soils [36].

The wide range in plant, leaf, and flower size and form is reduced slightly with the recognition of spiny phlox subspecies. Often subspecies descriptions are made in relation to another subspecies. For more information on distinguishing subspecies, see [37,55,57,61,62,71,88,94,100,137,138].


Spiny phlox regenerates sexually through seed production [95] but can regenerate vegetatively following aboveground damage [1].

Pollination: Most phlox (Phlox spp.) are pollinated by Lepidoptera species. Phlox hoodii ssp. muscoides is pollinated by long-tongued bees [37].

Breeding system: The presence of insect pollinators suggests that cross pollination may predominate.

Seed production: Information regarding spiny phlox seed production is scant. Stevens [123] reported that 50 seeds/plant were produced by mature, average-sized plants growing in a "low competition" area in North Dakota. Seed was collected in seed traps in harvested singleleaf pinyon-Utah juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) stands in west-central Nevada. Abundance of seeds captured was not reported, and seeds were only collected from western aspects, although there were traps on north and south slopes as well [45].

Seed dispersal: Spiny phlox seed is small [18] and could easily be transported by wind. Small mammals may also disperse spiny phlox seed [74].

Seed banking: Several studies indicate that spiny phlox produces a seed bank; however, information regarding seed longevity and persistence in the soil is lacking. Spiny phlox emerged from a bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama (Pseudoroegneria spicata-Bouteloua gracilis) community after treatment with glyphosate herbicide that killed all plants, indicating emergence from soil-stored seed [27].

Spiny phlox emerged from soil collected in a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) community. Soil was collected from 4 sites, each with an undisturbed area and an adjacent area ploughed and seeded to crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) 20 years before the study. Seeded sites 1 and 2 were relatively stable, and seeded sites 3 and 4 were being colonized by native vegetation. Spiny phlox coverage and seedling emergence were greatest in undisturbed sites. The relative cover of and relative seedling emergence of spiny phlox on seeded and undisturbed sites is summarized below [86]:

Relative cover (%) Relative seedling emergence (%)
undisturbed seeded undisturbed seeded
Site 1 0.52 0 0.37 0
Site 2

7.57 0.28 1.13 0.08
Site 3 12.86 0.45 3.16 0
Site 4 2.35 0 0.08 0
Spiny phlox cover/total vegetation cover, expressed as a percentage
number of spiny phlox seedlings/total seedlings, expressed as a percentage

A low number of spiny phlox seedlings emerged from soil collected from 1-year-old burned and unburned sites in Power County, southeastern Idaho. The fire burned in vegetation dominated by threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita) and mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata spp. vaseyana). Fire characteristics were not provided. Spiny phlox cover was 0.75% on unburned sites and 1.43% on burned sites. The relative density of spiny phlox seedlings was 0.004% from unburned soil and 0.006% from burned soil. The researcher indicated that spiny phlox recovered on burned sites primarily through vegetative means [1].

Spiny phlox did not emerge from soil collected from burned or unburned sites in sheep fescue-alpine bluegrass (Festuca ovina-Poa alpina), big sagebrush/Idaho fescue (A. tridentata/F. idahoensis), or bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass-needle-and-thread grass (P. secunda-Hesperostipa comata) habitats in Yellowstone National Park, although it was present in the aboveground vegetation of all sites [28].

Germination: No information is available on this topic.

Seedling establishment/growth: Information on spiny phlox seedling establishment is limited. However, the following studies suggest that deep litter and/or dense shading restrict seedling establishment. Spiny phlox was restricted to interspaces in singleleaf pinyon-Utah juniper stands in Nevada [46]. Spiny phlox seedling density was 0.7/m in 1984 and 1.4/m in 1985 in a grazed bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama range in Norris, Montana. Seedling densities were equal on the two study sites, although one was in poorer condition [27].

Vegetative regeneration: Spiny phlox regenerates vegetatively following fire or other aboveground damage and is common in early postfire communities [3,31,102]. Spiny phlox coverage was greater on 1-year-old burned sites than on unburned sites in Power County, southeastern Idaho, and regeneration was primarily vegetative [1].

Throughout its range, spiny phlox occupies dry, open, rocky, gravelly, or sandy sites [4,41,62,67,68,72,95].

Specific characteristics are described for several areas where spiny phlox is common. Near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, spiny phlox importance values were greatest on the upper and middle positions on eastern to southern slopes. From May to September soil temperatures on upper and middle southern slopes averaged 81 F (27 C), and average soil moisture content was 7.9% and 5.3%, respectively. Spiny phlox importance changed dramatically with relatively minor changes in aspect and position [12].

In Eagle, Alaska, spiny phlox occurred in fringed sagebrush (Artemisia frigida)/bluebunch wheatgrass steppe vegetation but not in forested vegetation dominated by quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), and white spruce (Picea glauca). Environmental conditions were different in the 2 habitats. Soil moisture was lower and soil temperature was higher in steppe vegetation than in the forests. Steppe vegetation received 93.9% full sun and forests received 57%. Litter cover was 5% in steppe vegetation and 79% in forests [139].

Spiny phlox was common on glacial moraines in northwestern Montana's Upper Blackfoot Valley and reached its greatest frequency on the upper part of southern slopes. Summer soil moisture content averaged 11% on upper slopes, less than that of lower slope positions. Temperatures were higher and temperature fluctuations were greatest on southern slopes [16].

Spiny phlox is most typical in sagebrush habitats. Characteristics of some of these habitats are summarized below.

Rangeland cover type Elevation
Annual precipitation/climate Soils
Black sagebrush
(A. nova)
middle elevations 8-12 inches, most common coarse textured, dry soils [128]
Low sagebrush
(A. arbuscula)
3,000-9,000 8-16 inches shallow soils; normally 12-20 inches to clay or bedrock [129]
Stiff sagebrush
(A. rigida)
700-4,000 8-16 inches shallow soils; typically < 9.8 inches to basalt [130]
Threetip sagebrush 4,000-9,000 12-16 inches; cool, moderately moist sites intermediate between big sagebrush and low and black sagebrush types [127]
Wyoming big sagebrush ---- 7-12 inches; ~40% in growing season moderate to fairly shallow, low in organic matter, stony, often over hardpan or parent material [126]

Climate: Spiny phlox primarily occupies sites with continental climates. Conditions are typically dry, and a wide range of temperatures are possible. In North Dakota, Hood's phlox occurs in the west where arid conditions prevail [109]. Parker [95] reports that spiny phlox occupies sites that receive 15 to 20 inches (380-510 mm) of annual precipitation. However, spiny phlox occurs in steppe vegetation in Eagle, Alaska, where annual precipitation averages 12.1 inches (308 mm) and average January and July temperatures are -9.4 F (-23 C) and 59 F (15 C), respectively [139]. In areas near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, where spiny phlox occurs, snow is typical from November to March and contributes 30% to the total annual precipitation. Summer temperatures over 100 F (38 C) and winter lows of -40 F (-40 C) have been recorded for this area [12]. In the Laramie Basin of Wyoming, precipitation averages 11.2 inches (284 mm), and January and July temperatures average 22.4 F (-5.3 C) and 64 F (17.8 C) [49]. Spiny phlox is sparsely distributed on the Dickinson Experimental Station in southwestern North Dakota, where winters are long and cold, and summers are short and hot. Based on a 70-year record, annual precipitation averaged 15.5 inches (394 mm), and June temperatures averaged 61.4 F (16.3 C) [54].

A number of studies indicate that spiny phlox is restricted to sites with early snow melt. Spiny phlox was rarer on sites with late snow melt dates than on sites with early melting dates on the Bangtail Mesa near Bozeman, Montana [136]. Spiny phlox was common (presence 56%) on sites with a snow melt date of 15 May in southwestern Montana; spiny phlox presence decreased as snow cover remained longer. Presence was 27% on sites with a 1 June melt date, and spiny phlox was absent from sites with melt date of 15 June or later [90]. In central Wyoming's Owl Creek range, spiny phlox was present on windblown sites in threetip sagebrush-dominated sites but was absent from sites where deep snow drifts were common [50].

Elevation: Spiny phlox is common at middle and high elevations throughout its range. Narrower elevational ranges by state and variety are provided below:

State/region Variety, if applicable Elevation in feet
Arizona 4,000 [72]
California P. h. ssp. canescens 4,500-8,900 [61,94]
P. h. ssp. lantana 4,000-6,000 [94]
P. h. ssp. muscoides 4,600-8,900 [61]
New Mexico P. h. ssp. canescens 5,000-7,000 [88]
Nevada 4,500-8,000
P. h. ssp. lantana 6,500-8,000
P. h. ssp. muscoides 5,600-8,000 [71]
Uinta Basin, Utah 4,800-8,400
P. h. ssp. muscoides ~7,100 [55]
Utah 4,000-6,700 [95]
P. h. ssp. canescens 4,790-10,700
P. h. ssp. muscoides 4,590-6,910 [138]

Soils: Spiny phlox persists on a variety of soil types; however, it commonly occurs on dry, coarse textured soils. In the northern Great Plains and in Utah, Hood's phlox occurs on gravelly, rocky, or sandy soils [57,95]. In grasslands of southwestern Saskatchewan, Hood's phlox was most closely associated with clay and loam soils and was present on fine sandy loams, loams, and clay loams [64]. In steppe vegetation of central Montana, spiny phlox cover and constancy were "consistently" higher on fine-textured soils, and spiny phlox showed little preference for position along a gradient of 0.4 to 4 inches (1-10 cm) of water storage capacity [59]. Spiny phlox was most common on windward exposures where soil moisture was lowest in sagebrush steppe vegetation at Wyoming's Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area [24]. In Utah, spiny phlox coverage was significantly greater (p≤0.01) on crest than mid-slope or base sites. Crest sites were the most xeric and had the shallowest soils, which averaged 8 inches (20 cm) deep. Clay content was significantly lower and sand and exposed rock were significantly greater on crest than mid-slope or base positions [21].

Spiny phlox occurs in early and late seral communities and has been referred to as a pioneer, climax, and invading species [41,84,95]. Spiny phlox is tolerant of grazing and other relatively minor disturbances and is typical in early postfire communities.

Early seral: Spiny phlox is considered a pioneer species in dryland succession in south-central Utah's high plateaus. The spiny phlox root system tolerates fluctuating soil levels allowing it to occur on dunes formed when sand accumulates around crevice plants and along sandstone ledges [41]. Spiny phlox occurred on stabilized blowouts and stabilized dunes but was absent from unstabilized dunes in southern Saskatchewan. Unstabilized dunes were characterized by active erosion and/or deposition. Stabilized blowouts were round depressions that showed evidence of past erosion but no current erosion. Stabilized dunes showed no signs of recent erosion. The pH was higher, sand content greater, and organic matter lower on unstabilized dunes than on stabilized blowouts or dunes [66].

Late seral: A number of stable, late-seral, and/or climax communities provide spiny phlox habitat. In Glacier County, Montana, the prairie Junegrass-spiny phlox association is considered a "naturally occurring topoedaphic climax on moraine summits" [84]. In other parts of western Montana, spiny phlox is common in Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass communities that are considered late seral [75]. In southeastern Idaho's Craters of the Moon National Monument, Hood's phlox is a dominant forb in stable, undisturbed islands of low sagebrush/Idaho fescue-Thurber needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum) that were ungrazed, unburned and considered "pristine" [125].

Response to grazing: Many suggest that spiny phlox increases with domestic grazing or deteriorating range condition [68,78,83,95]; however, the grazing response is variable. For more information, see Other Management Considerations.

Response to other disturbances: Spiny phlox is typically present in early postfire communities [3,31,102] but is normally absent from severely disturbed mining areas.

Spiny phlox was present on windblown sites in threetip sagebrush vegetation in central Wyoming's Owl Creek range but was absent from mining test trenches dug almost 35 years earlier. The researcher noted that disturbed soil and/or snow pack levels may have affected spiny phlox's absence [50]. After studying disturbed and undisturbed sites in western Colorado's Piceance Basin where oil shale extraction occurs, researchers suggested that the loss of soil mycorrhizae may affect postdisturbance recovery. Spiny phlox, which has mycorrhizal associations, was absent from disturbed but present on undisturbed sites. Disturbed sites were abandoned roads that had been ripped to a depth of 18 inches (46 cm) three to four years prior to their study. Ninety-nine percent of the cover on undisturbed sites and less than 1% of the cover on disturbed sites was from species with mycorrhizal associations [105].

Degree of disturbance affected spiny phlox recovery in basin big sagebrush/mixed grass habitats in Colorado's Piceance Basin. Soil disturbance treatments were: 1) minimal disturbance to topsoil (A and B horizons), 2) "ripped" topsoil to 12-inch (30 cm) depths, 3) removal of top- and subsoil (A to C horizons) to 3 feet (1 m) that were mixed and then put back, 4) removal of top- and subsoil in 2 sections to 3 feet (1 m) that were replaced in reverse order. Spiny phlox was absent from sites treated with methods 3 and 4. Relative spiny phlox cover in successive years following disturbance treatments 1 and 2 are provided below [104].

Treatment 1 Treatment 2
Years since disturbance 1 4 5 6 1 4 5 6
Relative spiny phlox coverage (%) 6.34 3.81 5.92 8.33 1.14 1.44 3.74 7.52

Spiny phlox begins growing and matures earlier than most associated vegetation. Below are flowering dates by state or region, and by subspecies:

State/region Variety, if applicable Flowering dates
California P. h. ssp. canescens May-July
P. h. ssp. lantana May-June [94]
Nevada April-June
P. h. ssp. muscoides May-June [71]
New Mexico P. h. ssp. canescens May-July [88]
North Dakota April-May [122]
South Dakota early spring [68]
Utah, northeastern April-July [4]
Utah, Uinta Basin P. h. ssp. hoodii March-May
P. h. ssp. muscoides May-June [55]
Great Plains April-July [57]
Intermountain West P. h. ssp. hoodii April-June
P. h. ssp. muscoides May-June [37]
Pacific Northwest April-June [62]

In central Montana, spiny phlox growth begins in early spring [132]. In southwestern North Dakota, seasonal development of spiny phlox was monitored for 8 years. The earliest bloom date was 28 April, and the average earliest bloom date was 24 May. Plants attained 93.3% of total growth in May and 100% of their growth by June [54]. Spiny phlox plants on the Carey Kipuka in southern Idaho are fully grown between 25 May and 5 June [65].

On an experimental farm in Swift Current, Saskatchewan, spiny phlox flowering dates were recorded for 13 years. The earliest spiny phlox was found in flower on 30 April, and the latest date of 1st flowering was 11 May. The latest date spiny phlox was found in flower was 7 July. The average flowering period was 36 days [22]. In southern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, spiny phlox growth begins in the 1st or 2nd week in April. Flowers are common in late April; seed is typically ripe by mid-June. If soil moisture is "sufficient," spiny phlox may flower again in August [35]. A second flowering period is also noted following summer rains in Arizona [72].


SPECIES: Phlox hoodii
Fire adaptations: Spiny phlox regenerates vegetatively following fire and is common in early postfire communities [1,3,31,102]. Spiny phlox sprouts from the base or caudex and survives most fires [143]. In southeastern Idaho's Power County, spiny phlox emerged from soil collected on burned sites [1]. Postfire regeneration likely includes germination and establishment from on-site and/or off-site seed sources.

Fire regimes: Western sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and grassland communities are common spiny phlox habitat. Average fire frequency in sagebrush/grassland vegetation is estimated at 32 to 70 years [142]. However, in the black sagebrush range type, wildfire is considered relatively rare due to the low fuel continuity [128]. Low sagebrush vegetation is also thought to burn less often than big sagebrush types because fuel cover is sparse [129]. In many sagebrush vegetation types including Wyoming big sagebrush- and stiff sagebrush-dominated communities, nonnative cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is an important associated species. Cheatgrass invasion tends to increase fine fuel loading and continuity [126,130], and has likely increased fire frequency beyond presettlement intervals [99,140].

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where spiny phlox is important. Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium <10 [76,97]
Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium <10 [97]
silver sagebrush steppe Artemisia cana 5-45 [60,101,141]
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [97]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [110]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [9,25,89]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (x=40) [134,144]
saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus <35 to <100 [97]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. <35 [97,141]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii <35 [97,108,141]
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum <10 [99,140]
curlleaf mountain-mahogany* Cercocarpus ledifolius 13-1,000 [11,112]
mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii <35 to <100
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70
Rocky Mountain juniper Juniperus scopulorum <35 [97]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [97,101,141]
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [97]
Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine P. aristata 9-55 [42,43]
Colorado pinyon Pinus edulis 10-400+ [51,56,73,97]
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [8,13,81]
Arizona pine Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica 2-15 [13,34,114]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (x=10) [7,8]
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [8,9,10]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. <35 [97]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review

Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)


SPECIES: Phlox hoodii
Spiny phlox is top-killed by fire.

No additional information is available on this topic.

While some suggest that spiny phlox is severely damaged by fire [98], in most cases spiny phlox is present in early postfire communities although abundance may be reduced [1,6,26]. Spiny phlox sprouts from the base or caudex and survives most fires [143]. In southeastern Idaho's Power County, spiny phlox emerged from soil collected on burned sites [1]. Postfire regeneration likely includes germination and establishment from on-site and/or off-site seed sources.

In many studies, spiny phlox's presence on burned sites is reported but prefire or unburned comparisons are lacking. These studies confirm spiny phlox's tolerance of fire but fail to provide information on Hood's phlox's response to fire. Spiny phlox occurred in early postfire Idaho fescue/big sagebrush, Idaho fescue-bearded wheatgrass (Elymus caninus), and Douglas-fir/common snowberry (Pseudotsuga menziesii/Symphoricarpos albus) communities that were considered climax communities at the time of a severe fire in Yellowstone National Park. Burned sites were visited 5 years following fire [3]. On 2-year-old burned sagebrush grasslands in an area southwest of Pocatello, Idaho, spiny phlox was present. There were no control or prefire comparisons, and fire characteristics were not reported [102]. Spiny phlox was one of the most common forbs on big sagebrush-dominated sites in Wyoming burned in prescription fires 2 to 5 years earlier. Species were grouped by life form for pre- and postfire analyses, so abundance of spiny phlox was not distinguishable [119].

Spiny phlox was present in the 1st postfire year and increased in coverage in the 2nd postfire year following a prescribed fire in a Wyoming big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass habitat near Shoshone, Idaho. The fire burned in late September when relative humidity was 19% to 36%, winds were 3 to 25 miles (4.8-40 km)/hour, and air temperatures ranged from 64 to 86 F (18-30 C). Spiny phlox coverage was 0.4% and 2% in the 1st and 2nd postfire years, respectively. There were no prefire or unburned comparisons [31]. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeastern Idaho, spiny phlox was the dominant forb on 15-year-old burned and unburned sites near the Arco Highway. Just descriptive results were reported since the sampling intensity was too weak for statistical analyses [117].

While decreases in spiny phlox abundance following fire are common, they are not without exception. In southeastern Idaho's, Power County, spiny phlox coverage on 1-year-old burned sites was almost double that of unburned sites. The fire burned in vegetation dominated by threetip and mountain big sagebrush, but fire characteristics were not described. Spiny phlox cover was 0.75% on unburned and 1.43% on burned sites. Soils collected from unburned and burned sites had relative spiny phlox seedling densities of 0.004% and 0.006%, respectively. The researcher reported that spiny phlox recovery was primarily vegetative [1].

Spiny phlox was not sampled on control or prefire plots before a late September prescribed fire in Wyoming big sagebrush habitats of southeastern Oregon's Hart Mountain Antelope Refuge. However, percent frequency on control plots was 0.4 0.4 (sx) and 0.2 0.2 on burned plots in the 1st postfire year. Spiny phlox sprouted "weakly" from the base and was classified as a fire "avoider or endurer." At the time of burning, temperatures were 66 to 82 F (19-28 C), relative humidity ranged from 17% to 24%, and wind speeds were 4 to 6 miles (6.4-9.7 km)/hour. Flame heights ranged from 6.6 to 12 feet (2-3.7 m), and flame lengths were 6.6 to 26 feet (2-7.8 m). The fire spread rate was 15 to 39 feet (4.6-12 m)/minute, and residence time ranged from 0.6 to 2.6 minutes [143].

Density of spiny phlox was greater on control plots than spring, summer, or fall burned sites in a central Saskatchewan rough fescue prairie. There were 1.7 spiny phlox stems/m on control plots and 1.3, 0.7, and 0.7 stems/m on spring, summer, and fall burned sites, respectively, in the 2nd postfire growing season. Fires burned when air temperatures were 50 to 79 F (10-26 C), relative humidity was 35% to 50%, and wind speeds were 5.6 to 8.9 feet (2.5-4 m)/second. Air temperature and relative humidity were highest during the summer fire and lowest for the spring fire [6]. For a complete description of the fires and their effects, see Seasonal fires in Saskatchewan rough fescue prairie.

Spiny phlox was absent from the most severely burned sites following a December fire in a rough fescue grassland in southwestern Alberta. Spiny phlox did not occur on sampled sections within the interior of the burned area but did occur on sites less severely burned in a perimeter fire. The fire was described by others (Tymstra 1998, as cited by [19]) as extremely hot. Winds were 19 to 25 miles (30-40 km)/hour with gusts of up to 43 miles (70 km)/hour. Mid-day temperature was 55 F (13 C), and relative humidity was 17% on the day of the fire. Head fire intensity was an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 kW/m, and the spread rate was approximately 6 miles (10 km)/hour. In adjacent unburned sites, litter content was 900 kg/ha. Spiny phlox canopy coverage was 0.1% and 0.4% in the perimeter burn compared with 0.7% and 1.2% on control sites sampled in the 1st and 2nd postfire years, respectively [19].

Plot size affected the magnitude of spiny phlox increases and decreases on burned and unburned sites before and after a prescribed fire in a threetip sagebrush-dominated community in southern Idaho. The fire burned on 15 September when the temperature was 70 F (21 C), relative humidity was 14%, and winds were 5 to 8 miles (8-10 km)/hour. Live sagebrush moisture was 92%, and soil moisture was 4%. Percent frequency and dry weight production of spiny phlox were lower on burned than unburned sites after the fire, but prefire frequencies were lower on burned than control sites as well. Study results are summarized below [26].

Spiny phlox frequency (%) Burned Control
Plot size (cm) 2525 2550 5050 2525 2550 5050
2 years before fire 5 8.8 11.3 ---- ---- ----
1 year before fire 3.8 11.3 18.8 17.5 28.8 37.5
1 year after fire 2.5 2.5 2.5 12.5 30.0 52.5
3 years after fire 6.3 12.5 23.8 17.5 26.3 35.0

Burned Control
Time since fire (years) prefire 1 prefire 1
Spiny phlox dry weight (lbs/acre) 49.2 14.0 51.1 90.0

Based on the available information on spiny phlox and fire, recovery of spiny phlox is likely following most fires. However, the lack of information on the response of spiny phlox to successive fires makes it difficult to predict its ability to persist in areas dominated by cheatgrass with high fire frequencies.

Postfire management may impact spiny phlox recovery. Low spiny phlox cover was reported on 3-year-old burned sites in pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) and big sagebrush communities that were drill or aerial seeded following a wildfire in central Utah. Coverage of spiny phlox was 0 on one burned and seeded site and 0.4% on another. Sites burned in July, but fire characteristics were not reported. Seeded species included wheatgrasses (Elymus spp.), sweet clover (Melilotus spp.), and alfalfa (Medicago spp.) among others [30].


SPECIES: Phlox hoodii
Spiny phlox is considered a relatively unpalatable species. However, it is utilized to some extent by big game and small mammals. Livestock use of spiny phlox is limited to domestic sheep grazing.

Domestic sheep: Use of spiny phlox by domestic sheep is occasional. Primarily flowers are consumed [68], and some researchers indicate that sheep "relish" spiny phlox flowers [72].

Deer: Several studies report utilization of spiny phlox by mule deer although it rarely contributes much to their overall diet. Spiny phlox was an important November food source for mule deer in Fergus County, Montana [85]. In Montana's Gallatin Canyon, mule deer use of Hood's phlox was light in the winter. Its use was not observed in January or February, but 2% of March feeding observations were on spiny phlox [33].

Researchers observed tame mule deer feeding on spiny phlox in the early spring in a Colorado pinyon-Utah juniper/mixed shrub winter range in Colorado's Piceance Basin. Spiny phlox made up a high of 3% of observations made in April and a high of 4% in March over the course of 2 years on 2 sites. Utilization of spiny phlox was little to none from October through January [14]. Feeding observations on a bighorn sheep winter range in Idaho's East Fork of the Salmon River revealed use by mule deer but not by bighorn sheep. Spiny phlox made up 2.9% of the total instances of mule deer use in February in Wyoming big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass vegetation. In big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass vegetation, spiny phlox use was 5.3% in January, 2.5% in February, 0.3% in March, and 0.2% in April [80].

Elk: Spiny phlox abundance on protected sites exceeded that on grazed sites, although differences were not statistically (p>0.05) significant on the northern winter range in Yellowstone National Park. Elk were the primary grazers in the area. The researcher suggested that elk may have utilized spiny phlox when it was actively growing [118].

Pronghorn: Spiny phlox is common in pronghorn habitats, but use of spiny phlox is limited. On rangelands in Yellowstone National Park that are used year round by pronghorn, spiny phlox was common [113]. Pronghorn in Wyoming's Red Desert used big sagebrush habitats extensively. The density of half-shrubs including spiny phlox were significantly (p=0.002) greater on high use than on low use winter sites. Feeding observations and fecal analyses revealed a low level of forbs in pronghorn diets, but species were not identified [38].

In Petroleum County, Montana, researchers observed pronghorn feeding on spiny phlox 0.9% of the time. Use of spiny phlox was restricted to the spring season [32]. One percent of the rumen contents of pronghorn collected in the summer from sagebrush/grasslands in the Cypress Hills of Saskatchewan was spiny phlox. None of the stomachs from pronghorn collected in the Matador Hills contained spiny phlox and none of the stomachs collected in fall, winter, or spring from the Cypress Hills contained spiny phlox. Pronghorn populations were fairly large in Cypress Hills [39].

Bighorn sheep: Utilization of spiny phlox by bighorn sheep is low. spiny phlox was less than 0.5% by volume of the contents of 15 bighorn sheep stomachs collected in October and November in the Sun River area of west-central Montana [111].

Small mammals: spiny phlox seed and leaves are consumed by a variety of small mammals. Mountain cottontail and bushy-tailed woodrat diets were evaluated from feces collected near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in south-central Idaho. Spiny phlox was not detected in bushy-tailed woodrat feces but made up 1.6% of the relative density of mountain cottontail feces [69]. In South Dakota's Buffalo Gap National Grassland, black-tailed prairie dogs fed on spiny phlox in the winter. At most other times of the year, however, spiny phlox was avoided. Decreased water availability and stressful winter feeding conditions were thought to contribute to diet changes that were evaluated through stomach analyses [48].

Controlled food preference studies indicated that spiny phlox seeds are consumed by deer mice and Great Basin pocket mice in eastern Washington. Mice were presented a known quantity of spiny phlox seed and seed capsules. All of the seed capsules presented on the surface of the sand were consumed by both species. All of the seed presented to Great Basin pocket mice was consumed. Deer mice consumed all but about 15% [74].

Birds: Numerous bird species reside in or visit spiny phlox habitats, but information on the specific use of spiny phlox by birds is lacking. Many bird species were found in mixed grasslands in Wyoming's Laramie Basin during a 3 year census. Mountain plovers, horned larks, and McCown longspurs utilized the area for breeding. Many other birds visited the area, including turkey vultures, red-tailed hawks, ferruginous hawks, marsh hawks, sparrow hawks, killdeer, California gulls, cliff swallows, barn swallows, rock wrens, common nighthawks, western meadow larks, lark buntings, and vesper sparrows. Specific utilization of spiny phlox was not reported [49].

Spiny phlox was common in big sagebrush habitats utilized by sage-grouse in Jackson County, Colorado, for nesting, strutting, and spring and summer feeding. Feeding observations, however, were not species specific [53]. Spiny phlox was considered a nonpalatable forb during a study of sage-grouse in southeastern Alberta [2]. In the Strawberry Valley of north-central Utah, spiny phlox coverage was significantly greater (p<0.05) in sage-grouse nesting areas than in brooding habitats or adult use areas [23].

Palatability/nutritional value: The palatability and forage value of spiny phlox are considered low [92,95]. Dittberner and Olson [40] rate spiny phlox palatability as poor for cattle and horses. Palatability ranges from poor to fair for domestic sheep and elk, poor to good for pronghorn, mule deer, and white-tailed deer, fair for small mammals, poor to fair for game birds, and fair for nongame birds in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.

Cover value: Spiny phlox grows very low to the ground and likely provides cover for only the smallest wildlife species and for insects.

Using spiny phlox in revegetation or rehabilitation efforts may serve to protect available soils. The matted growth form is ideal for soil stabilization [35]. One researcher remarked that the doubling of Hood's phlox cover on a big sagebrush/Sandberg bluegrass site protected from grazing worked as an "ecological salve for the sore soil" [107]. Although spiny phlox may aid in the recovery of degraded sites, its establishment and survival in revegetation projects is largely unknown. Spiny phlox did not colonize abandoned coal or bentonite mine sites in western Wyoming or Carter County, Montana [96,116], suggesting that it is intolerant of mine spoil soils.

The Blackfoot Tribes used spiny phlox to make a yellow dye. Infusions of the plant worked as a mild laxative that was given to children and was used to treat chest pains [91].

Response of spiny phlox to grazing as addressed through the following studies is variable. Some studies compare grazed and protected areas and others compare intensity of grazing and/or grazing patterns. Likely the grazing animal, intensity, and pattern, as well as present and past environmental and site conditions, are important in determining the response of spiny phlox to grazing. Studies involving grazing of spiny phlox habitats are summarized below.

Dakotas: Spiny phlox was absent from protected sites but had a density of 7.3/m after 39 years and 19.3/m after 40 years of cattle grazing in a blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-threadleaf sedge community in southwestern North Dakota. Protected sites had taller perennial forbs, lower soil temperatures, and lower soil bulk density than grazed sites. Grazed sites had more unpalatable forbs or forbs too short to be grazed such as spiny phlox. Researchers considered both grazed and ungrazed sites to be in near climax condition [20]. In the northern Great Plains, spiny phlox coverage was generally greatest under heavy cattle stocking rates on summer ranges, and under intermediate stocking rates on winter ranges, when various stocking rates and seasons of use were compared [63].

Idaho: The frequency and density of spiny phlox decreased after 15 years of protection from livestock grazing in Wyoming big sagebrush/bottlebrush squirreltail vegetation in southeastern Idaho [58]. Spiny phlox increases were greatest on spring grazed sites at the U.S. Sheep Experimental Station near Dubois, Idaho. On sites protected from domestic sheep grazing for 14 years, Hood's phlox increased only slightly. On fall grazed sites, spiny phlox showed only minor changes [82].

Montana: Cover of spiny phlox was typically greater on heavily grazed than protected areas of Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass communities in Montana's Beaverhead National Forest. Grazed areas were open to cattle grazing for at least 50 years, and exclosures were protected for 15 to 18 years. Sites 1H, 2H, and 4H received heavy use in June and July; sites 5M and 3L received moderate and light use, respectively, from June through October. Percent spiny phlox cover is provided below for grazed and adjacent protected areas [44].

Site 1H 2H 4H 5M 3L
Grazed 25.7 16.1 2.9 10.3 4.9
Protected 30.1 5.2 1.5 8.8 5.5

In western Montana, paired grassland plots receiving different levels of use were compared. Cattle were the predominant grazers. Use by sheep was rare, but use by deer and elk was likely. Spiny phlox cover was typically greater on grazed than protected sites, and generally increased with increased use. However, not all sites followed this trend. The percent cover of spiny phlox is provided below for various communities grazed at different intensities [92].

Vegetation type Grazing level Significance (p value)
none slight moderate heavy
Needle-and-thread grass-blue grama ---- 2.5 0.8 ---- <0.1
bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama 1.0 ---- ---- 0.8 ns
bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama ---- ---- 1.8 0.2 <0.01
bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) 7.4 ---- 12.8 ---- <0.05
rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass ---- 1.4 ---- 8.5 <0.01
rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass 0.1 ---- 1.3 ---- ns
Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass 2.0 ---- 1.6 ---- ns
Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass 0.8 ---- 2.9 ---- <0.1
Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass 5.9 ---- 12.8 ---- <0.01
Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass ---- 10.4 10.6 ---- ns

Spiny phlox cover increased on both protected and grazed sites in bluebunch wheatgrass- and Idaho fescue- dominated grasslands in Meagher county, Montana. Sites were intensively grazed by sheep and cattle before their protection. Protection lasted 4 years and grazed sites were only moderately grazed by domestic sheep during this time [135].

Nevada: Coverage of spiny phlox more than doubled following 30 years of grazing protection in an "eroded" big sagebrush/Sandberg bluegrass community in northern Nevada. Since the 1860s, sheep, cattle, and horses had grazed the area. The researcher noted that precipitation levels in May and June were 0.82 inch (2.1 cm) during the 1st year of protection when baseline measurements were made and 4.2 inches in 1970 when measurements were made on protected sites [107].

Wyoming: Spiny phlox basal cover was relatively unaffected by grazing in threetip sagebrush communities in southeastern Wyoming's Laramie range. Basal coverage inside the exclosure was 2.1% when it was constructed and 2.3% thirteen years after construction. Outside the exclosure, basal coverage was 6.8% in the year of construction and 6.7% thirteen years after [50].

Frequency of spiny phlox was greater on grazed (76%) than on ungrazed relict sites (54%) in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. Relict sites were not grazed by any herbivore other than rodents in "historic time." Domestic livestock grazers and patterns were not reported [87].

Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada: The basal area of spiny phlox was significantly (p<0.01) greater after cattle grazing at a rate of 40 acres/head for 6 years than before grazing in blue grama- and needle-and-thread grass-dominated grassland in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. Differences in spiny phlox basal area between pre- and postgrazing at rates of 20 and 30 acres/head were not significantly different [29]. Basal area of spiny phlox was greater on lightly grazed areas than on areas protected for 33 years on a needle-and-thread grass-blue grama prairie in southeastern Alberta, though differences were not significant [121].

Spiny phlox basal area increased significantly (p<0.01) on continuously grazed blue grama prairie in southeastern Alberta and decreased slightly when grazed in a rotation pattern. However, density of Hood's phlox increased significantly under both grazing systems. Continuous grazing lasted 6 months. The rotational grazing pattern was 1.5 months use in the spring and 1.5 months use in the fall for 1 year and 3 months of summer use the next year. Stocking rates were 10 yearling steers/300 acres [120].

Phlox hoodii: REFERENCES

1. Akinsoji, Aderopo. 1988. Postfire vegetation dynamics in a sagebrush steppe in southeastern Idaho, USA. Vegetatio. 78: 151-155. [6944]
2. Aldridge, Cameron L.; Brigham, R. Mark. 2002. Sage-grouse nesting and brood habitat use in southern Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management. 66(2): 433-444. [41664]
3. Ament, Robert J. 1995. Pioneer plant communities five years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 216 p. Thesis. [46923]
4. Andersen, Berniece A.; Holmgren, Arthur H. [1976]. Mountain plants of northeastern Utah. Circular 319. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Extension Services. 148 p. [312]
5. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
6. Archibold, O. W.; Ripley, E. A.; Delanoy, L. 2003. Effects of season of burning on the microenvironment of fescue prairie in central Saskatchewan. Canadian Field Naturalist. 117(2): 257-266. [48371]
7. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
8. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
9. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
10. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. [25928]
11. Arno, Stephen F.; Wilson, Andrew E. 1986. Dating past fires in curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 241-243. [350]
12. Ayyad, M. A. G.; Dix, R. L. 1964. An analysis of a vegetation--microenvironmental complex on prairie slopes in Saskatchewan. Ecological Monographs. 34(4): 421-442. [63622]
13. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
14. Bartmann, Richard M. 1983. Composition and quality of mule deer diets on pinyon-juniper winter range, Colorado. Journal of Range Management. 36(4): 534-541. [35261]
15. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
16. Blinn, Dean W.; Habeck, James R. 1967. An analysis of morainal vegetation in the upper Blackfoot Valley, Montana. Northwest Science. 41(3): 126-140. [4008]
17. Bonham, C. D.; Cottrell, T. R.; Mitchell, J. E. 1991. Inferences for life history strategies of Artemisia tridentata subspecies. Journal of Vegetation Science. 2(3): 339-344. [16599]
18. Booth, W. E.; Wright, J. C. 1962. [Revised]. Flora of Montana: Part II--Dicotyledons. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College, Department of Botany and Bacteriology. 280 p. [47286]
19. Bork, Edward W.; Adams, Barry W.; Willms, Walter D. 2002. Resilience of foothills rough fescue, Festuca campestris, rangeland to wildfire. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 116(1): 51-59. [46998]
20. Brand, M. D.; Goetz, H. 1978. Secondary succession of a mixed grass community in southwestern North Dakota. Annual Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science. 32(2): 67-78. [7512]
21. Brotherson, Jack D. 1999. Measured and inferred moisture gradient relationships across ecotone boundaries in shrub-dominated foothill communities. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., comps. Proceedings: shrubland ecotones; 1998 August 12-14; Ephraim, UT. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 40-48. [36060]
22. Budd, A. C.; Campbell, J. B. 1959. Flowering sequence of a local flora. Journal of Range Management. 12: 127-132. [552]
23. Bunnell, Kevin D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; Mitchell, Dean L.; Warder, John H. 2004. Occupied and unoccupied sage grouse habitat in Strawberry Valley, Utah. Journal of Range Management. 57(5): 524-531. [50248]
24. Burke, Ingrid C. 1989. Control of nitrogen mineralization in a sagebrush steppe landscape. Ecology. 70(4): 1115-1126. [7974]
25. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. [565]
26. Bushey, Charles L. 1987. Short-term vegetative response to prescribed burning in the sagebrush/grass ecosystem of the northern Great Basin: three years of postburn data from the demonstration of prescribed burning on selected Bureau of Land Management districts. Final Report. Cooperative Agreement 22-C-4-INT-33. Missoula, MT: Systems for Environmental Management. 77 p. [568]
27. Chadde, Steve William. 1985. Initial recovery patterns of southwestern Montana foothill range. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 103 p. Thesis. [46917]
28. Clark, David Lee. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p. Thesis. [36504]
29. Clarke, S. E.; Tisdale, E. W.; Skoglund, N. A. 1943. The effects of climate and grazing practices on short-grass prairie vegetation in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. Technical Bulletin No. 46/Publication No. 747. Ottawa, ON: Department of Agriculture. [Manyberries, AB: Ministry of Agriculture, Dominion Range Experiment Station]. 53 p. [635]
30. Clary, Warren P. 1988. Plant density and cover response to several seeding techniques following wildfire. Res. Note INT-384. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 6 p. [5609]
31. Clifton, Nancy A. 1981. Response to prescribed fire in a Wyoming big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 39 p. Thesis. [650]
32. Cole, G. F. 1956. The pronghorn antelope: Its range use and food habits in central Montana with special reference to alfalfa. Technical Bulletin 516. Bozeman, MT: Montana State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 63 p. [43976]
33. Constan, K. J. 1967. Food habits, range use and relationships of bighorn sheep to mule deer and elk in winter, Gallatin Canyon, Montana. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 43 p. Thesis. [43975]
34. Cooper, Charles F. 1960. Changes in vegetation, structure, and growth of southwestern pine forests since white settlement. Ecological Monographs. 30(2): 129-164. [3927]
35. Coupland, Robert T. 1950. Ecology of mixed prairie in Canada. Ecological Monographs. 20(4): 271-315. [700]
36. Coupland, Robert T.; Johnson, R. E. 1965. Rooting characteristics of native grassland species of Saskatchewan. Journal of Ecology. 53: 475-507. [702]
37. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1984. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 4: Subclass Asteridae, (except Asteraceae). New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 573 p. [718]
38. Deblinger, Robert D. 1988. Ecology and behavior of pronghorn in the Red Desert, Wyoming, with reference to energy development. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 227 p. Dissertation. [24909]
39. Dirschl, Herman J. 1963. Food habits of the pronghorn in Saskatchewan. Journal of Wildlife Management. 27(1): 81-93. [5939]
40. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
41. Dixon, Helen. 1935. Ecological studies on the high plateaus of Utah. Botanical Gazette. 97: 272-320. [15672]
42. Donnegan, Joseph A. 1999. Climatic and human influences on fire regimes in Pike National Forest. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado. 122 p. Dissertation. [40456]
43. Donnegan, Joseph A.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Sibold, Jason S. 2001. Climatic and human influences on fire history in Pike National Forest, central Colorado. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 31: 1526-1539. [43091]
44. Evanko, Anthony B.; Peterson, Roald A. 1955. Comparisons of protected and grazed mountain rangelands in southwestern Montana. Ecology. 36(1): 71-82. [55519]
45. Everett, Richard L.; Sharrow, Steven H. 1983. Understory seed rain on tree-harvested and unharvested pinyon-juniper sites. Journal of Environmental Management. 17(4): 349-358. [35997]
46. Everett, Richard L.; Sharrow, Steven H.; Meeuwig, Richard O. 1983. Pinyon-juniper woodland understory distribution patterns and species associations. Torrey Botanical Club. 110(4): 454-463. [899]
47. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
48. Fagerstone, K. A.; Tietjen, H. P.; Williams, O. 1981. Seasonal variation in the diet of black-tailed prairie dogs. Journal of Mammalogy. 62(4): 820-824. [906]
49. Finzel, Jean E. 1964. Avian populations of four herbaceous communities in southeastern Wyoming. The Condor. 66(6): 496-510. [63644]
50. Fisser, Herbert G. 1962. An ecological study of the Artemisia tripartita subsp. rubicola and related shrub communities in Wyoming. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. 166 p. Dissertation. [7440]
51. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. [37590]
52. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]
53. Gill, R. Bruce. 1965. Effects of sagebrush control on distribution and abundance of sage grouse. Colorado Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration. Project No. W-37-R-17; Job Completion Report: April 1, 1963 to December 6, 1965. Job No. 8. [Denver, CO]: Colorado Game, Fish, and Parks Department. 185 p. [36876]
54. Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 141 p. Thesis. [5661]
55. Goodrich, Sherel; Neese, Elizabeth. 1986. Uinta Basin flora. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ashley National Forest; U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District. 320 p. [23307]
56. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. [26188]
57. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
58. Harniss, Roy O.; West, Neil E. 1973. Changes in Artemisia tridentata/Sitanion hystrix vegetation on the National Reactor Testing Station, southeastern Idaho, 1950-1965. Utah Academy Proceedings. 50(1): 10-16. [1087]
59. Harvey, Stephen John. 1990. Responses of steppe plants to gradients of water, soil texture and disturbance in Montana, USA. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 103 p. Dissertation. [46918]
60. Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Berry, Dawn; Agee, James K. 1994. Fire history database of the western United States. Final report. Interagency agreement: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency DW12934530; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service PNW-93-0300; University of Washington 61-2239. Seattle, WA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station; University of Washington, College of Forest Resources. 28 p. [+ appendices]. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [27979]
61. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
62. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170]
63. Houston, Walter R.; Woodward, R. R. 1966. Effects of stocking rates on range vegetation and beef cattle production in the Northern Great Plains. Technical Bulletin No. 1357. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 58 p. In cooperation with: Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. [4285]
64. Hubbard, William A. 1950. The climate, soils, and soil-plant relationships of an area in southwestern Saskatchewan. Scientific Agriculture. 30(8): 327-342. [6263]
65. Hugie, V. K.; Passey, H. B.; Williams, E. W. 1964. Soil taxonomic units and potential plant community relationships in a pristine range area of southern Idaho. American Society of Agronomy Special Publication No. 5: 190-204. [1203]
66. Hulett, G. K.; Coupland, R. T.; Dix, R. L. 1966. The vegetation of dune sand areas within the grassland region of Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 44: 1307-1331. [43303]
67. Hultn, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
68. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18501]
69. Johnson, Mark K.; Hansen, Richard M. 1979. Foods of cottontails and woodrats in south-central Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy. 60(1): 213-215. [23859]
70. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
71. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
72. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
73. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. [4395]
74. Kritzman, Ellen B. 1974. Ecological relationships of Peromyscus maniculatus and Perognathus parvus in eastern Washington. Journal of Mammalogy. 55(1): 172-188. [63628]
75. Krueger-Mangold, Jane; Sheley, Roger; Engel, Rick; Jacobsen, Jeff; Svejcar, Tony; Zabinski, Cathy. 2004. Identification of the limiting resource within a semi-arid plant association. Journal of Arid Environments. 58(3): 309-320. [48505]
76. Kucera, Clair L. 1981. Grasslands and fire. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 90-111. [4389]
77. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]
78. Lacey, John; Mosley, John. 2002. 250 plants for range contests in Montana. MONTGUIDE MT198402 AG 6/2002. Range E-2 (Misc.). Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 4 p. [43671]
79. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
80. Lauer, Jerry L.; Peek, James M. 1976. Big game-livestock relationships on the bighorn sheep winter range, East Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Bulletin No. 12. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. 44 p. [1417]
81. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
82. Laycock, William A. 1967. How heavy grazing and protection affect sagebrush-grass ranges. Journal of Range Management. 20: 206-213. [1421]
83. Looman, J. 1980. The vegetation of the Canadian prairie provinces. II. The grasslands: Part 1. Phytocoenologia. 8(2): 153-190. [18400]
84. Lynch, Daniel. 1955. Ecology of the aspen groveland in Glacier County, Montana. Ecological Monographs. 25(4): 321-344. [950]
85. Mackie, Richard J. 1970. Range ecology and relations of mule deer, elk, and cattle in the Missouri River Breaks, Montana. Wildlife Monographs No. 20. 79 p. [5897]
86. Marlette, Guy M.; Anderson, Jay E. 1986. Seed banks and propagule dispersal in crested-wheatgrass stands. Journal of Applied Ecology. 23: 161-175. [1526]
87. Marquiss, Robert; Lang, Robert. 1959. Vegetational composition and ground cover of two natural relict areas and their associated grazed areas in the Red Desert of Wyoming. Journal of Range Management. 12: 104-109. [1529]
88. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
89. Miller, Richard F.; Rose, Jeffery A. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 55(1): 37-45. [25666]
90. Mitchell, Val L.; Super, Arlin B.; McPartland, John T. 1971. Factors affecting snow depth in southwestern Montana and their implications on the ecological effects of weather modification. In: National conference on the forest, weather, and associated environment: Proceedings; 1971 May 17-20; Atlanta, GA. [Place of publication unknown]. [Publisher unknown]. 9 p. [15934]
91. Moerman, Dan. 2003. Native American ethnobotany: A database of foods, drugs, dyes, and fibers of Native American peoples, derived from plants, [Online]. Dearborn, MI: University of Michigan (Producer). Available: [2006, June 29]. [62492]
92. Mueggler, W. F.; Stewart, W. L. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-66. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 154 p. [1717]
93. Mueggler, Walter F. 1983. Variation in production and seasonal development of mountain grasslands in western Montana. Research Paper INT-316. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p. [1710]
94. Munz, Philip A.; Keck, David D. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
95. Parker, Karl G. 1975. Some important Utah range plants. Extension Service Bulletin EC-383. Logan, UT: Utah State University. 174 p. [9878]
96. Parmenter, Robert R.; MacMahon, James A.; Waaland, Marco E.; Stuebe, Miki M.; Landres, Peter; Crisafulli, Charles M. 1985. Reclamation of surface coal mines in western Wyoming for wildlife habitat: a preliminary analysis. Reclamation and Revegetation Research. 4: 93-115. [1818]
97. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
98. Pechanec, Joseph F.; Stewart, George; Blaisdell, James P. 1954. Sagebrush burning good and bad. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1948. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [1859]
99. Peters, Erin F.; Bunting, Stephen C. 1994. Fire conditions pre- and postoccurrence of annual grasses on the Snake River Plain. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Kitchen, Stanley G., comps. Proceedings--ecology and management of annual rangelands; 1992 May 18-22; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-313. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 31-36. [24249]
100. Piper, C. V. 1902. New and noteworthy northwestern plants-VII. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 29(11): 642-646. [63627]
101. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
102. Ratzlaff, Teresa D.; Anderson, Jay E. 1995. Vegetal recovery following wildfire in seeded and unseeded sagebrush steppe. Journal of Range Management. 48(5): 386-391. [26539]
103. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
104. Redente, Edward F.; Biondini, Mario E. 1986. Secondary succession patterns in a disturbed sagebrush community in northwest Colorado. In: Schuster, Mark A.; Zuck, Ronald H., eds. Proceedings: high altitude revegetation workshop no. 7; Information Series No. 58; 1986 March 6-7; Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, Colorado Water Resources Research Institute: 227-244. Available: [2006, November 30]. [64732]
105. Reeves, F. Brent; Wagner, David; Moorman, Thomas; Kiel, Jean. 1979. The role of endomycorrhizae in revegetation practices in the semi-arid west. I. A comparison of incidence of mycorrhizae in severely disturbed vs. natural environments. American Journal of Botany. 66(1): 6-13. [60502]
106. Reveal, James L.; Spevak, Virginia S. 1967. Publication dates and current names of 144 names proposed in two 1848 Thomas Nuttall articles. Taxon. 16(5): 407-414. [63640]
107. Robertson, J. H. 1971. Changes on a sagebrush-grass range in Nevada ungrazed for 30 years. Journal of Range Management. 24: 397-400. [2009]
108. Rowe, J. S. 1969. Lightning fires in Saskatchewan grassland. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 83: 317-324. [6266]
109. Rudd, Velva E. 1951. Geographical affinities of the flora of North Dakota. The American Midland Naturalist. 45(3): 722-739. [2040]
110. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]
111. Schallenberger, Allen Dee. 1966. Food habits, range use and interspecific relationships of bighorn sheep in the Sun River area, west-central Montana. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 44 p. Thesis. [43977]
112. Schultz, Brad W. 1987. Ecology of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) in western and central Nevada: population structure and dynamics. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 111 p. Thesis. [7064]
113. Scott, M. Douglas; Geisser, Hannes. 1996. Pronghorn migration and habitat use following the 1988 Yellowstone fires. In: Greenlee, Jason, ed. The ecological implications of fire in Greater Yellowstone: Proceedings, 2nd biennial conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem; 1993 September 19-21; Yellowstone National Park, WY. Fairfield, WA: International Association of Wildland Fire: 123-132. [27837]
114. Seklecki, Mariette T.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1996. Fire history and the possible role of Apache-set fires in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; DeBano, Leonard F.; Baker, Malchus B., Jr.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Solis-Garza, Gilberto; Edminster, Carleton B.; Neary, Daniel G.; Allen, Larry S.; Hamre, R. H., tech. coords. Effects of fire on Madrean Province ecosystems: a symposium proceedings; 1996 March 11-15; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-289. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 238-246. [28082]
115. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]
116. Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hansen, Richard M. 1983. Plant-soil relationships on bentonite mine spoils and sagebrush- grassland in the northern High Plains. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 289-294. [4642]
117. Sime, Carolyn Anne. 1991. Sage grouse use of burned, non-burned, and seeded vegetation communities on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 72 p. Thesis. [24908]
118. Singer, Francis J. 1995. Effects of grazing by ungulates on upland bunchgrass communities on the northern winter range of Yellowstone National Park. Northwest Science. 69(3): 191-202. [26131]
119. Smith, Michael A. 1985. Prescribed burning of big sagebrush in Wyoming. In: Fisser, Herbert G., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings, 14th Wyoming shrub ecology workshop; 1985 May 29-30; Rock Springs, WY. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Department of Range Management, Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop: 41-45. [13910]
120. Smoliak, S. 1960. Effects of deferred-rotation and continuous grazing on yearling steer gains and shortgrass prairie vegetation of southeastern Alberta. Journal of Range Management. 13: 239-243. [12267]
121. Smoliak, S. 1965. A comparison of ungrazed and lightly grazed Stipa-Bouteloua prairie in southeastern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 45: 270-275. [12391]
122. Stevens, O. A. 1921. Plants of Fargo, North Dakota, with dates of flowering. The American Midland Naturalist. 7(4/5): 135-156. [63630]
123. Stevens, O. A. 1957. Weights of seeds and numbers per plant. Weeds. 5: 46-55. [44071]
124. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]
125. Tisdale, E. W.; Hironaka, M,; Fosberg, M. A. 1965. An area of pristine vegetation in Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho. Ecology. 46(3): 349-352. [2343]
126. Tisdale, Edwin W. 1994. SRM 403: Wyoming big sagebrush. In: Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 42-43. [43363]
127. Tisdale, Edwin W. 1994. SRM 404: Threetip sagebrush. In: Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 43-44. [43364]
128. Tisdale, Edwin W. 1994. SRM 405: Black sagebrush. In: Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 44-45. [43365]
129. Tisdale, Edwin W. 1994. SRM 406: Low sagebrush. In: Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 45-46. [43366]
130. Tisdale, Edwin W. 1994. SRM 407: Stiff sagebrush. In: Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 46-47. [43367]
131. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2006. PLANTS database (2006), [Online]. Available: /. [34262]
132. Van Dyne, G. M.; Vogel, W. G. 1967. Relation of Selaginella densa to site, grazing, and climate. Ecology. 48(3): 438-444. [2419]
133. Vetter, M. A. 2000. Grasslands of the Aishihik-Sekulmun Lakes Area, Yukon Territory, Canada. Arctic. 53(2): 165-173. [53220]
134. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. [19698]
135. Vogel, W. G.; Van Dyne, G. M. 1966. Vegetation responses to grazing management on a foothill sheep range. Journal of Range Management. 19: 80-85. [12263]
136. Weaver, T. 1974. Ecological effects of weather modification: effect of late snowmelt on Festuca idahoensis Elmer meadows. The American Midland Naturalist. 92(2): 346-356. [16789]
137. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
138. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
139. Wesser, Sara D.; Armbruster, W. Scott. 1991. Species distribution controls across a forest-steppe transition: a casual model and experimental test. Ecological Monographs. 61(3): 323-342. [15629]
140. Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. The American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308. [11150]
141. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
142. Wright, Henry A.; Neuenschwander, Leon F.; Britton, Carlton M. 1979. The role and use of fire in sagebrush-grass and pinyon-juniper plant communities: A state-of-the-art review. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-58. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [2625]
143. Wrobleski, David W. 1999. Effects of prescribed fire on Wyoming big sagebrush communities: implications for ecological restoration of sage grouse habitat. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 76 p. Thesis. [30180]
144. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. [2659]

FEIS Home Page