Index of Species Information

SPECIES:  Osmorhiza claytonii


SPECIES: Osmorhiza claytonii
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Pavek, Diane S. 1992. Osmorhiza claytonii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [].

ABBREVIATION : OSMCLA SYNONYMS : Osmorhiza aristata var. brevistylis (DC.) Bowin Washingtonia claytonii (Michx.) Britt. SCS PLANT CODE : OSCL COMMON NAMES : sweet cicely sweet jarvil downy sweet cicely wooly sweet cicely TAXONOMY : The currently accepted name of sweet cicely is Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C. B., Clarke in the parsley family (Apiaceae). There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Osmorhiza claytonii
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : In Canada, sweet cicely is found from southern Saskatchewan east to Quebec and south to Newfoundland [11,14,15,21,31]. In the United States, sweet cicely is distributed from the New England states west to the Great Plains, extending south into central Arkansas and northern Alabama [3,14,20,29,32]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES18 Maple - beech - birch STATES : AL AR CT GA KS KY IN IA IL ME MD MA MI MN MO NE NH NJ NC ND NY OH PA RI SC SD TN VT VA WI WV MB NB NF NS ON PE PQ SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 14 Great Plains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K098 Northern floodplain forest K099 Maple - basswood forest K100 Oak - hickory forest K101 Elm - ash forest K102 Beech - maple forest K103 Mixed mesophytic forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K106 Northern hardwoods K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 16 Aspen 17 Pin cherry 18 Paper birch 19 Gray birch - red maple 24 Hemlock - yellow birch 25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch 26 Sugar maple - basswood 27 Sugar maple 28 Black cherry - maple 39 Black ash - American elm - red maple 42 Bur oak 46 Eastern redcedar 52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 57 Yellow-poplar 59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak 60 Beech - sugar maple 63 Cottonwood 93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash 95 Black willow 108 Red maple 109 Hawthorn 110 Black oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Sweet cicely has a patchy distribution throughout the understory of the northern hardwood and eastern deciduous forests [17]. It is an indicator and/or a dominant species in the sugar maple (Acer saccharum) climax communities of the northern states and Canada [6,8,17,37]. Common codominants in these climax communities with sugar maple are American beech (Fagus grandifolia), red oak (Quercus rubra), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) [8,17]. Sweet cicely is an indicator of highly productive sites of climax sugar maple-basswood (Tilia americana) stands and subclimax oak-aspen (Quercus spp.-Populus tremuloides) [9,16]. In a Minnesota sugar maple-basswood climax forest, frequency was six sweet cicely plants per square yard (7.3 plants/sq m) [9]. Sweet cicely is a minor component in the sugar maple-white ash (Fraxinus americana) forest zone and in the sugar maple associations with yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), black ash (Fraxinus nigra), or American elm (Ulmus americana) of eastern Canada [22,24]. Forest classifications that list sweet cicely as an indicator or dominant species are: (1) Field guide: Habitat classification system for the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Northeast Wisconsin [6] (2) The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley [8] (3) The "big woods" of Minnesota: its structure, and relation to climate, fire, and soils [9] (4) Variation in overstory biomass among glacial landforms and ecological land units in northwestern lower Michigan [16] (5) Field guide to forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin [17] (6) Soil-vegetation relationships in northern hardwoods of Quebec [22] (7) A forest classification for the maritime provinces [24] (8) The composition and dynamics of a beech-maple climax community [37].


SPECIES: Osmorhiza claytonii


SPECIES: Osmorhiza claytonii
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Sweet cicely is a native perennial forb with thickened fibrous roots extending from a caudex [11]. Its solitary stem grows from 12 to 35 inches (30-90 cm) high with compound leaves [6,36]. Flower stalks have very small umbels, producing thin black seeds with stiffly hairy ribs [3]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : New foliage in the fall and annual flower stalks in the spring are generated from a root stock [6,17]. In mature forests that typically have long-term disturbance regimes, sweet cicely responds to small scale disturbances, such as one causing a tree gap, by increasing its cover [7,35]. Sweet cicely seeds are disseminated by dropping from the plant or by snagging in animal fur, hair, or clothing [6,17]. Sweet cicely seeds require warm stratification followed by cold stratification before germination will occur [3]. In laboratory studies, 98 percent of the seeds germinated after 4 weeks with day temperatures at 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 deg C) and night temperatures at 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 deg C) followed by 2 weeks at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C) days and nights [3]. Under field conditions, sweet cicely sheds seed during the summer or early autumn when temperatures are relatively warm to hot, which results in high germination rates the following spring. Baskin and Baskin [3] also found that a portion of the seed did not germinate until the second spring after shedding. Sweet cicely forms a short-lived seed bank. Seeds that are not dropped and remain attached to the plant during the winter have longer dormancy after being shed. This seed required 12 weeks warm stratification followed by cold stratification to yield 96 percent germination [3]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Sweet cicely grows in rich, mesic, mixed-hardwood forests [3,29]. It is common in woods on shaded hillsides [11,15,32,34]. It also occurs on the forested edges of wet prairies and meadows [5,18]. Sites on which sweet cicely occurs vary from well-drained gravelly or sandy loams to poorly drained clay loams [2,24,26]. Occasionally, there is a top layer of humus, 1 to 4 inches (2.5-10 cm) deep [37]. Water may be at or near the soil surface for most of the year [5,16,18]. The soil pH is acidic to strongly acidic; calcium and magnesium have generally been leached out [18]. Sweet cicely is found on level to very steep (75 percent) slopes [18,24]. It occurs from elevations of 600 feet to 2,200 feet (183-670 m) [27,28]. The climate is generally characterized by short, mild summers and long, cold winters [18,27]. At one representative site, average annual precipitation is about 39 inches (1,000 mm); snowpack, an average of 10 inches (250 cm) per year, may last from November to April [27]. The growing season is approximately 200 days over its range [37]. Associated overstory species are bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), and black willow (Salix nigra) [5,35]. Common associated shrubs are fly honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis), red elderberry (Sambucus pubens), and juneberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) [5,28]. Herbaceous associates are enchanter's nightshade (Circaea quadrisulcata), American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), feather Solomon's-seal (Smilacina racemosa), and several violet species (Viola spp.) [26,27,28]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Climax Species Sweet cicely is relatively shade tolerant [1,37]. It is a mature, approximate climax or climax understory species in deciduous forests [2,28]. In studies of Ohio old field-deciduous forest seres, sweet cicely was present herb only in 200+ year-old stands as a subdominant or minor herb [2,28,35]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : In the spring before the canopy closes, sweet cicely initiates foliage growth and then puts up a flower stalk. It begins flowering in April in the southern part of its range [29,32]. In the northern parts, it flowers progressively later: blooming in May and June in the central states, and June to August in the far north [14,15,21,29]. Sweet cicely seeds mature from June through August. The seeds are shed primarily in late autumn and winter; however, they may not be dropped until the following spring [3]. Seedlings generally emerge in the spring [3]. The flower stalk dies in the fall, but new leaves are put out at that time [6,17]. Sweet cicely overwinters as a rosette [9].


SPECIES: Osmorhiza claytonii
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : In the communities in which sweet cicely grows, fire occurrence ranges from uncommon in the northern hardwoods to very common in the Appalachian oak forests [23]. A covering of soil protects the caudex of an established sweet cicely plant. Under moist conditions, a root stock may survive fire. Seed buried in soil may be insulated enough to survive [13]. However, seeds attached to stalks at the time of burning will die. Accumulated dead stalks are a fire hazard to sweet cicely. Aerial stems of sweet cicely die each fall and generally remain attached [6,17]. These old stems make the plant more susceptible to burning. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Caudex, growing points in soil Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Osmorhiza claytonii
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : No fire studies have been done on sweet cicely. Fire top-kills foliage. The soil-covered root stock may survive, unless conditions are dry and duff layers are well-developed [37]. Under these conditions, fire may consume the caudex and kill the plant and seed bank. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Fire severity and rooting depth of the caudex control recovery of sweet cicely. If burned in late summer or early autumn, surviving root stocks should sprout, since sweet cicely normally initiates new leaves in the fall [6,17]. With a persistent seed bank, sweet cicely seeds may germinate in the first postfire spring [3]. Off-site regeneration is possible; seeds can be transported into burned areas. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and eastern white pine stand in Michigan provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including sweet cicely, that was not available when this species review was written. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Osmorhiza claytonii
REFERENCES : 1. Bakuzis, E. V; Hansen, H. L. 1962. Ecographs of herb species of Minnesota forest communities. Minnesota Forestry Notes. 118: 1-2. [10317] 2. Bard, Gily E. 1952. Secondary succession on the Piedmont of New Jersey. Ecological Monographs. 22(3): 195-215. [4777] 3. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 1991. Nondeep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Osmorhiza claytonii (Apiaceae). American Journal of Botany. 78(4): 588-593. [14067] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Bush, Eleanor M. 1988. A floristic study of a wet meadow in Barbour County, West Virginia. Castanea. 53(2): 132-139. [10117] 6. Coffman, Michael S.; Alyanak, Edward; Resovsky, Richard. 1980. Field guide habitat classification system: For Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northeast Wisconsin. [Place of publication unknown]: Cooperative Research on Forest Soils. 112 p. [8997] 7. Collins, B. S.; Pickett, S. T. A. 1988. Response of herb layer cover to experimental canopy gaps. American Midland Naturalist. 119(2): 282-290. [12562] 8. Dansereau, Pierre. 1959. The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley. No. 75. Montreal, Canada: Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montreal. 147 p. [8925] 9. Daubenmire, Rexford F. 1936. The "big woods" of Minnesota: its structure, and relation to climate, fire, and soils. Ecological Monographs. 6(2): 233-268. [2697] 10. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 11. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2). [14935] 12. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 13. Gill, A. Malcolm. 1981. Fire adaptive traits of vascular plants. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; [and others], technical coordinators. Fire regimes and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 208-230. [4394] 14. Gleason, H. A.; Cronquist, A. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. 810 p. [7065] 15. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 16. Host, George E.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Ramm, Carl W.; [and others]. 1988. Variation in overstory biomass among glacial landforms and ecological land units in northwestern Lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18(6): 659-668. [14481] 17. Kotar, John; Kovach, Joseph A.; Locey, Craig T. 1988. Field guide to forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Department of Forestry; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 217 p. [11510] 18. Kron, Kathleen A. 1989. The vegetation of Indian Bowl wet prairie and its adjacent plant communities. I. Description of the vegetation. Michigan Botanist. 28(4): 179-200. [17358] 19. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 20. Jones, G. N.; Fuller, G. D. 1955. Vascular plants of Illinois. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 593 p. [18964] 21. Lakela, O. 1965. A flora of northeastern Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 541 p. [18142] 22. Lemieux, G. J. 1963. Soil-vegetation relationships in northern hardwoods of Quebec. In: Forest-soil relationships in North America. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 163-176. [8874] 23. Lotan, James E.; Alexander, Martin E.; Arno, Stephen F.; [and others]. 1981. Effects of fire on flora: A state-of-knowledge review. National fire effects workshop; 1978 April 10-14; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-16. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 71 p. [1475] 24. Loucks, O. L. 1959. A forest classification for the Maritime Provinces. Proceedings, Nova Scotian Institute on Science. 25: 86-167. [15408] 25. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 26. McEwen, Douglas; Schneider, Gary. 1976. Herbaceous productivity and species composition associated with harvest intensities in a southern Michigan mixed hardwood forest. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 409-429. [3815] 27. Mladenoff, David J. 1990. The relationship of the soil seed bank and understory vegetation in old-growth northern hardwood-hemlock treefall gaps. Canadian Journal of Botany. 68: 2714-2721. [13477] 28. Potter, Loren D.; Moir, D. Ross. 1961. Phytosociological study of burned deciduous woods, Turtle Mountains North Dakota. Ecology. 42(3): 468-480. [10191] 29. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606] 30. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 31. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Ottawa, Canada: National Museums of Canada. (4 volumes). [18143] 32. Steyermark, J. A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1725 p. [18144] 33. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 34. Van Bruggen, T. 1976. The vascular plants of South Dakota. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 538 p. [19200] 35. Vankat, John L.; Carson, Walter P. 1991. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in sw Ohio. III. Post-disturbance vegetation. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(4): 385-391. [17754] 36. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472] 37. Williams, Arthur B. 1936. The composition and dynamics of a beech-maple climax community. Ecological Monographs. 6(3): 318-408. [8346] 38. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090]